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Review of prey items recorded for snakes of the genus Chironius (Squamata, Colubridae), including the first record of Osteocephalus as prey

Authors:
The Neotropical sipo snakes of the genus Chironius
include 22 species of diurnal, actively foraging snakes
(Dixon et al., 1993; Kok, 2010; Fernandes and Hamdan,
2014; Hamdan and Fernandes, 2015). They are mostly
batrachophagous but will also prey upon lizards, birds,
and rodents (Cunha and Nascimento, 1978; Dixon and
Soini, 1986; Duellman, 2005). We collected information
regarding Chironius spp. prey items from the literature
to assess the level of dietary specialization within the
genus. Here, we summarize this information and report
the first record of Osteocephalus as prey for these
snakes.
On 3 January 2018 we found a recently road-killed
female Chironius multiventris (Snout-vent length 128.5
cm, tail length 78.0 cm) at the Vila de Balbina in the
municipality of Presidente Figueiredo, Amazonas State
(01°56’ 24.96”S, 59°27’22.93”W). The specimen was
deposited in the Zoological Collection Prof. Paulo
Bührnheim, Universidade Federal do Amazonas,
Manaus, Brazil (CZPB-RP 1017). While examining the
gut contents, we found a prey item that has not been
reported in the diet of this snake species.
The specimen found in the stomach of C. multiventris
was identified as Osteocephalus taurinus by the presence
of green bones, lateral edges of the frontoparietals elevated
and forming distinct ridges (visible frontoparietals
flanges), dorsal surfaces of tibia and foot with brown
transversal bands, and tibia length (38.93 mm) and foot
length (26.55 mm) (Trueb, 1970; Trueb and Duellman,
1971; Rodriguez and Duellman, 1994; Jungfer, 2010).
The other similar species of Osteocephalus that occurs
in the same area, O. oophagus, have shorter hind limbs
(tibia length 19.5–31.2 mm; foot length: 13.8–22.5 mm),
and the frontoparietals flanges are not visible (Jungfer
and Schiesari, 1995).
Chironius multiventris is a diurnal snake that forages
in terrestrial and arboreal environments (Martins and
Oliveira, 1999; Dixon et al., 1993). It occurs in both
primary and secondary forests (Dixon et al., 1993). The
scarce information on diet in this species comes mainly
from the eastern Pará state and Peru, and anurans are
reported as the most common prey item (Trachycephalus,
Pristimantis, Leptodactylus, Scinax cf. x-signatus and
Hyla”), followed by lizards (Tropidurus, Anolis and
Polychrus) (Cunha and Nascimento, 1978; Cunha and
Nascimento, 1982; Dixon and Soini, 1986; Dixon et al.,
1993; Rodrigues et al., 2015). Since C. multiventris is
a diurnal snake species, and O. taurinus has nocturnal
habits, the predation event may have occurred when O.
taurinus was resting in an arboreal refuge during the
day.
A literature search performed using Google Scholar,
Scielo, Herpetological Review and books covering the
diet and natural history of Chironius spp. produced
information for 18 species of Chironius (Table 1).
No information on diet was found for C. brazili, C.
challenger, C. diamantina or C. maculoventris. The
majority of prey items reported from species of Chironius
are anurans representing 72 species from 12 families,
with a predominance of hylids and leptodactylids.
Chironius flavopictus, C. laevicollis, C. leucometapus,
C. laurenti, C. septentrionalis, C. vicenti, and C. spixii
have only had anurans reported as dietary components.
Two species of Bolitoglossa salamanders are recorded,
but only in C. fuscus and C. grandisquamus. Lizards
are the second most diverse prey item, with 12 species
from six families having been recorded in the diets of
seven species of Chironius. Followed by birds, that
Herpetology Notes, volume 13: 1-5 (2020) (published online on 08 January 2020)
Review of prey items recorded for snakes of the genus
Chironius (Squamata, Colubridae), including the first record of
Osteocephalus as prey
Igor Joventino Roberto1,2* and Aline Ramos Souza1
1 Programa de Pós-Graduação em Zoologia, Universidade
Federal do Amazonas, Manaus, Amazonas 69077–000,
Brazil.
2 Florida Museum of Natural History, University of Florida,
Gainesville, Florida 32611, USA.
* Corresponding author. E-mail: igorjoventino@yahoo.com.br
Igor Joventino Roberto & Aline Ramos Souza
2
Species Amphibians Birds Mammals Reptiles References
Chironius bicarinatus
Boana faber, Bokermannohyla hylax, Scinax
sp, Leptodactylus latrans, Leptodactylus gr.
latrans, Haddadus binotatus, Ischnocnema sp,
Ischnocnema guenteri, Thoropa miliaris.
X
Hemidactylus
mabouia
Muller, 1969; Sazima and Haddad,
1992; Martins et al., 1993; Dixon et al.,
1993; Marques and Sazima, 2004;
Oliveira, 2008; Hartmann et al., 2009a,
Hartmann et al., 2009b; Almeida et al.,
2018; Vrcibradic and Eisfeld, 2016.
Chironius carinatus Boana boans, Itapotihyla langsdorffii, Pseudis
paradoxa. X Rodentia Cnemidophorus
lemniscatus
Mole and Urich, 1891; Mole and
Urich, 1894; Wehekind, 1955; Dixon et
al., 1993; Silva et al., 2010; Bovo and
Sueiro, 2012; Rodrigues et al., 2015.
Chironius exoletus
Bolitoglossa altamazonica, Dendropsophus
bifurcus, Dendropsophus marmoratus, Boana
albopunctata, Boana geographica, Boana
lanciformis, Boana punctata, Ecnomiohyla
miliaria, Itapotihyla langsdorffii,
Phyllomedusa distincta, Phyllomedusa
tomopterna, Scinax garbei, Scinax ruber,
Trachycephalus mesophaeus, Leptodactylus
latrans, Pristimantis sp, Thoropa taophora,
Lithobates palmipes, Tadpole (not identified).
Hemidactylus
mabouia,
Thecadactylus
rapicauda, Anolis
sp, Urostrophus
vautieri.
Dixon and Soini, 1977; Duellman,
1978; Cunha and Nascimento, 1982;
Sazima and Haddad, 1992; Dixon et
al., 1993; Castanho, 1996; Marques
and Sazima, 2004; Rodrigues, 2005;
França et al., 2008; Hartmann et al.,
2009b; Bernarde and Abe, 2010;
Rodrigues et al., 2015; Santos-Costa et
al., 2015; Marques et al., 2016; Hudson
et al., 2019.
Chironius flavolineatus
Boana albopunctata, Boana bischofii, Boana
raniceps, Bokermannohyla alvarengai, Scinax
cf. fuscovarius, Scinax cf. x-signatus, Scinax
gr. ruber, Leptodactylus fuscus, Physalaemus
cf. cuvieri, Thoropa miliaris, Thoropa sp.
Hemidactylus
mabouia
Dixon et al., 1993; Pombal Jr, 2007;
França et al., 2008; Pinto et al., 2008;
Rodrigues et al., 2015; Marques et al.,
2016; Passos et al., 2017; Aximoff et
al., 2017.
Chironius flavopictus
Phyllomedusa sp, Smilisca phaeota,
Leptodactylus pentadactylus, Leptodactylus
poecilochilus, Pristimantis sp. Dixon et al., 1993.
Chironius foveatus
Boana faber, Bokermannohyla circumdata,
Bokermannohyla hylax, Itapotihyla
langsdorffii, Leptodactylidae, Proceratophrys
appendiculata.
Drymophila
squamata
Dixon et al., 1993; Marques, 1998;
Rocha et al., 1999; Hartmann et al.,
2009b; Rodrigues and Noronha, 2014.
Chironius fuscus
Bolitoglossa sp, Allobates sp, Phyllobates sp,
Dendropsophus sp, Boana multifasciata,
Ololygon argyreornata, Scinax sp,
Trachycephalus typhonius, Leptodactylus
fuscus, Leptodactylus petersii, Leptodactylus
mystaceus, Leptodactylus cf. wagneri,
Physalaemus cf. ephippifer, Haddadus
binotatus, Pristimantis sp, Ischnocnema sp,
Thoropa miliaris, Thoropa taophora,
Adelophryne gutturosa.
X Rodentia
Kentropyx sp,
Anolis sp,
Gonatodes
humeralis,
Gonatodes sp.
Beebe, 1946; Dixon and Soini, 1977;
Ayarzaguena, 1987; Dixon et al., 1993;
Martins and Oliveira, 1999; Marques
and Sazima, 2004; Hartmann et al.,
2009b; Palmuti et al., 2009;
Nascimento et al., 2013; Muscat et al.,
2017; Silva-Ferreira et al., 2017.
Table 1. List of prey items recorded for Chironius spp in literature and in this study; (X = prey items identified taxonomically in
literature only until Class level).
Chironius grandisquamis Bolitoglossa sp, Leptodactylus savagei,
Pristimantis sp, Strabomantis bufoniformis.
Myrmeciza
exsul
Dixon et al., 1993; McCranie, 2011;
Visco and Sherry, 2015.
Chironius laevicollis Leptodactylus latrans.
Dixon et al., 1993; Hartmann et al.,
2009.
Chironius laurenti Anurans
Marques et al., 2005.
Chironius leucometapus Leptodactylidae.
Dixon et al., 1993.
Chironius monticola Hylidae, Leptodactylidae.
Proctoporus or
Euspondylus,
Anolis sp
Dixon et al., 1993.
Chironius multiventris
Osteocephalus taurinus, Trachycephalus sp,
Leptodactylus spp, Scinax x-signatus,
Pristimantis spp.
Anolis
fuscoauratus,
Polychrus
marmoratus,
Tropidurus hispidus
Dixon and Soini, 1977; Cunha and
Nascimento, 1982; Dixon et al., 1993;
Rodrigues et al., 2015; This study.
Chironius quadricarinatus
Boana albopunctata, Boana cf. lundii, Scinax
nasicus, Scinax fuscovarius, Scinax ruber,
Scinax sp, Leptodactylidae, Physalaemus cf.
fuscomaculatus, Physalaemus cf. cuvieri,
Physalaemus cuvieri.
X X
Schupp, 1913; Amaral, 1918, Amaral,
1933; Gliesch, 1925; Dixon et al.,
1993; França et al., 2008; Pinto et al.,
2008.
Chironius scurrulus
Boana lanciformis, Boana xerophylla, Boana
sp, Phyllomedusa camba, Scinax gr.ruber,
Leptodactylus knudseni, Leptodactylus
pentadactylus, Leptodactylus mystaceus,
Leptodactylus cf. wagneri.
Dixon and Soini, 1977; Duellman,
1978; Cunha and Nascimento, 1993;
Dixon et al., 1993; Martins and
Oliveira, 1999; Bernarde and Abe,
2010; Silva et al., 2010.
Chironius septentrionalis Hylidae, Leptodactylidae.
X Dixon et al., 1993.
Chironius spixii Boana xerophylla, Leptodactylus gr. latrans,
Pristimantis sp, Elachistocleis pearsei. Dixon et al., 1993.
Chironius vincenti
Pristimantis shrevei, Pristimantis sp,
Eleutherodactylus johnstonei,
Eleutherodactylus spp.
Henderson et al., 1988; Henderson and
Powell, 2009.
were recorded in the diet of six species of Chironius.
Unidentified rodents were recorded only for Chironius
carinatus and C. fuscus. Prey items recorded from
Chironius flavolineatus in the states of Minas Gerais, São
Paulo and Goiás (Pinto et al., 2008; Passos et al., 2017;
Aximoff et al., 2017) need further investigation given
the recent description of Chironius brazili (Hamdan
and Fernandes, 2015), which is extremely similar to C.
flavolineatus in external morphology and coloration and
which can occur in sympatry with C. flavolineatus in
those states (Hamdan and Fernandes, 2015).
Most species of Chironius are not strictly
bathracophagous. However, the high proportion and
diversity of anuran prey reported in their diet along
with the fact that many of these anuran species have
toxic skin secretions (e.g., Phyllobates, Osteocephalus,
Trachycephalus and Itapotihyla; Toledo and Jared,
1995; Daly, 1995; Costa et al., 2005), suggest a high
level of diet specialization may exist among several
species within the genus. It is likely that more species
of squamates and mammals are consumed by Chironius
spp. than have been reported given the large number of
species with sympatric distributions. However, the low
number of natural history studies in these snakes makes
it difficult to accurately ascertain the true extent of prey
diversity within the genus. The prey items in many
dietary records were identified only to higher taxonomic
levels, such as “lizards” or “rodents”, or they used
generalized taxonomic names such as Hyla” (Dixon
and Soini, 1977; Cunha and Nascimento, 1978; Dixon
et al., 1993). Other dietary records do not identify the
species of Chironius, such as the record of a Chironius
sp. consuming an Iguana iguana (Rivas et al., 1998).
Duellman (2005) hypothesized that Chironius spp. can
shift their dietary preferences based on the availability
of food items, which may involve feeding more on
anurans during the rainy season and then switching to
lizards during the dry season. However, this hypothesis
currently remains untested. More natural history data
are needed to assess the full diversity of prey items
consumed by snakes in the genus Chironius and to
test whether diet preferences relate to seasonality and
changes in food availability.
Acknowledgments. This study was financed in part by the
Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior—
Brasil (CAPES)—Finance code 001 doctoral fellowship to Igor
Joventino Roberto (88882.156872/2016-01). Adrian Barnett and
Coleman M. Sheehy III reviewed earlier drafts of this manuscript
and assisted with the English. We thank Javier C. Suaréz and
Sasha J. Tetzlaff for their suggestions and comments on the
manuscript.
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Accepted by Javier Cortés Suárez
Review of prey items recorded for snakes of the genus Chironius 5
... According to a recent review of food items for snakes of the genus Chironius (see Roberto and Souza, 2020), T. typhonius was already reported as prey for C. fuscus. In the same study, the authors reported that C. exoletus, C. fuscus, and C. multiventris preyed on other species of the genus Trachycephalus (Roberto and Souza, 2020). ...
... According to a recent review of food items for snakes of the genus Chironius (see Roberto and Souza, 2020), T. typhonius was already reported as prey for C. fuscus. In the same study, the authors reported that C. exoletus, C. fuscus, and C. multiventris preyed on other species of the genus Trachycephalus (Roberto and Souza, 2020). Perhaps some species of Chironius may show some tolerance to treefrog toxins since these snakes have a high degree of diet specialization (Roberto and Souza, 2020); this would help to explain our predation record. ...
... In the same study, the authors reported that C. exoletus, C. fuscus, and C. multiventris preyed on other species of the genus Trachycephalus (Roberto and Souza, 2020). Perhaps some species of Chironius may show some tolerance to treefrog toxins since these snakes have a high degree of diet specialization (Roberto and Souza, 2020); this would help to explain our predation record. The extensive geographic distribution and abundance of T. typhonius likely make it a common prey item for snakes (Toledo et al., 2007), especially because frogs present a low risk of retaliation during prey-predator interactions (Canhete et al., 2018). ...
... Snakes of the genus Chironius comprise a Neotropical clade (Torres-Carvajal et al. 2018) of large oviparous, aglyphous species that includes both predominantly terrestrial and arboreal taxa. These snakes are fast active foragers that feed mostly on amphibians (Dixon et al. 1993;Roberto and Souza 2020), and generally hunt by day and rest at night in trees or bushes (Dixon et al. 1993). The Ecuador Sipo (Chironius grandisquamis) is one of the largest species in the genus (maximum recorded total length 2,718 mm) with males longer than females (Dixon et al. 1993). ...
... Microhabitat use in snakes is related to foraging (e.g., Cundall and Greene 2000;Martins et al. 2002;Turci et al. 2009) and the need to avoid predation (e.g., Martins 1993;Martins et al. 2008). Our observations suggesting that C. grandisquamis is most frequently encountered in vegetation along streams coincides with data from studies of southern Central American populations (Savage 2002;Solórzano 2004;McDiarmid and Savage 2005) and undoubtedly reflects the species' largely amphibian-based diet (Dixon et al. 1993;Savage 2002;Solórzano 2004;Roberto and Souza 2020), although these snakes also feed on small lizards, birds, and rodents (Scott 1969;Visco and Sherry 2015). ...
... Snakes of the genus Chironius comprise a Neotropical clade (Torres-Carvajal et al. 2018) of large oviparous, aglyphous species that includes both predominantly terrestrial and arboreal taxa. These snakes are fast active foragers that feed mostly on amphibians (Dixon et al. 1993;Roberto and Souza 2020), and generally hunt by day and rest at night in trees or bushes (Dixon et al. 1993). The Ecuador Sipo (Chironius grandisquamis) is one of the largest species in the genus (maximum recorded total length 2,718 mm) with males longer than females (Dixon et al. 1993). ...
... Microhabitat use in snakes is related to foraging (e.g., Cundall and Greene 2000;Martins et al. 2002;Turci et al. 2009) and the need to avoid predation (e.g., Martins 1993;Martins et al. 2008). Our observations suggesting that C. grandisquamis is most frequently encountered in vegetation along streams coincides with data from studies of southern Central American populations (Savage 2002;Solórzano 2004;McDiarmid and Savage 2005) and undoubtedly reflects the species' largely amphibian-based diet (Dixon et al. 1993;Savage 2002;Solórzano 2004;Roberto and Souza 2020), although these snakes also feed on small lizards, birds, and rodents (Scott 1969;Visco and Sherry 2015). ...
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More than 40 species of snakes inhabit the humid forests of the Middle Magdalena River Basin of Colombia, yet studies on the basic aspects of snake ecology and natural history in this region are scarce. We searched for Ecuador Sipos (Chironius grandisquamis) during six years (2014–2019) of 6–24-day visual-encounter surveys by day and night in both rainy and dry periods. In 2,967 person-hours, we recorded 16 individuals, half during rainy and half during dry periods. Fourteen of the 16 encounters were in the evening and two in the morning. Snakes recorded during the day were foraging on the ground, whereas those recorded at night were inactive and perched in vegetation. Most inactive individuals had selected perches along streams flanked by riparian forests; ten were in shrubs and four in trees on branches 120–600 cm above the ground. We also record predation on a northern rainfrog (Craugastor metriosistus) on the forest floor during the day.
... Umumnya, amfibi berkembangbiak secara ovipar dengan fertilisasi secara eksternal (Chang et al., 2016). Fungsi ekologis sebagai herbivore & detritivore, dan prey & predator merupakan bentuk interaksi amfibi dengan komponen biotik (Roberto & Souza, 2020). Selain dengan komponen biotik, amfibi juga berinteraksi dengan komponen abiotik. ...
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Tujuan dari studi ini adalah menganalisis potensi amfibi sebagai model untuk pengembangan media dan alat peraga pembelajaran sains sekolah dasar (SD). Analisis potensi dilakukan dengan mensinkronisasi aspek-aspek sains amfibi dan sains SD menggunakan metode komparatif. Aspek sains amfibi diperoleh melalui hasil review dokumen, sedangkan aspek sains SD mengacu pada permendikbud No. 37 Tahun 2018. Hasil studi menunjukkan bahwa amfibi memiliki potensi sebagai model untuk mengembangkan media dan alat peraga pembelajaran sains SD. Untuk kelas IV, pemanfaatan amfibi sebagai model dapat dilakukan pada KD 3.1, KD 3.2, dan KD 3.8. Di kelas V, terdapat 6 KD pengetahuan yang dapat memanfaatkan amfibi yaitu KD 3.1 – KD 3.5, dan KD 3.8. Adapun untuk di kelas VI, terdapat KD 3.1 dan KD 3.3 yang sesuai untuk menjadikan amfibi sebagai model dalam pembelajaran sains SD.
... Surprisingly, the most common tree-dwelling lizards in the Amazon (genus Anolis) have not previously been recorded in the diet of Rhinobothryum lentiginosum. With 436 species (Uetz et al., 2020), Anolis lizards are relatively common and are prey of many arboreal and semi-arboreal snakes, as reported by many studies (Beebe, 1946;Duellman, 1958Duellman, , 1978Duellman, , 2005Emsley, 1963;Henderson, 1974Henderson, , 1982Henderson, , 1984aHenderson, ,b, 1993Henderson, , 2002Myers, 1974;Henderson and Nickerson, 1976;Cunha and Nascimento, 1978;Henderson et al., 1981Henderson et al., , 2007Cunha and Nascimento, 1982;Franz and Gicca, 1982;Nellis et al., 1983;Henderson and Horn, 1983;Seib, 1984;Novo Rodríguez and de Arazoza Rodríguez, 1986;Rodríguez-Robles and Leal, 1993a,b;Dixon et al., 1993;Avila-Pires, 1995;Henderson and Sajdak, 1996;Gorzula and Señaris, 1998;Martins and Oliveira, 1998;Campbell, 1999;Stafford, 2003;Gutierrez and Arredondo, 2005;Pérez-Higareda et al., 2007;Halstead et al., 2008;Scartozzoni et al.,2009;Bernarde and Abe, 2010;García-Padilla and Luna-Alcántara, 2011;Ray et al., 2011;Henderson and Pauers, 2012;Veríssimo et al., 2012;de Sousa et al., 2014;Natera et al., 2015 Roberto and Souza, 2020;Alamy, 2020a,b). ...
... Adaptasi morfologi tersebut dapat berfungsi dengan baik untuk berpindah dari badan sungai yang kering ke bagian yang masih memiliki genangan air. Warna punggungnya yang mirip serasah daun juga dapat dimanfaatkan untuk kamuflase, dan mengurangi resiko dimangsa oleh predator seperti ular dan hewan lainnya [31,32]. Predator ini sering ditemukan di sepanjang daerah aliran sungai (DAS) di TWA Kerandangan. ...
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Amfibi merupakan herpetofauna yang berperan penting dalam aliran energi dan siklus biogeokimia di habitat perairan dan terestrial. Sebagai biota yang sangat tergantung pada habitat perairan, kemarau berpotensi untuk mempengaruhi komunitas amfibi. Fenomena tersebut dapat menjadi bencana lingkungan karena habitat perairan di TWA Kerandangan adalah sungai musim. Penelitian bertujuan untuk menganalisis komunitas amfibi di TWA Kerandangan. Analisis komunitas mencakup kelimpahan, indeks diversitas dan piramida umur. Pengumpulan data dilakukan pada malam hari diawal musim hujan dengan 5 kali ulangan. Metode yang digunakan adalah Nocturnal Cencus. Data dianalisis menggunakan kelimpahan relatif, indeks keanekaragaman Shannon-Wiener, indeks evennes, dan indeks dominansi. Piramida umur ditentukan berdasarkan jumlah amfibi muda (juvenile) dan dewasa. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa spesies yang paling melimpah adalah Limnonectes kadarsani (Kr = 63.64%). Indeks keanekaragaman spesies rendah (H’ = 0.86), namun komunitas amfibi di TWA Kerandangan stabil karena memiliki indeks kemerataan yang tinggi (E = 0.78), dan indeks dominansi rendah (D < 0.05). Berdasarkan geometrinya, populasi Limnonectes kadarsani sedang mengalami pertumbuhan.
... Therefore, their predation by mustached and saddleback tamarins (Saguinus mystax and Saguinus nigrifrons, respectively), as reported by Heymann et al. (2000) and Lüffe et al. (2018), may indicate that these species have some tolerance to treefrog toxins. Species of snakes that are frequent predators of Lophyohylinae treefrogs are considered to have some level of dietary specialization (Prado 2003;Toledo et al. 2007;Rodrigues 2008;Roberto and Souza 2020). However, it remains to be determined for callitrichine monkeys if treefrogs with toxic secretions are routinely eaten and if these monkeys tolerate some of the toxins. ...
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We report on the predation of a veined treefrog (Trachycephalus venulosus) and an ocellated treefrog (Itapotihyla langs-dorffii), both species with noxious skin secretions, by black lion tamarins (Leontopithecus chrysopygus). The two predation events took place in Morro do Diabo State Park, an Atlantic Forest reserve in southeastern Brazil. The veined treefrog was removed from a tree hollow by an adult male, whereas the ocellated treefrog was caught on the ground after it jumped from the tree attempting to escape capture. The frogs were completely ingested and no food sharing occurred in either of the events. We did not observe any signs of irritation during the event or when the group was followed in the next day in either of the cases. These are the first reports of lion tamarins ingesting anurans with noxious secretions on the skin.
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Diet (Anura) and cave use by Chironius flavolineatus.
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Anurans compose an important part of the diet of several species of Neotropical snakes. Here we report a predator-prey interaction involving Chironius fuscus and Ololygon ar-gyreornata. A young individual of C. fuscus preyed three specimens of O. argyreornata, in soil, while occurred explosive reproduction of frogs. This contribution reinforces ecological data that C. fuscus forages mainly on the ground. We believe that this interaction can occur with relative frequency and that eventually arboreal frogs can compose important sample in C. fuscus' diet, which is based on terrestrial amphibians. Resumo Os anuros compõem uma parcela importante da dieta de diversas espécies de serpen-tes neotropicais. Neste trabalho, relatamos uma interação de predador-presa envolvendo Chironius fuscus e Ololygon argyreornata. Um indivíduo jovem de C. fuscus apresou três espécimes de O. argyreornata, no solo, enquanto ocorria reprodução explosiva dos anu-ros. Essa contribuição reforça os dados ecológicos de que C. fuscus forrageia, principal-mente, no chão. Acreditamos que essa interação possa ocorrer com relativa frequência e que, eventualmente, os anuros arborícolas possam compor importante amostra na dieta de C. fuscus, a qual é baseada em anfíbios terrestres. Palavras-chave: anurofagia, Colubrinae, dieta, hábitos alimentares. Chironius fuscus (Serpentes: Colubridae): Predation over anurans in explosive reproduction Chironius fuscus (Serpentes: Colubridae): predação sobre anuros em reprodução explosiva 1 Projeto Dacnis. Estrada do Rio Escuro 4754, 11680-000,
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Information about the snake diversity and their natural history from the Atlantic forest domain in Brazil refer mostly to inland forests than to coastal region. Within the state of Bahia, this knowledge is concentrated to the southeastern coastal stretch. Herein we report on the diversity of snakes from the restinga, ombrophilous forest and anthropogenic environment from the northern Atlantic coast of Bahia. We sampled nine sites for three years and visited four museum collections. Furthermore, we provide anecdo-tal natural history information, voucher analyses, literature complements, and a key to fascilitate species identification. We report a total of 774 snakes belonging to 50 species and 23 new distribution records for northeastern coast of Bahia, supplemented by new data on feeding and reproduction. The number of detected species is similar to numbers obtained in comparable studies from other Brazilian ecoregions. This study reports and focuses for the first time on all known species of snakes from the northeastern coast of Bahia.
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We reported the predation record of the hylid frog Bokermannohyla alvarengai by the colubrid snake Chironius flavolineatus in a montane rocky grassland in Santana do Riacho municipality, Minas Gerais state, southeastern Brazil. Our findings contribute to the biological knowledge of B. alvarengai through identification of one of its natural predators, and of C. flavolineatus by adding an anuran species to its diet, data not previously available in the scientific literature.