ArticlePDF Available

Abstract and Figures

Every organization strives to be successful and remain successful, however, if their employees are not in a good state of health, this may likely prevent the organization from achieving a successful performance. The major objective of this study is to explore how excessive work can affect the wellbeing of the employee and in turn affect the performance of the organization. For this purpose, relevant data was obtained from 137 respondents in one of the branches of a telecommunication company in Nigeria through the use of questionnaire. The data was analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences Software (SPSS). Results of this study reveal that work overload affects the wellbeing of the employee which also affects the organizational performance. The study shows that when employees are overburdened with work they experience ill health and if excessive it results into stress. Furthermore, employees that are in a state of ill health tend to take leave of absence from work, making it impossible for them to adequately discharge their duties.
Content may be subject to copyright.
International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research Volume 10, Issue 12, December-2019 1720
ISSN 2229-5518
IJSER © 2019
http://www.ijser.org
INTERACTIONS/DYNAMICS BETWEEN
EMPLOYEE WELLBEING AND
ORGANISATIONAL PERFORMANCE
Olaiya, Temitope. O., Falebita, Oluwabunmi. A.
1Department of Business Administration, Bowen University, Iwo, Osun State, Nigeria
Abstract
Every organization strives to be successful and remain successful, however, if their employees are not in a good state of health, this may likely prevent
the organization from achieving a successful performance. The major objective of this study is to explore how excessive work can affect the wellbeing of
the employee and in turn affect the performance of the organization. For this purpose, relevant data was obtained from 137 respondents in one of the
branches of a telecommunication company in Nigeria through the use of questionnaire. The data was analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social
Sciences Software (SPSS). Results of this study reveal that work overload affects the wellbeing of the employee which also affects the organizational
performance. The study shows that when employees are overburdened with work they experience ill health and if excessive it results into stress.
Furthermore, employees that are in a state of ill health tend to take leave of absence from work, making it impossible for them to adequately discharge
their duties.
Keywords: Work overload, Ill health, Employee wellbeing, Organizational performance, Employee performance, Stress
Introduction
The well-being of a work force is very essential to an
organization; it is believed to determine the performance of
not just the employees but that of the organization as well.
Workplace health is an issue that is fast becoming a major
concern for employers at all levels (Emerald, 2009). All
organizations strive to function and grow at a healthy state,
but for an organization to grow it needs to have employers
and managers who can respond to the diverse range of
forces that impacts them (McHugh and Brennan, 1993).
However, there are a number of factors which may have
negative effects on the health of the employee and may lead
to illness or pressure at work. “While it certainly cannot be
said that work is the cause of all ill-health, there is a
growing literature that demonstrates that work continues to
impact the health and wellbeing of employees” (Roslender,
2010). Baptiste (2008) opines that wellbeing is linked to an
environment that employees find rewarding, exciting,
stimulating and enjoyable. One which is believed to have
the potential of improving the performance of the
organization. The health of employees is becoming a
foremost factor in the progress of any organization and for
organizations to remain successful; their employees need to
be in a healthy state. Poor health of workers affects not only
individual performance but also the performance of the
organization as a whole (Price, 2004).
\
Author: Olaiya, Temitope Oyindobra
Email: temitope.kentebe-olaiya@bowenuniversity.edu.ng
Co-Author: Dr. Falebita, Oluwabunmi
Email: olubunmi.falebita@bowenuniversity.edu.ng
Takuma, Belen, Pilar (2018) argue that work overload is a
critical but understudied stressor at work, and while
individuals face myriad challenges every day in their work-
place, if such is not properly handled may result into ill
health of the individual. Although, it is believed that it is
healthy and essential that individuals experience challenges
which generate some level of pressure that is believed to
improve performance and the quality of life of an
individual. However, the pressure individuals’ face in their
work life can lead to stress if it is excessive. Also, other
factors can lead to stress such as excessive workload, lack of
training, lack of control or autonomy, poor work place
relationship, lack of involvement at work and so on
(Chartered Institute of Personnel Development, 2009).
Experts say that stress is the root cause of all issues in the
modern world and it badly affects employees and the
business organizations (Updegraff & Taylor, 2000). Stress
can arise when the employees are pressured or are faced
with other types of work demand placed on them and they
are worried that they cannot cope Experts say that stress is
the root cause of all issues in the modern world and it badly
affects employees and the business organizations, although
stress is a side effect of modern life it is an essential element
of many activities both at work and at home but it becomes
harmful when it reaches a stage it begins to affect daily
activities (Pretrus and Kleiner, 2003). Although stress can
IJSER
International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research Volume 10, Issue 12, December-2019 1721
ISSN 2229-5518
IJSER © 2019
http://www.ijser.org
be harmful both physically and psychologically it is still
believed to be essential for life (Nawe, 1995). This in the
long run could however lead to burnout defined as
physical or mental exhaustion brought about by overwork.
Thus, putting everyone’s health at risk: the individual,
other employees and, of course, that of the company and no
employee will desire to be in a state of ill health as a basis
for employment.
Some organizations fail to acknowledge the link between
stress and the performance of the organization and
subsequently deciding the best way to manage stress in the
organization (McHugh and Brennen, 1993). However, the
extent to which individuals are pressured at work should
be minimal in order to reduce absence from work due to
sickness which may result from work overload of
employees. Occupational stress occurs due to factors which
include work overload, lack of job security, poor work
relations with others which has negative effect on job
satisfaction (Paktinat & Rafeei, 2012).
Occupational health has been viewed in the past as the role
of specialist employed in the mining industries to help in
the issues of injuries occurring in the work place. In those
days, it was believed that, with no NHS it was difficult and
inconsistent for injuries that occurred at work or in the
course of work to be looked into immediately, it was also
realized that most of the illness suffered by the employees
in the organizations was not physical but rather it was
psychological, promoting and maintaining better wellbeing
was viewed as the responsibility of the specialist and not
the industry itself. However, the situation is changing and
the need of a healthy workforce is bringing this new role
firmly into the sphere of what occupational health can do to
help not only peoples state of health but also the
sustainable success of a business (Cooper & Patterson,
2008).
Employees are concerned with the issue of health, safety
and welfare in the organization which is vital because it has
to do with their lives and futures being at risk. As a result,
health and safety has been receiving increasing recognitions
and emphasis by employers and organizations (Torrington,
D., Hall, L., Taylor, S. 2002). This shows that gradually
organization executives are beginning to realize that a good
health-care plan improves the employees’ wellbeing and
increases their performance and productivity which in turn
increases the performance and productivity level of the
organization (Steward and Brown, 2009).
Work overload is a factor that leads to poor performance of
the employee which ultimately leads to job dissatisfaction,
but if effective incentives plans, proper training, and
improved working conditions is made available to
employees, then their performance can be enhanced and
employees will become more satisfied with his/her job
(Tahir, Yusoff, Azam, Khan, & Kaleem, 2012).
Organizations should be more concerned with the state of
wellbeing of their workforce because in order for
organizations to be successful, it needs to take into account
the health and wellbeing of its workforce who are viewed
as the most important resources in the organization. If
employees are unable to perform due to ill health brought
about by stress, not only will employee performance be
affected, but also the organizations’ performance, its
productivity level, customers and the financial resources of
the organization will all be affected.
Review of related Literature
Employee Wellbeing and Organizational
Performance
Every employee faces work overload, stress at work and
personal life which ultimately affect their performance and
job satisfaction (Syed, Saad, Hussain Shah, 2011).
In an article published by Thompson (2018) on the Negative
effect of a heavy work load, according to a study published
in the summer 2010 issue of “Personnel Psychology,”
employees who reported feeling overworked also reported
feelings of psychological and emotional distress and a
reduction in their overall levels of well-being. These effects
were found to be less severe when employees felt that the
organization placed a high level of value on their work and
gave them a sense of control over their circumstances.
Negative effects were more severe when employees felt not
only overworked but also powerless and not valued by the
organization. Also, the same study found that employees
who felt overworked showed a higher tendency of
experiencing high blood pressure than employees who
were not. Because high blood pressure is correlated with
higher rates of cardiovascular diseases, chronically heavy
workloads could be associated with higher risks of heart
attacks and other heart related shealth problems. The study
found that blood pressure levels would spike on the same
day as the increased workload, so the effect is immediate
(Thompson, 2018)
In a study published “in the Journal of Applied
Psychology” (2007) it showed that when employees felt
IJSER
International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research Volume 10, Issue 12, December-2019 1722
ISSN 2229-5518
IJSER © 2019
http://www.ijser.org
overworked it tends to affect their family life. The study
found that when employees are overworked they become
stressed and they exhibit hostile attitudes toward their
home environment and it results into family conflicts and
decreased family stability. Stress is believed to occur when
employees are faced with the challenge of meeting
deadlines or when they have excess work and have limited
time to complete it (Khan & Khurshid, 2017). It is also
believed that, overburdened employees are more inclined
to commit more errors, feel displeasure or disdain towards
their employers, encounter large amounts of anxiety, have
shoddier wellbeing, and look for livelihood somewhere else
(Qaiser, Gulzar, Hussian, Shabbir, 2015). According to
Bashir (2010), stress in work environment reduces the
intention of employees to perform better in jobs, and when
the level of stress increases employees get demoralized and
their tendency to work effectively also decreases. Also, in
this study it was observed that although employees do their
job regularly, due to heavy workloads and time constraints
their performance reduces. Stress is the major factor that
affects the performance of employees. It has therefore
become a critical problem for the workforce due to
increased role demands and work pressures (Ram, Khoso,
Shah, & Chandio, 2011). Moreover, stress can occur in
employees regardless of their age, gender and job status.
Therefore, it is important that organizations have clear
understanding of the word stress and the risk it can create,
(Parvaiz, Batool, Khalid, Aftabfarooqi, 2015) one of such
risks is absenteeism which will affect the productivity level
of the organization. According to MacGregor, J.N.,
Cunningham, J.B., Caverley, N. (2008), “The cost of
absenteeism to organizations and society is believed to be
substantial”. For example, in a research carried out by
William (2003) the result points out that, in Canada, as a
result of the absence of employees, an estimation of a
billion dollars are lost each year.
In a competitive work environment, the success of any
organization depends on the capability of its work force.
There are some positive links that have been found between
the wellbeing of the employees and the performance and
productivity of the organization (Fenton, Roncancio, Sing,
Sadhra, Carmichael, 2014). The health of employees is a
very important factor in any organization, in order for an
organization to succeed and gain competitive advantage
over its competitors, it needs to have skilled, motivated,
committed and a healthy workforce. The wellbeing of the
employee is attracting more attention in organizations
today, and there is increasing recognition that the
employees’ wellbeing has direct impact on both the
employees’ and organization’s performance and
productivity level (Juniper, B., White, N., Bellamy, P. 2009).
It is the employer’s responsibility to create a work
environment that promotes employee well-being.
Physiological well-being leads to mental well-being and
together they help individuals to achieve work life balance.
If the employee is satisfied and happy with the
organization he/she is committed towards the organization
and can easily balance their work-life (Khan, Khurshid,
2017). The issue of employee wellbeing at work is believed
to be attracting so much attention over the years (Baptiste,
2007). Also its recognition has increased the chances of
organizations having a healthy workforce, and the
understanding of employee wellbeing at work makes it
essential to understand different factors that affects the
quality of life at work (Baptiste, 2009).
Employees are believed to be the most important capital in
an organization (Kahn, H., Stevenson, J.E, Roslender, R.
2010). which shows that if the employees experience poor
health their ability to contribute to the value, performance
and to the productivity of the organization will be
impaired, and this will in turn affect the organization’s
level of performance and productivity (Caicedo, M.H.,
Martensson, M., Roslender, R. 2010). As a result,
organizations should seek to improve the health and
wellbeing of their employees in order to reduce absence
from work, as this could result in the inability of employees
to contribute to the value creation and delivery process in
the organization (Kahn et al, 2010).
Jain & Sinha (2005), as cited by Jain, K.A., Giga, S.I., Cooper,
C.L. (2009) point out that there is evidence that suggests
that factors such as emotional intelligence, trust and
perceived organizational support are likely to have positive
effects on the general health of the employees at work.
Employees’ wellbeing at work is believed to include the
physical and mental health of the workforce, this implies
that employees should work in a stress-free and physically
safe environment (Currie, 2001 cited by Baptiste, 2009). The
issue of employee wellbeing has continued to gained
recognition over the years and as a result some employers
have developed staff questionnaires, which is used to
measure and manage the wellbeing levels of their
employees (Juniper et al, 2009). An example of such
measures is the work and well-being assessment (WWBA),
which measures “work-related well-being” -this is defined
as that part of employees overall wellbeing which is
IJSER
International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research Volume 10, Issue 12, December-2019 1723
ISSN 2229-5518
IJSER © 2019
http://www.ijser.org
determined primarily by work and which can be influenced
by work place intervention- (Juniper, 2007 cited by Juniper
et al, 2009). All the policies regarding the wellbeing of the
employees are steps taken in order to improve the health of
the employee in order to make them valuable to the
organization and improve their performance which will in
turn improve the performance of the organization and it
productivity. In today organizations, may employers
associate poor health with reduced employee performance
and morale. The organizational costs of workers in poor
health, and those with behavioral risk factors include, high
medical disability and workers’ compensation expenses,
elevated absenteeism and employee turnover and
decreased productivity at work. In addition, a worker’s
poor health may negatively affect the performance and
productivity level of other workers’ working with him or
her (Goetzel and Ozminkowski, 2006).
However, by promoting health in the workplace, employers
will not only improve employee health but they might
deepen the employer and employee relationship. Thus
motivating employees to be more dedicated to the
organization by taking up the responsibility for the
organization’s destiny (Basinska-Zych, Springer, 2017).
Many researches has been carried out on work overload as
a stressor and many have concluded that when employees
are overwhelmed with work it affects not only their
performance but also the performance of the organization.
A research carried out by Chadha, Sood, Malhotra, 2012 on
the effects of organizational stress on the quality of life of
primary and secondary school teachers in Delhi identified
some stressors like workload pressure, role overload (being
overwhelmed by the amount or complexity of work), role
ambiguity (uncertainty about job description), conflicting
job roles among others as organizational stress and they
concluded that it can lead to negative emotional state such
as frustration, worry, anxiety and depression. According to
Price (2004) stress in individuals is believed to be the result
of pressures, boredom, overwork, threat and ambiguity,
which may lead to poor performance at work or lack of
commitment. Cooper et al (1993) cited by Ho (1995) point
out that stress is “any force that puts a psychological or
physical factor beyond its range of stability, producing a
strain within the individual”. Individuals will not deliver
quality performance if their work environment is perceived
as stressful (Varca, 1999). Stress occurs as a result of various
factors that affects the individual at work, stress impairs the
health of the individual and may result into absence due to
sickness which affects the performance and productivity
level of not only the individual but that of the organization
as well, which are the aim and the purpose of this research.
A research carried out by Ali and Farooq (2014) showed
that work overload lead to poor performance of the
employees which has ultimately lead toward the employee
job dissatisfaction and when employees are dissatisfied
with their work they tend to exhibit poor performance at
work.
Hypothesis: Work overload is negatively associated with the
performance of the organization
Methodology
To execute this research, the quantitative method of data
collection is employed. The quantitative method usually
makes use of the survey strategy. The sample survey
research method involves analyzing data quantitatively
using descriptive and inferential statistics in order to
correlate the relationships between variables (Saunders et
al, 2008), and usually gathers information from respondents
through the use of questionnaire.
The reason why the sample survey research method is
chosen is because it is believed to be a reliable method of
data collection. A survey research produces well detailed
information; it is good for gathering first-hand information
from respondents which is believed to be more reliable than
drawing a personal conclusion from observing people (). It
was chosen also because it can be used to reach a large
number of respondents through the use of questionnaires at
a short notice and draw different responses from the
respondents. In addition, due to the limited time available
to carry out this research the sample survey research
method is believed to be a reliable technique because it is
quantitative in nature and able to reach a large number of
respondents within a short period.
The respondents for the survey were randomly selected
within a private organization in Nigeria, targeting a general
population of both senior managers and junior employees
in the organization. A total of 250 questionnaires were
administered to both senior and junior staff members in
various departments within the organization. This was
done in order to ensure that the information collected are
reliable and valid. Out of the 250 questionnaires that were
distributed 137 were returned, representing approximately
55% recovery.
IJSER
International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research Volume 10, Issue 12, December-2019 1724
ISSN 2229-5518
IJSER © 2019
http://www.ijser.org
Some factors which we believe to be stressors were
analyzed and used as a bases for our results and discussion.
Results and Discussion
Working overtime and employee performance
Table 1 shows the response of the respondents on how
often working overtime have positive impact on their
performance. 60.0% of the males and 40.0% of the females
who represents a total number of 10 from the total number
of 137 respondents said that it very often has positive
impact on their performance. 64.8% of the male and 35.2%
of the females said it often has positive impact on their
performance and this represents 54 of the total number of
137 respondents and 64.7% of the males and 35.3% of the
females who represent a number of 17 from the total
number of 137 said it does not often have positive impact
on their performance. Looking at the analysis from table 1 it
shows that individuals do achieve both negative and
positive performance from working overtime, however
they do not often achieve a positive performance from
working overtime.
Figure 1: Impact of working overtime on employee performance
Impact of extra workload on employee wellbeing
Relating to the impact of work overload on the wellbeing of
the employees, table 2 shows that 61.3% of the respondents
said work overload affect their wellbeing at work and this
represents 84 respondents who said work overload affects
their wellbeing at work out of a total of 137 respondents in
which 60 are males and 24 are females, 36.5% of the
respondents said work overload does not affect their health
and this represents 50 respondents out of a total of 137
respondents which includes 23 males and 27 females and
2.2% said that they do not know and this represents 3
respondents out of a total of 137 which includes 1 male and
2 females. The analysis in table 2 shows that the number of
people who believe that work overload affects their
wellbeing is higher than the number of people who believe
that it does not affect their wellbeing and those who said
they do not know. This shows that work overload affects
the health of the employees at work and linking table 2 to
table 1 when work is excessive it tends to affect the
wellbeing of the employees therefore affect their
performance at work. Figure 2 below shows the analysis in
table 2 in other to aid a better understanding. The chart in
figure 2 show that work do affect the wellbeing of the
individuals at work as the highest number of respondents
said work overload affect their health at work.
IJSER
International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research Volume 10, Issue 12, December-2019 1725
ISSN 2229-5518
IJSER © 2019
http://www.ijser.org
Figure 2: Impact of extra workload on employees’ wellbeing
Interaction between Poor health and Absence from work,
its impact on Performance
On the factors that affects the performance of the
organization, it is believed that when employees experience
poor health they tend to take sick leave from work and
when they are absent from work they are unable to perform
as they are supposed to which affects the performance of
the organization. As a result of this, the question on if the
employees have experienced poor health and if absence
affects the performance of the organization were cross
tabulated to in other to know how poor health affects the
performance of the organization.
Table C shows that 84.9% of the respondents, which is 116
respondents out of a total of 137 respondents, said that their
performance affects the performance of the organization
and 52.6% out of the 84.7% respondents said that they have
experienced stress as a result of work, 25.5% of the
respondents who said that absence affects the performance
of the organization said that they have not experienced
poor health as a result of work and 6.6% of the respondents
said they do not know if they have experienced stress at
work but believe that absence affects the performance of the
organization.
A total of 12.4% of the respondents, which is a total of 12
respondents out of 137 respondents, said that absence does
not affect the performance of the organization and 3.6% of
the 12 respondents who said absence does not affect the
performance of the organization said they have experienced
poor health due to work, 5.1% said they have not
experienced stress at work and 3.6% said they do not know
if they have experienced stress at work.
2.9% of the respondents, which is 4 out of a total of 137
respondents said that they do not know if absence affects
the performance of the organization and the 2.9% said that
they have experienced poor health due to work.
The highest number of respondents said that absence
affects the performance of the organization and said they
have experienced poor health as a result of work. The chart
represented by figure 3 gives a more insight into the
analysis.
Figure 3 represents the analysis from table 3 which shows
that the highest population believes that absence do affect
the performance of the organization.
Figure 3: Impact of poor health on Performance
The wellbeing of the employee is becoming an issue of
importance in organizations today. Tehrani, N., Humpage,
S., Willmott, B. and Haslam, I. (2007) points out that
“Wellbeing in the work place is steadily rising up the
business agenda as more employees recognize the benefits
IJSER
International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research Volume 10, Issue 12, December-2019 1726
ISSN 2229-5518
IJSER © 2019
http://www.ijser.org
and contribution that can be made by introducing
workplace health and wellness policies”. The survival of
any organization depends on it human capital and Baptiste
(2008) assumes that for an organization to survive it
survival is predicted by the performance of its human
capital which is its employees.
Therefore, in other to achieve a successful performance an
individual need to feel safe in the environment in which
they work and not see their work as a burden. And based
on the analysis of Table 1 and 2, Figure 1 and Figure 2, if the
employees are overworked it may not lead to an increase in
their performance but may have negative impact on their
health and their performance as most of the respondents
said that work overload affects their health and working
overtime does not necessarily yield positive performance.
Also, we realized that when employees are overworked it
may lead to ill health and as a result take leave of absence
from work. When the employees are absent from they are
unable to perform their duties and this will affect the
performance of the organization and Figure 3 shows that
absence does affect the performance of the organization.
Absenteeism does not only affect the performance of the
organization but it is believed to also affect the profit level
of the organization. Sickness is believed to be one of the
major reasons employees take leave of absence from work,
and from our results form Table 2, work is believed to be a
factor that leads to ill health in the organization and this
develops from the pressures individuals face at work or
from challenges which they are faced with at work and are
unable to handle and as a result of this they become
stressed and are unable to achieve a successful
performance. Once the performance of the employee is
affected the performance of the organization is also affected
and table 3 shows that the performance of the employee
does affect the performance of the organization therefore if
they are unable to perform in the organization the
performance and productivity level of the organization will
be affected.
Conclusion
The wellbeing of the individual is very essential to an
organization and from our findings, work overload is
believed to lead to ill health. Also if employees are sick and
are unable to work, they tend to take leave of absence from
work and when they are absent from work they are unable
to add to the value creation of that organization. However,
by controlling the wellbeing of the employee and regularly
appraising their health can help improve their health at
work. In addition, it is important to recognize that stress
resulting from work overload is a very vital issue in
organizations and it does not only determine the
performance of an employee but also the performance of an
organization likewise its competitive advantage. When the
employees are unable to perform as they should as a result
of poor health, knowing that any organization is dependent
on its staff to provide an efficient and effective service, it
affects the performance of the organization.
The findings also showed that when individuals are
stressed it tends to affect their family life and the family
plays an important role in the attitude of the individual
towards work. Also, if the individuals do not have a
positive attitude at home it will in turn affect their
performance at work. It can therefore be said that different
factors lead to stress in the organization therefore the
organization needs to have an open mind to the factors that
lead to stress. Furthermore, in order to be able to manage
stress in the organization, the organization needs to know
that no single cure is available for stress.
However, in order to understand the impact of work
overload on employee wellbeing as a stressor, more
research needs to be carried out on the issue of stress
management in organizations and on the impacts of stress
in organizations.
The impact of stress on the performance of the employee
will not only affect the employees but the organization, and
from our finding we developed that the performance of the
employee affects the performance of the organization. We
have established that individuals face challenges all the
time at work and this may result into pressure which
becomes stress if excessive, and this impacts on the
wellbeing of the employee, and from our finding the
highest number of respondents said they have experienced
ill-health due to work and also believe that absence affects
their performance at work therefore when the individuals
experience ill-health they fail to perform effectively at work.
Recommendations
Our findings show that the individuals at work do work
under pressure as a result of working overtime and taking
up extra work which is believed to affect their health at
IJSER
International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research Volume 10, Issue 12, December-2019 1727
ISSN 2229-5518
IJSER © 2019
http://www.ijser.org
work. However, it is believed that the awareness of policies
against absence and a stress management program will
have positive effect on the employees at work, as a result of
this the following recommendations were made:
From our findings, some respondents said working
overtime yields positive result while some said it does not
yield positive result. This shows that the issue of working
overtime as a factor of good organizational performance is
not applicable to every employee. Every staff experience
stress at different level of the organization and the way
staffs cope with stress is different form the other. Also
different factors lead to stress in the organization, However,
organizations should be aware of the existence of stress as it
has been pointed out that stress is inevitable in life,
individuals in one way or the other experience stress in life
and there are no ready answers to how to reduce stress at
work, however, according to Akande (1992:30)
“individuals can combat excessive stress by, first,
acknowledging its existence; second, developing coping
mechanism; and third, probing their unacknowledged
needs. Also increasing the self-awareness of what bothers
an employee on the job is also a vital step in reducing stress
at work (Cooper et al, 1988).
From our finding on work overload and its impact on the
health of the employee, the respondents said work overload
as negative effect on their health. Sickness is believed to be
one of the major reasons employees take leave of absence
from work, and from our results form Table B, work is
believed to be one of the factors that leads to ill health in the
organization and this develops from the pressures
individuals face at work or from challenges which they are
faced with at work and are unable to handle and as a result
of this they become stressed and are unable to achieve a
successful performance (Mclean, 2008). One the
performance of the employee is affected the performance of
the individual is also affect and productivity level of the
organization will be affected. We believe that training
should be given to the staffs on how to handle extra work
load dropped on them by absent staffs.
As a result of the employees taking leave of absence from
work due to ill-health brought about by working overtime
and work overload which from our findings is believed to
have impact on the performance of the employee and the
organization, organizations should develop a training
program to help its employees cope with the burden of
doing the work of others who are absent from work
therefore adding to their workload. According to Cooper et
al (1988) the organization should make efforts to develop
the skills and the competencies of its workforce to do
stressful task better and easier and this can be done by
training the employees to be able to do does tasks they
believe is difficult to do so also organizations needs to set
up a training program for its employees to help in the areas
they may feel is difficult for them to handle therefore
reducing their level of stress. It is important for staffs to be
equipped in other to cope with pressures which they face at
work (McHugh, 1997).
Social supports and networking can also help reduce stress
in the organization. “A way of ameliorating the
unavoidable loneliness of operating a business is to rub
minds with counterparts who are also business owners. The
objectivity gained from such sharing of experience is two
folds in such that both the triumphs and the errors of others
are revealed which is therapeutic in itself” (Boyed and
Gumpert, 1983).
REFERENCE
1. Ali, A., Aftabfarooqi, Y. (2014) Effect of Work
Overload on Job Satisfaction, Effect of Job Satisfaction
On Employee Performance and Employee
Engagement (A Case of Public Sector University of
Gujranwala Division), International Journal of
Multidisciplinary Sciences and Engineering. Vol. 5(8). Pg
23-30
2. Baptiste, N.R. (2008) Tightening The Link Between
Employee Wellbeing at Work and Performance: A
New Dimension for HRM, Management Decision,
Vol.46(2), Pg. 284-309
3. Bashir, U., Ramay, M. I. (2010) Impact of Stress On
Employee Job Performance a Study On Banking
Sector of Pakistan, International Journal of Marketing
Studies. Pg 122-126
4. Basinska-Zych, A., Springer, A. The Concept of
Preventing Negative Consequences of Work Overload
Based On Positive Interactions Between Work and
Life, And Promotions of Workers’ Healthy Behaviors.
Central European Review of Economics and Management.
Vol.1(2). Pg 45-75.
5. Boyed, D.P and Gumpert, D.E (1983) Coping with
Entrepreneurial Stress, Harvard Business Review.
6. Caicedo, M.H., Martensson, M., Roslender, R. (2010)
Managing and Measuring Employee Health and
Wellbeing: A Review and A Critique, Journal of
IJSER
International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research Volume 10, Issue 12, December-2019 1728
ISSN 2229-5518
IJSER © 2019
http://www.ijser.org
Accounting and Organizational Change, Vol.6(4), Pg 436-
459
7. Chadha, M., Sood, K., Malhotra, S. (2012) Effects of
Organizational Stress On Quality of Life of Primary
and Secondary School Teachers, Delhi Psychiatric
Journal. Vol. 15(2), 342-346
8. Chartered Institute Of Personnel Development (CIPD
2009) Stress At Work,
Www.Cipd.Co.Uk/Subjects/Health/Stress/Stress.Ht
m. [Accessed 15/12/2018]
9. Cooper, J., Patterson, D. (2008) Should Business Invest
in The Health of Its Workers, International Journal of
Workplace, Vol.1(1), Pg. 65-71
10. Emerald (2009) Sandwell Homes Reduces Employee
Absence by 30 Percent, Human Resource Management
International Digest, Vol.17(7). Pg 12-14
11. Fenton, S., J., Pinilla, R., M., Sing, M., Sadhra, S.,
Carmichael, F. (2014) Workplace Wellbeing Programmes
and Their Impact On Employees and Thier Employing
Organization: A Scoping Review of the Evidence Base. A
Collaboration Between Health Exchange and The
University of Birmingham.
12. Goetzel, R.Z., Ozminkowski, R.J., 2006. What’s
Holding You Back: Why Should (Or Shouldn’t)
Employers Invest in Health Promotion Programs for
Their Workers? N. C. Med. J. 67, 428430.
13. Ho, J.T.S (1995) The Singapore Executive: Stress,
Personality and Wellbeing, Journal of Management
Development, Vol.14(4), Pg. 47-55.
14. Jain, K.A., Giga, S.I., Cooper, C.L. (2009) Employee
Wellbeing, Control and Organizational Commitment,
Leadership and Organizational Development Journal,
Vol.30(3), Pg.256-273
15. Juniper, B., White, N., Bellamy, P. (2009) Assessing
Employee Wellbeing: Is There Another Way?
International Journal of Health Management, Vol.2(3),
Pg.220-230
16. Journal of Applied Psychology (2007) When Can
Employees Have a Family Life? The Effects of Daily
Workload and Effect On Work-Family Conflict and Social
Behaviors at Work.
17. Khan, N., Khurshid, S. (2017) Workplace Stress and
Employee Wellbeing: A Case of Health Care Staff in UAE.
European Scientific Journal Vol. 13(5), 217-226
18. Kahn, H., Stevenson, J.E, Roslender, R. (2010)
Workplace Health as Intellectual Capital: A
Comparative Study of UK Accounting and Finance
and Human Resource Directors, Journals of Human
Resource Costing and Accounting, Vol.14(3), Pg. 227-250.
19. Macgregor, J.N., Cunningham, J.B., Caverley, N.
(2008) Factors in Absenteeism and Presenteeism: Life
Events and Health Events, Management Research News,
Vol. 31(8), Pp. 607-615.
20. Mchugh, M., Brennen, S. (1993) Managing Work
Stress: A Key for All Organizational Members, Journal
of Workplace Learning, Vol.5(1), Pg. 16-21.
21. Nawe, J. (1995) Work Related Stress Among the
Library and Information Workforce, Library Review,
Vol.44(6), Pg. 30-37
22. Paktinat, D., Rafeei, L. (2012) Studying The Effect of
Stress Factors On the Amount of Customers’
Dissatisfaction with Using Structural Equation Model
(A Case from Insurance Companies in Kerman),
Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research in
Business. Vol.3(12). Pg 108-116.
23. Pravaiz, L., Batool, S., Khalid, A., Aftabfarooqi, Y.
(2015) Impact of Stressors (Role Conflict, Role
Overload, Leadership Support and Organizational
Politics) On Job Stress and Its Subsequent Impact On
Turnover Intention, International Journal of Business
Management Invention, Volume 4(10). Pg 52-63
24. Pretrus, T., Kleiner, B.H. (2003) New Development
Concerning Work Place Safety Training: Managing Stress
Arising from Work, Vol. 26(6), Pg 68-76.
25. Price, A. (2004) Human Resource Management: In A
Business Context, 2nd Edn, Thomson, London.
26. Qaiser, S., Gulzar, A., Hussain, W., Shabbir, H. (2015)
Influence of Work Overload, Work-Family Conflicts
and Negative Affectivity On Job Embeddedness and
Emotional Exhaustion: The Moderating Role of
Coworker Support (Case of Health Management),
Journal of Scientific Research and Reports. Vol. 7(1) Pg
75-85
27. Roslender (2010) Managing and Measuring Employee
Health and Wellbeing: A Review and A Critique, Journal
of Accounting and Organizational Change, Vol.6(4),
Pg.436-459.
28. Stewart, G.L., Brown, K.G. (2006) Human Resource
Management: Linking Strategy to Practice, John Wiley &
Sons, New Jersey.
29. Tahir, S., Yusoff, R. B. M., Azam, K., Khan, A.,
Kaleem, S. (2012) The Effect of Work Overload On the
Employees’ Performance in Relation to Customer
Satisfaction: A Case of Water and Power
Development Authority, Attock, Pakistan. World
Journal of Social Sciences, Vol. 2(1), Pp. 174-181.
30. Tehrani, N., Humpage, S., Willmott, B. And Haslam,
I. (2007) What’s Happening with Well-Being at Work?
Change Agenda, Chartered Institute of Personnel
Development, London
31. Thompson, S. (2018) Negative Effect of a Heavy
Workload.
IJSER
International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research Volume 10, Issue 12, December-2019 1729
ISSN 2229-5518
IJSER © 2019
http://www.ijser.org
32. Torrington, D., Hall, L., Taylor, S. (2002) Human
Resource Management, 5th Edn, Pearson Education,
Essex.
33. Varca, P.E. (1999) Work Stress and Customer Service
Delivery, The Journal of Service Marketing, Vol.13(3),
Pp. 229-241.
34. Williams, C. (2003) Stress at Work, Canadian Social
Trends, Vol. 4(6), Pp. 7-13.
Table 1: How often does working overtime have positive impact
on your performance? * What is your gender? Cross tabulation
Total
Male
Female
Count
6
4
10
Does
takin
g up
extra
work
load
affect
your
healt
h
Very
Ofte
n
% within
How often
does
working
overtime
have
positive
impact on
your
performance
?
%within
What is your
gender?
% of Total
60.0%
7.1%
4.4%
40.0%
7.5%
2.9%
100.0%
7.3%
7.3%
Count
35
19
54
Ofte
n
% within
How often
does
working
overtime
have
positive
impact on
64.8%
41.7%
25.5%
35.2%
%
35.8%
13.9%
100.0%
39.4%
39.4%
your
performance
?
%with What
is your
gender?
% of Total
Count
11
6
17
Not
Ofte
n
% within
How often
does
working
overtime
have
positive
impact on
your
performance
?
%within
What is your
gender?
% of Total
64.7%
13.1%
8.0%
35.3%
11.3%
4.4%
100.0%
12.4%
12.4%
Count
32
24
56
Not
at all
% within
How often
does
working
overtime
have
positive
impact on
your
performance
?
% within
What is your
gender?
% of Total
57.1%
38.1%
23.4%
%
42.9%
45.3%
17.5%
100.0%
40.9%
%
40.9%
Count
84
53
137
Total
%within
How often
does
working
overtime
have
61.3%
100.0%
38.7%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
IJSER
International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research Volume 10, Issue 12, December-2019 1730
ISSN 2229-5518
IJSER © 2019
http://www.ijser.org
positive
impact on
your
performance
?
%within
What is your
gender%
%of Total
61.3%
38.7%
100.0%
Table 2: Does taking up extra work load affect your
health? * What is your gender? cross tabulation
Total
Male
Femal
e
Count
60
24
84
How often
does
working
overtime
have
positive
impact on
your
performance
?
Yes
%
within
Does
taking
up extra
workloa
d affect
your
health?
%within
What is
your
gender?
% of
Total
71.4%
71.4%
43.8%
28.6%
45.3%
17.5%
100.0
%
61.3%
61.3%
Count
23
27
50
No
%
within
Does
taking
up extra
work
load
affect
your
46.0%
27.4%
16.8%
54.0%
50.9%
19.7%
100.0
%
36.5%
36.5%
health?
%with
What is
your
gender?
% of
Total
Count
1
2
3
Don’
t
Kno
w
%
within
Does
taking
up extra
work
load
affect
your
health?
%within
What is
your
gender?
% of
Total
33.3%
1.2%
0.7%
66.7%
3.8%
1.5%
100.0
%
2.2%
2.2%
Total
Count
84
53
137
%
within
Does
taking
up extra
work
load
affect
your
61.3%
100.0
%
61.3%
38.7%
100.0
%
38.7%
100.0
%
100.0
%
100.0
%
IJSER
International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research Volume 10, Issue 12, December-2019 1731
ISSN 2229-5518
IJSER © 2019
http://www.ijser.org
health?
%
within
What is
your
gender?
% of
Total
Table 3: Does absence from work affect the performance
of the organization? * Have you ever experienced poor
health due to work? Cross tabulation
Have you ever
experienced poor
health due to work?
Tota
l
Yes
No
Don’
t
Kno
w
Count
72
35
9
116
Does
absence
from
work
affect the
performa
nce of
your
organizat
ion?
Yes
% within
Does
absence
from
work
affect the
performa
nce of
your
organizat
ion?
%within
What is
your
gender?
% of
Total
62.1
%
88.9
%
52.6
%
30.2
%
83.3
%
25.5
%
7.8%
64.3
%
6.6%
100.
0%
84.7
%
84.7
%
Count
5
7
5
17
No
% within
29.4
41.2
29.4
100.
Does
absence
from
work
affect the
performa
nce of
your
organizat
ion?
%with
What is
your
gender?
% of
Total
%
6.2%
3.6%
%
16.7
%
5.1%
%
%
35.7
%
3.6%
%
0%
12.4
%
12.4
%
Count
4
0
0
4
Don
’t
Kno
w
%within
Does
absence
from
work
affect the
performa
nce of
your
organizat
ion?
%within
What is
your
gender?
% of
Total
100.
0%
4.9%
2.9%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
100.
0%
2.9%
2.9%
Total
Count
81
42
14
137
% within
Does
absence
from
work
affect the
performa
nce of
your
organizat
ion?
59.1
%
100.
0%
30.7
%
100.
0%
10.2
%
100.
0%
10.2
100.
0%
100.
0%
100.
IJSER
International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research Volume 10, Issue 12, December-2019 1732
ISSN 2229-5518
IJSER © 2019
http://www.ijser.org
% within
What is
your
gender?
% of
Total
59.1
%
30.7
%
%
0%
QUESTIONNAIRE
All information captured in this survey will be treated as
confidential, your response and anonymity will be highly
confidential. Thank you for taking the time to fill this
questionnaire.
Q1. What is you gender?
A. Male □ B. Female □
Q2. How long have you worked for the organization?
A. 0-1 year B. 2-5 years C. 6-10 years
□ D. 10-20 years □
Q3. What level of the organization are you?
A. Managerial level B. Junior Staff C.
Executive level □
Q4. Have you ever experienced stress at work?
A. Yes □ B. No □ C. Don’t know □
Q5. Which of the following is most applicable to your
situation at work?
A. Work overload B. Lack of encouragement
□ C. Insufficient pay □
D. Working overtime E. No rewards
F. Lack of involvement □
G. Poor working environment □ F. Others □
Q6. How often does working overtime have positive impact
on your performance?
A. Very often B. Often C. Not Often
D. Not at all □
Q7. Have you ever experienced poor health due to work?
A. Yes □ B. No □ C. Don’t know □
Q8. Does taking up extra workload affect your health?
A. Yes □ B. No □ C. Don’t know □
Q9. Does absence from work affect your performance at
work?
A. Yes □ B. No □ C. Don’t know □
Q10. Does absence from work affect the performance of the
organization?
A. Yes □ B. No □ C. Don’t know □
Q11. How would you rate the appraisal of your
organization on the health of its work force?
A. Very efficient B. Efficient 3. Not
efficient □ 4. Unsure □
Q12. Would you agree that the appraisal help to reduce
work related stress?
IJSER
International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research Volume 10, Issue 12, December-2019 1733
ISSN 2229-5518
IJSER © 2019
http://www.ijser.org
A. Strongly agree B. Agree □ C. Disagree
□ D. Strongly disagree □ E. Unsure □
Q13. Does the organization have policies against absence
from work?
A. Yes □ B. No □ C. Don’t know □
Q14. How efficient is the organization on the issue of
performance?
A. Very efficient □ B. Efficient □ C. Not
efficient □ D. Unsure □
Q15. How would you rate your organizations awareness on
the issue of stress?
A. Excellent □ B. Good C. Weak
D. Poor □
Q16. Do you think your output at work is well rewarded?
A. Yes □ B. No □ C. Don’t know □
Q17. Do you think that your performance affects the profit
of the organization?
A. Yes □ B. No □ C. Don’t know
Q18. Does your family life have any impact on your
attitude towards work?
A. Yes □ B. No □ C. Don’t know □
IJSER
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Article
Full-text available
This paper explores the affect of work overload on the task related performance and customer orientation of employees in WAPDA. A survey through structured questionnaire was conducted among low level management, i.e. Meter Readers. The Public sector organizations in developing countries like Pakistan proved futile in delivering employee satisfaction. Employee dissatisfaction in consequence generates an array of tribulations which unswervingly affect the organization's outcome and in return the society. The finding of study shows that a decline in performance occurred as a result of work load which led to less customer orientation among the employees This study recommend that the employees'' performance should be regularly checked against certain standards in such way that if there is decline in performance, then it is increased with training, so that the customer orientation of employees doesn't suffer.
Article
Full-text available
Purpose ‐ This paper aims to investigate the role of work locus of control (WLOC) as a moderator of the relationship between employee wellbeing and organizational commitment. Design/methodology/approach ‐ The paper reports on a quantitative study of middle level executives from motor-cycle manufacturing organizations based in Northern India. The focus of the paper is to examine the predictive ability of wellbeing and the moderating effect of WLOC in predicting organizational commitment. Findings ‐ The results suggest that wellbeing is negatively related to conditional continuance commitment, whereby employees consider the advantages associated with continued participation and costs associated with leaving, and normative commitment, whereby employees feel they have moral obligations to remain with the organization. The presence of an external WLOC has a positive impact on the relationship. Wellbeing, as represented by a hassle-free existence, predicts positive affective commitment with a particular organization, and internal WLOC as represented by effort influences the relationship negatively. Research limitations/implications ‐ Although a cross-sectional study, its findings have implications for contemporary leadership and organizational psychology research and practice, particularly with regard to understanding of employee commitment in a progressively changing environment. Originality/value ‐ Studies examining the role of WLOC as a moderator of the relationship between wellbeing and organizational commitment are limited particularly in the context of post-liberalization, as is the case with the manufacturing industry in India.
Article
Workplace stress is a world-wide concern and has been a subject of researchers, academicians, authorities and decision makers’ interest. It has evidently been considered to be causing poor performance, reduced employee morale, lack of autonomy, job insecurity and to greater extent the employee's wellbeing. Employees in healthcare and hospitality sector work in 24*7 work schedule due to the demanding nature of the industry. Empirical evidences have indicated that employee experience high stress on account of work overload and long working hours taking a toll on their mental and physical well-being. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of workplace stress on employee well-being among staff employees in the health care sector and hospitals in UAE. A total of 150 employees working at staff level in health care centers and hospitals in UAE were surveyed. The results showed that workplace has negative impact on employee well-being and the impact was found to be weak. The findings of the study suggest that an increase in workplace stresses will reduce wellbeing of employees. The researchers recommend that in order to reduce the impact of stress on employee well-being organizational support, family support and social support is essential.
Article
In an organizational context, occupational stress is also known as job stress and/or work stress. These terms are often used interchangeably in organizations, but its meaning refers to the same thing This article investigates the relationship between job stress and customer's dissatisfaction. The determinants of job stress that have been examined under this study include, job security, relationship with others, role ambiguity, role over load, and role under load.In order to show relations between variables structural equation modeling is used. The sample consists of customers and employees of insurance companies in Kerman The results show there is a significant relationship between five of the constructs tested. The results also show. Most important part of job stress that effect customers dissatisfaction is lack of job security Keywords: Studying ; Effect of stress factors ; Amount of customers dissatisfaction ; Structural Equation Model ; Insurance companies in Kerman Introduction Organizational stress is generated by the events from the organization's life and can have not only positive, incentive effects, but also negative effects as performance abatement, de motivation, resignations, absenteeism etc. In some organizations, managers even want to maintain a certain stress level, considering that this way the employees will be more implied in the development of their activity. Negative consequences appear only when this level exceeds a certain limit. Stress can appear in any organization, no matter its dimensions, and at the level of European Union, it represent the second big problem of health in work activities. Therefore, the cognition of the factors that generate and maintain organizational stress is very important, because through their analysis the most effective solutions to reduce this phenomenon can be identified. The word "stress" is a outcome of a Latin language word "Stringere", means "to draw tight". Stress is a vibrant condition encouraging individuals to tackle an opportunity, demand or resource related to the desires of an individual for which the outcome is perceived to be vague and vital (Cooper et. al. 2002). Stress has been a focus of study in medical science (Soleiman, Tahereh, Masiello, & Brommels, 2007; Chung, & Fong, 1990; Healy, & McKay, 1999; Pestonjee, & Mishra,1999) and other organizational studies (Chandraiah, Agrawal, Marimuthu, & Manoharan, 2003; Chaplain,2001; Ahmadi, & Alireza, 2006; Singh, 2007). Whereas, job satisfaction is the end state of feeling, the feeling that is experienced after a task is accomplished (Saiyadain, 2007). The bus service under study is one of the largest transport companies operating throughout the length and breadth of Pakistan providing quality services to the nation. The bus service is organized on scientific lines with corporate culture by setting new standards of safety, security, reliability, luxury, comforts and regularity, which makes it popular and first choice of the traveling public.
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to identify the case for taking employee health and wellbeing into account in some way and to consider a range of objections that might be raised against such exercises. Design/methodology/approach – The paper identifies the existence of a persistent sickness absence as a cause for concern for a range of stakeholders and how it might be accounted for in the light of recent developments within the intellectual capital field. Attention then turns to some of the difficulties such well meaning interventions might encounter, and briefly considers how a self-accounting approach might in some part overcome these. Findings – The paper finds that a programme of empirical research within the field of employee health and wellbeing is now required to ensure that employee health and wellbeing into account. Practical implications – While predominantly a discursive contribution to the literature, the paper incorporates some discussion of innovative accounting interventions. Originality/value – In contrast to viewing sickness absence from a cost perspective, the paper encourages stakeholders to embrace a wider spectrum of ways of seeing to better understand employee health and wellbeing issues in the work place.
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship of stressful life events and health related events with sickness absenteeism and presenteeism (attending work while ill or injured). Design/methodology/approach – A web-based survey was conducted within a public service organization which had just undergone a significant downsizing, where the workforce was reduced by over 30 per cent. Findings – The findings indicated that stressful life events were significantly associated with both presenteeism and absenteeism, to the same degree. Research limitations/implications – These results extend previous research in suggesting that employees are substituting presenteeism for absenteeism. However, different health risks (chronic conditions vs needing counselling support) were more likely to predict absenteeism than presenteeism. Originality/value – By supporting a substitution hypothesis, the present study suggests that both presenteeism and absenteeism are important measures of employee health and organizational productivity.
Article
Purpose – This article aims to describe the implementation of a health and wellbeing programme at Unilever in the United Kingdom. Design/methodology/approach – The approach taken in the article is a descriptive analysis of the setting up and ongoing progress of the programme. Findings – Finds that a large majority of participants had higher energy levels since joining the programme, probably because they were more physically active, and were better able to cope with the pressures and stressors of being senior executives in a large organization. Originality/value – The article illustrates how the programme has proved to be of benefit not only to employees but also to the business itself: a true win/win situation.
Article
Discusses factors responsible for inappropriate levels of stress, symptoms of distress and techniques for managing it, with specific reference to library and information work. Recommends what individuals and employees can do to manage stress.
Article
Examines the Singapore executive in the service sector – insurance, financial and banking – in terms of the level of stress experienced, coping styles, and personality (Type-A/Type-B). Tests the relationship between personality type, perceptions of stress and psychological wellbeing. Also examines the level of stress and psychological wellbeing across the three industries. Although Type-A executives reported a significantly higher level of stress than Type-B executives, they were not psychologically less healthy than their Type-B counterparts. Executives across the three industries did not differ in terms of reported stress; executives in the finance sector tended to be more worn out and uptight than executives in the banking and insurance sectors. Work overload, role ambiguity and relationships with colleagues were cited to be the major stressors, while “switch-off”, exercise and quiet control were the most common coping techniques. Discusses interventions aimed at changing work and task variables and changing characteristics of executives.