Quantifying Fe, Mn, and carbon fluxes in palustrine wetlands.

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... Studies comparing natural wetlands and created wetlands have consistently found the latter to contain lower amounts of organic matter (Confer and Niering, 1992;Bishel-Machung et al., 1996;Shaffer and Ernst, 1999). Additionally, created wetlands often differ significantly from natural wetlands in bulk density, pH, micro-topography, and matrix chroma (Daniels et al., 1996;Stolt et al., 1998;Cummings, 1999). Adverse soil conditions in created wetlands may hinder hydrophytic vegetation establishment and result in differing species compositions from natural wetlands (Campbell et al., 2002;Balcombe et al., 2005). ...
... Similarly, Vepraskas et al. (1999) reported the development of a reduced matrix and redox depletions (both redox features) in a created marsh in Illinois five years after establishment. Redox features were found to develop in less than two years in mitigation and natural wetlands in Virginia when Stolt et al. (1998) examined buried simulated peds. The above evidence suggests that redox features may develop relatively rapidly. ...
... This process results in lowered redox potential measurements. This sequence of events occurred in the first three treatments of the CCW-Dry to Fe reduction at the given pH), Stolt et al. (1998) found all peds to have developed redox features in less than 2 years. Similarly, Vepraskas et al. (1999) and Cummings (1999) reported redox feature development in created wetlands within 5 years of construction completion. ...
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