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When robots enter the classrooms: Implications for teachers

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Abstract and Figures

Technologies are growing very fast and they are invading almost every aspect of human lives, including education. Many jobs have been impacted with this rapid development of technology and its disruptive effects could also affect teachers. As Artificial Intelligence (AI) technology advances, there has been a prediction that robots could replace teachers. When this happens, what are the implications for teachers? This paper offers an answer to that question. By employing secondary data analysis methodology, this study examined a number of publications on robot teachers in the last five years, looking at what a robot teacher could do in the classroom. Based on this data and from the perspectives of Instructional System Design, this paper concluded that the implications of the application of robots in education are the roles of teachers will change and teachers need to master specific skills in the era of educational robots. These skills are labelled as teachers’ analytical, creative, and evaluative skills, or ACE skills. Although the implications are closely directed to teachers, they should also be applied in teacher education programmes. Keywords: Artificial intelligence (AI), Robot teachers, Instructional System Design, ACE skills
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E-Proceeding of the Internaonal Conference
on Arcial Intelligence (AI) in Educaon
Theme :
Embedding Arcial Intelligence (AI) in Educaon Policy and
Pracce for Southeast Asia
E-Proceeding of the Internaonal Conference on Arcial Intelligence (AI) in Educaon
Theme: Embedding Arcial Intelligence (AI) in Educaon Policy and Pracce for Southeast Asia
Chairman: R. Alpha Amirrachman
Vice Chairman: Yoni Utomo
Secretary: Prakaikan Schneitz
Aline Almandha
Member: Cahya Kusuma rah
Fazhar Restu Dauzi
Renaldo Rhesky
Victor Labotano
Nurhaja
Firda Nur Isanah
Aprilia Indah S
Umy Kurniaty
Syarif Hidayat
Yoanda Adana
Aqil Aulia Wafdah Amin
Ruli Handrian
Handi Pradana
Yusmar Hadi Saputra
Agun Gunawan
Novel Meilani
Relanica Miretnawa
Syarifuddin
Hajiji
Edih
Supporng Ali Sadikin
Achmad
Ali Imron
Ambay Sunardi
Gatot Hari Priowirjanto
Abdul Rizal Adompo
Zul Seawan
Pansera Oktasedu
Bagiono Djokosumbogo
Karyana
Aggry Tiharapitra
Dona Octanary
Ilham Penta P
Imam Syai
Irfan Gusawan
Andre Utomo
Tik Sri Nas
Betuah Anugerah
Darmawan
Nathan K
M. Muslim Rifai
Rindriana Martasari Putri
Writer: Prof. Khin Thant Sin
Eka Uliyan Putri Br Bangun
Es Ismawa
Johan Sulaiman
Alex Dziena
Je Bender
Gail Kaiser
Dian Toar Y. G. Sumakul
Niken Lestari
Si Amanah
Pudji Muljono
Djoko Susanto
Reviewer: Prof. Dr. Ir. Kudang Boro Seminar, M. Sc
Dr.Eng. Heru Sukoco, SSi, MT.
Dr. Eng Annisa, S.Kom., M.Kom.
Editor in Chief: R. Alpha Amirrachman, Ph.D.
Layout & Design: Haulia Ariani
Yusmar Hadi Saputra
Copyright © 2019 by Southeast Asian Ministers of Educaon Organizaon Regional
Open Learning Centre (SEAMEO SEAMOLEC)
All right reserved.
No part of this publicaon may be reduced, stored or transmied in any form or any means without prior per-
mission from SEAMEO SEAMOLEC.
ISBN: 978-602-1699-78-2
Published by
Southeast Asian Ministers of Educaon Organizaon Regional Open Learning Centre
(SEAMEO SEAMOLEC)
Kompleks Universitas Terbuka Pondok Cabe, Pamulang,
Jl. Cabe Raya, Pd. Cabe Ilir, Kec. Pamulang,
Kota Tangerang Selatan, Banten 15418
Phone: (62-21) 7422184
Fax: (62-21) 7422276
Website: www.seamolec.org
E-mail : secretariat@seamolec.org
E-Proceedings of the International Conference
vi
T A B L E O F C O N T E N T
Message from the Director of SEAMOLEC
PAGE 1
Empowering Digital Developments towards AI in Educaon: Case Study of
Yangon University of Distance Educaon
PAGE 3
A development of Communicave Language Teaching Using Edmodo for
Fostering Students’ Skill and Movaon
PAGE 10
Embedding Arcial Intelligence in Language Teaching: Problem and Its
Soluon
PAGE 19
SAGE-RA: A Reference Architecture to Advance the Teaching and Learning
of Computaonal Thinking
PAGE 29
When Robots Enter the Classrooms: Implicaons for teachers
PAGE 42
Digital Communicaon Technology Challenges of Agritourism Farmers in
Bojonegoro and Malang Districts
PAGE 49
SEAMOLEC.ORG
1Embedding Artificial Intelligence (AI) in Education Policy and Practice for Southeast Asia
Message from the Director of SEAMOLEC
Dear esteemed readers,
It is with deep sasfacon that I write this Foreword to the Proceeding of the Internaonal Conference on
Embedding Arcial Intelligence (AI) in Educaon Policy and Pracce for Southeast Asia held on September
17-19, 2019 at the Holiday Inn & Suites Jakarta Gajah Mada Hotel, Jakarta, Indonesia.
The internaonal conference was a joint-event between Ministry of Educaon and Culture of the Republic of
Indonesia through its main units and SEAMEO Centres in Indonesia, in partnership with SEAMEO Secretariat,
UNESCO, Ministry of Research Technology and Higher Educaon (MoRTHE) and Ministry of Communicaon
and Informaon of the Republic of Indonesia.
One of the reasons to hold this conference is that it is in accordance to the implementaon of the Priority
Areas of SEAMEO, especially priority number 7, “adopng 21st century curriculum”. Advancement of digital
technologies, especially in the educaon eld, needs to benet everyone within our region. Educaon
powered with AI will be one alternave soluon to address inequality access to educaon in Southeast
Asia. This transformaon will demand Southeast Asia countries to rethink their naonal policies as well as
the priories. In order to prepare for this change, Southeast Asian countries need to altogether develop
educaon system, which is forward-looking, future oriented, and strategic.
These Proceeding will furnish educators with an excellent reference. I trust also that this will be an
encouragement to smulate further study and research regarding AI-powered educaon.
We thank all presenters and parcipants for their contribuons.
R. Alpha Amirrachman, M. Phil., Ph.D.
Head of Commiee of the Internaonal Conference
SEAMEO SEAMOLEC Director
E-Proceedings of the International Conference
2
Conference Secretariat
SEAMEO SEAMOLEC
Kompleks Universitas Terbuka Pondok Cabe, Pamulang,
Kota Tangerang Selatan, Banten 15418
aiconference2019@seamolec.org
E-Proceedings of the International Conference
42
When robots enter the classrooms:
Implications for teachers
Dian Toar Y. G. Sumakul
Universitas Kristen Satya Wacana, toar.sumakul@gmail.com
Abstract
Technologies are growing very fast and they are invading almost every aspect of human lives, including
educaon. Many jobs have been impacted with this rapid development of technology and its disrupve eects
could also aect teachers. As arcial intelligence (AI) technology advances, there has been a predicon
that robots could replace teachers. When this happens, what are the implicaons for teachers? This paper
oers an answer to that queson. By employing secondary data analysis methodology, this study examined a
number of publicaons on robot teachers in the last ve years, looking at what a robot teacher could do in the
classroom. Based on this data and from the perspecves of Instruconal System Design, this paper concluded
that the implicaons of the applicaon of robots in educaon are the roles of teachers will change and
teachers need to master specic skills in the era of educaonal robots. These skills are labelled as teachers’
analycal, creave, and evaluave skills, or ACE skills. Although the implicaons are closely directed to
teachers, they should also be applied in teacher educaon programmes.
Keywords: Arcial intelligence (AI), Robot teachers, Instruconal System Design, ACE skills
Raonale
We are now living in the era of Industrial Revoluon 4.0, the era of disrupons. The development of technology
is so fast that it disrupts almost every aspect of human lives, including educaon. One prominent technology
that undergoes rapid advancement is arcial intelligence (AI). In educaon, this has been applied in the
creaon of robot teachers.
Although not yet many, robots applicaon in classrooms have been tried out and the number is increasing.
Examining the studies on classroom robots listed in Google Scholar since the 1990s, Newton and Newton
(2019) found out that arcles on the use of robots as teachers have increased signicantly. For example,
43Embedding Artificial Intelligence (AI) in Education Policy and Practice for Southeast Asia
during the period of 2015-2019, there are almost 3,500 publicaons on this topic compared to less than 100 in
the 1995-1999 period. Regarding this increasing use of robots in educaon along with the rapid development
of AI technology, in 2017 Sir Anthony Francis Seldon, a professor in University of Buckingham, predicted that
robots will begin to replace teachers within the next ten years (Bodkin, 2017).
The use of robot teachers in present me is sll very few, and are mostly applied in developed countries.
Parcularly in developing countries like the ones in Southeast Asia region, this is not yet a common pracce.
However, as technology advances and becomes more aordable, this is an inevitable future. The current
applicaons of robot teachers could resemble the future of educaon, when robot teachers become more
prevalent. When this happens, what are the implicaons for human teachers? This paper would like to oer
an answer to this queson.
Theorecal framework
Advances of technology are meant to help human beings to live their lives beer. In educaon, this means to
help students learn beer. This should be the idea that inspired Seymour Papert when he invented the rst
educaon robot (for a brief but thorough review on the rst development of Papert’s educaon robot, see
Catlin, 2019). Since Papert’s Turtle robot in 1970, a number of other educaon robots have been introduced
in the classrooms around the world. Moreover, studies show that students have posive atudes towards
the use of robots in their classrooms (e.g. Verner, Polishuk & Krayner, 2016; Pöhner & Hennecke, 2018;
Babić, 2019). These exisng trends indicate that robot applicaon in the classrooms is inevitable. In relaon
to teaching and learning processes, one of the major challenges is to see how the use of robot teachers t
into the classroom pracces, parcularly from the perspecves of Instruconal System Design (ISD) models.
In educaon, instrucon is developed to help students learn, in other words, to facilitate their learning. ISD is
the process for establishing instruconal system for that purpose. The designs of instruconal system result
in models that would provide a teacher “a systemac way of designing, carrying out, and evaluang the
process of learning and teaching” (Ledford & Sleeman, 2000, p. 2). There have been a number of ISD models
proposed to the eld of educaon, such as ADDIE and ASSURE. Both were chosen among the other models
due to their simpler structures, yet sll clearly depict how ISD works.
ADDIE stands for Analyse, Design, Develop, Implement, and Evaluate. The original source of ADDIE is not
really clear (Molenda, 2003). Despite its elusive origin, ADDIE model has been widely discussed in educaon
literature and implemented in teaching and learning pracces. In the rst stage of ADDIE, based on the
students as the primary focus, the teacher does the analysis of the needs of the lesson. The results of this
analysis would help the teacher in designing the course: the objecves, topics, methods, and all the resources
needed. The next step is to develop the classroom acvies. When all are ready, it is me to implement them
in the classroom. Evaluaon is the nal phase where the teacher looks at all the previous stages and does
necessary revisions, as shown in Figure 1 below.
E-Proceedings of the International Conference
44
FIGURE 1. The ADDIE Model of Instruconal System Design
(Gagne, Wager, Golas & Keller, 2005, p. 21)
As for ASSURE, it was introduced by Heinich, Molenda, Russel, and Smaldino (1999) and stands for Analyse
the learner, State objecves, Select media and materials, Ulise media and materials, Require learner
parcipaon, and Evaluate and revise. Similar to ADDIE, in ASSURE model the rst step a teacher needs to
do is to analyse the students. By understanding the students, the teacher would be able to set the needed
objecves and most appropriate method, media and materials to suit their learning. The next step is then to
state the specic objecves of the lesson. These objecves will be the focus of every acvity in the classroom.
Once the objecves have been set, the next step is to select media and materials. This includes choosing a
method that would best help the students in their learning. In the classroom, the teacher then ulises the
media and materials and asks the learners to parcipate in the learning acvies. Learning would be more
meaningful when the students are acvely engaged in the learning acvies. In the end, the teacher would
evaluate the teaching and learning processes and make revisions where necessary for the next lesson.
In general, the brief descripons of ADDIE and ASSURE models above imply that there are 3 major stages in
any teaching events in ISD. There are before-class, during-class, and aer-class stages. Other models show a
similar sequence; for examples the GPI (General Paradigm of Instrucon) model (Ledford & Sleeman, 2000)
and the Planning-Acon-Reecon model of Acon Learning (Aubusson, Steele, Dinham & Brady, 2007). This
three-stage model is the core model to be used in this paper to analyse what robots and teachers can do in
the teaching and learning process.
Methods
This was a small-scale research employing secondary data analysis methodology. Hinds, Vogel and Clarke-
Steen (1997) menon that secondary data analysis uses exisng research data in order to answer a research
queson dierent from the original work or to see it from a dierent perspecve. In this era of big data,
where a big amount of research data is now accessible with the internet technology, the me has come for
secondary data analysis to be prevalent among researchers (Johnston, 2017).
45Embedding Artificial Intelligence (AI) in Education Policy and Practice for Southeast Asia
This paper looked at a number of previous publicaons in robot teachers around the world in the last ve
years (see results and conclusions secon for details), examined how they were used in the classrooms,
and saw them from the perspecves of ISD. The analysis resulted in some suggesons on how the roles of
teachers could change due to the use of robots in the classrooms.
Results and conclusion
Based on the analysis towards the six publicaons on robot teachers menoned earlier, this study found that
there are several roles that robots could perform in classrooms. The summary is presented in Table 1 below.
Table 1
Robots’ roles in the classroom
Source Locaon Robots’ roles
Akashiba et al
(2017)
Japan Introduce the lesson
Give a quiz
Facilitate class praccum
Present lesson content
Introduce the lesson
Bellas, Salgado,
Blanco & Duro
(2019)
Spain Help students solve math problems
Kennedy, Baxter &
Belpaeme (2015)
United Kingdom Provide tutorials
Moussiades, Kiourt
& Papadimitriou
(2018)
Greece Talk with students
Verner, Polishuk &
Krayner (2016)
Israel Give explanaon
Give examples
Facilitate students’ experiments
Give feedback
Review lessons
Give a quiz
Assess students’ quizzes
Announce quiz results
Vogt et al (2019) Netherland Greet the students
Introduce the lesson
Present vocabulary
Give instrucons
Give posive feedback / encouragement
The table shows that there are many things that a robot can do in the teaching and learning processes. These
roles are tradionally the tasks of human teachers, but now can be performed by robot teachers. Moreover,
according to those ve arcles, many of the roles were performed successfully by the robots.
E-Proceedings of the International Conference
46
However, from ISD perspecves, most of those roles belong to the during-class category. This means that
what le for human teachers are the roles in before-class and aer-class stages. The skills underlying those
roles are the ones teachers need to focus on and strengthen when they work with robots in the classroom.
For the before-class stage, the skills include: (i) analysing the needs of the lesson based on the nature of the
students, school or class environment, and naonal educaonal policies to set the learning objecves and (ii)
creang materials, resources, and acvies to suit the learning objecves. In the aer-class stage, teachers
need to possess the skill in (iii) evaluang the implementaon of the lesson.
Discussion
Robots are disrupng the eld of educaon. Despite some concerns, the number of robots applicaon
in educaon is increasing and studies shows that there are many benet that robot teachers could oer
(Belpaeme, 2018). Moreover, along with the rapid development of AI technology, robot teachers are geng
smarter and Sir Anthony Francis Seldon’s predicon in 2017 will probably happen sooner than expected.
At the moment, this study has shown that robots are starng to take over tasks used to be associated with
teachers. Instead of rejecng the idea of robot teachers, we need to embrace the idea while at the same
develop some necessary measures and acons regarding this issue. For instance, to make robot teachers
more human, Jang, Lee, Kim, and Cho (2013) studied teacher-student’s social signals, such as classroom
language, gestures, and postures, to educate robot teachers. Newton and Newton (2019) have also proposed
a code of pracce to ancipate the era when robots teach.
With the same sense to prepare teachers for the era of educaonal robots, this study suggests some measures
focusing on teachers’ skills. To cope with the situaon, teachers need to understand that their roles are
changing. In the era of robot teachers, human teachers would work behind the scene, leaving the classroom
stage to their robot partners. The delivery of the lesson might be dominated by robots, but human teachers
would sll dominate the preparaon and evaluaon processes. In relaon to the result of this study, teachers
need to have good analycal skills, creave skills, and evaluave skills; abbreviated as ACE skills (Figure 2).
FIGURE 2. Teachers’ ACE skills
In relaon to ISD as described earlier, A and C skills are in the domain of before-class stages while E skills
in the aer-class stages. In a more praccal explanaon, since robots would dominate the lesson delivery
stages, teachers need to disnguish themselves in preparing, designing, and evaluang the lessons. Teachers
will analyse what the students need, and this will help them to establish the learning goals. These goals will
help them create the learning materials and methodology - how to deliver the learning materials - to aain
the learning goals. In aer-class stages, teachers will evaluate what happened in before-class and during-
47Embedding Artificial Intelligence (AI) in Education Policy and Practice for Southeast Asia
class stages and make necessary adjustments for future classes. Correspondingly, these ACE skills can be
categorised under the higher order thinking skills (Anderson & Krathwohl, 2001), the skills needed by the
teachers to be able to survive and perform in 21st century educaon.
In this 21st century, teachers need to excel at the skills where humans are beer compared to machines,
the ACE skills. These are related to the 4 Cs learning skills (crical thinking, creavity, communicaon, and
collaboraon) under the framework of 21st century skills (Kivunja, 2015). From the ACE skills framework,
crical thinking is applied in analysing the needs of the lesson and evaluang the implementaon of the
lesson, while creavity is related to the creaon of learning resources and classroom acvies. In addion,
communicaon and collaboraon could exist when the teacher work together with other teachers, or even
robots, during any stage of the teaching sequence.
Recommendaons
This study came up with two recommendaons. For current teachers, mastering the ACE skills will not only
make teachers be able to prepare the lesson, but also make them more competent to work collaboravely
with their robot partners. As for teacher educaon programmes, the curriculum needs to be revised to t the
era of educaonal robots. Irrelevant subjects need to be eliminated or upgraded and the ACE skills need to be
embedded in the teaching and learning pracces. This could be achieved by incorporang more case studies
or case methods in the curriculum (Merseth, 1996; Reichelt, 2000). Case studies would provide the student
teachers with opportunies to pracce and strengthen their ACE skills. In short, teachers’ analycal, creave,
and evaluave (ACE) skills will be the heart of the future educaon, when robots enter the classroom.
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Internaonal Conference on Human-Robot Interacon (HRI) (pp. 497-505). IEEE.
... They argue that human uniqueness and human-to-human interaction in the educational process are of irreplaceable value for child development (Newton & Newton, 2019a;Newton & Newton, 2019b;Sharkey, 2016;Singh, 2018). The group allows for the possibility of a future division of tasks between teacher and robot with the consequent reorganization of teacher roles and functions in classrooms (Edwards, Edwards, Spencer, & Lin, 2018;Mubin et al., 2013;Newton & Newton, 2019a;Sumakul, 2019). They anticipate that, in the event of a division of tasks with a robot, a teacher will be dominant in some phases of the pedagogical process but be a controller in others. ...
... Studies have predicted that the introduction of social robots into education will affect the instructional setting and the teacher roles and functions Ivanov, 2016;Newton & Newton, 2019a;Sharkey, 2016;Sumakul, 2019;Istenic Starcic, 2019). We summarize the instructional aspects within the two main issues: (i) education system quality concerns and (ii) robot and teaching roles. ...
... Researchers discussed sharing the teaching role in the classroom. Some authors predicted that the integration of social robots in classrooms will influence the teachers' Ivanov, 2016;Sumakul, 2019). Issues of teachers' roles can be summarized in four areas. ...
Full-text available
Article
Social robots are being tested in the educational arena with current thinking in two main directions. One is arguing for the benefits of robots in affective and efficient instruction and is more teacher-centered. Within the second, more student-centered oriented, proponents of human uniqueness are raising long-term concerns. Teacher-centeredness and student-centeredness form pedagogical beliefs underpinning teachers' attitudes guiding technology integration. Limited research has explored teachers' underlying beliefs and attitudes to social robots, with some presenting mixed feelings identifying some concerns with some identifying more positive attitudes. Preservice education is critical in forming beliefs, and this paper presents a qualitative study of Slovene pre-service pre-primary school and primary classroom pre-service teachers' attitudes and underlying beliefs. Students were asked to reflect on their perception of social robotic educational technology in which they would highlight at their own discretion the positive, neutral and negative aspects. Students' reflections predominantly expressed concerns. The research model was designed in part, drawing from participants reflections and on related studies. Previous studies indicated the concerns teachers hold about robotic technology, but lacked a more holistic model. We built a threefold model distinguishing instructional, social-emotional, and legal concerns. Our findings differ from related studies because they identified participants' negative attitudes and a clear rejection of robot technology with a human-like appearance and social skills in the classroom. Previous student-centered studies reported on single groups of concerns within specific contexts without developing a holistic view relating diverse concerns in one picture. Related teacher-centered studies were arguing for refinements anticipating robot's social intelligence affordance in the classroom. The participants in our study are not rejecting social robots as such, but in their view, the robot is not granted the status of a social entity capable of engaging in student-centered teaching and taking care of child wellbeing and development. The findings of our study call for action and informed robot development, taking into consideration teachers as co-designers. Аннотация Социальные роботы в сфере образования тестируются в двух направлениях: одно ориентиро-вано на учителя и подчеркивает их эффективность-второе, ориентированное на студентов, выражает обеспокоенность обезличенным характером подобного обучения. В данной статье представлено качественное исследование отношения словенских студентов-будущих учите-лей дошкольного образования и начальных классов-к роботизированной образовательной технологии, в которой они по своему усмотрению должны были выделить положительные, нейтральные и отрицательные аспекты. Студенты выразили преимущественно обеспокоен-ность. Нами была разработана трехкомпонентная модель исследования, включающая учеб-ные, социально-эмоциональные и правовые стороны проблемы. Результаты выявили нега-тивное отношение участников к роботам с внешностью человека и социальными навыками и полный отказ от их использования в классе. Участники исследования, не отвергая социаль-ных роботов как таковых, отказывают им в статусе социального субъекта, способного учиты-вать индивидуальность учащихся и адекватно заботиться о благополучии и развитии детей. Результаты исследования призывают к осознанному созданию роботов с привлечением учи-телей в качестве со-дизайнеров. Ключевые слова: гуманоидные социальные роботы, студенты-будущие учителя, раннее раз-витие, образовательная робототехника, убеждения.
... They argue that human uniqueness and human-to-human interaction in the educational process are of irreplaceable value for child development (Newton & Newton, 2019a;Newton & Newton, 2019b;Sharkey, 2016;Singh, 2018). The group allows for the possibility of a future division of tasks between teacher and robot with the consequent reorganization of teacher roles and functions in classrooms (Edwards, Edwards, Spencer, & Lin, 2018;Mubin et al., 2013;Newton & Newton, 2019a;Sumakul, 2019). They anticipate that, in the event of a division of tasks with a robot, a teacher will be dominant in some phases of the pedagogical process but be a controller in others. ...
... Studies have predicted that the introduction of social robots into education will affect the instructional setting and the teacher roles and functions Ivanov, 2016;Newton & Newton, 2019a;Sharkey, 2016;Sumakul, 2019;Istenic Starcic, 2019). We summarize the instructional aspects within the two main issues: (i) education system quality concerns and (ii) robot and teaching roles. ...
... Researchers discussed sharing the teaching role in the classroom. Some authors predicted that the integration of social robots in classrooms will influence the teachers' Ivanov, 2016;Sumakul, 2019). Issues of teachers' roles can be summarized in four areas. ...
Full-text available
Article
Social robots are being tested in the educational arena with current thinking in two main directions. One is arguing for the benefits of robots in affective and efficient instruction and is more teachercentered. Within the second, more student-centered oriented, proponents of human uniqueness are raising long-term concerns. Teacher-centeredness and student-centeredness form pedagogical beliefs underpinning teachers’ attitudes guiding technology integration. Limited research has explored teachers’ underlying beliefs and attitudes to social robots, with some presenting mixed feelings identifying some concerns with some identifying more positive attitudes. Preservice education is critical in forming beliefs, and this paper presents a qualitative study of Slovene preservice pre-primary school and primary classroom pre-service teachers’ attitudes and underlying beliefs. Students were asked to reflect on their perception of social robotic educational technology in which they would highlight at their own discretion the positive, neutral and negative aspects. Students’ reflections predominantly expressed concerns. The research model was designed in part, drawing from participants reflections and on related studies. Previous studies indicated the concerns teachers hold about robotic technology, but lacked a more holistic model. We built a threefold model distinguishing instructional, social-emotional, and legal concerns. Our findings differ from related studies because they identified participants’ negative attitudes and a clear rejection of robot technology with a human-like appearance and social skills in the classroom. Previous studentcentered studies reported on single groups of concerns within specific contexts without developing a holistic view relating diverse concerns in one picture. Related teacher-centered studies were arguing for refinements anticipating robot’s social intelligence affordance in the classroom. The participants in our study are not rejecting social robots as such, but in their view, the robot is not granted the status of a social entity capable of engaging in student-centered teaching and taking care of child wellbeing and development. The findings of our study call for action and informed robot development, taking into consideration teachers as co-designers.
... Studies only involve small numbers of participants (Benitti, 2012;Xia & Zhong, 2018) engaged in a robot assisted lessons for a very short duration of time . The development of robots with teaching capacities is still in the beginning stages, but the research anticipates that the use of robots in the classroom will shortly increase (Edwards et al., 2016;Ivanov, 2016;Newton & Newton, 2019a, 2019bPark, Kim, et al., 2011;Sumakul, 2019;Tuna et al., 2019). Acceptance of interaction between human and robot is more complicated than human-computer interaction acceptance. ...
Article
Teachers' readiness for technology integration depends also on their beliefs about the contribution of technology to teaching and learning, which influence their motivation for its adoption. Initial pre‐service teacher education is critical in reducing the attitude‐behaviour divide supporting technology acceptability, acceptance and use. Acceptance of interaction between human and robot is more complicated than human‐computer interaction acceptance. Social robots are radical innovations, harder for potential users to accept in human social spaces than are incremental innovations. In 2019, a survey using a convenience sample of 121 first‐year students was conducted to examine pre‐service teachers' beliefs about social robot educational technology. It examined the following factors derived from the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology adopted for social robots in education: Perceived social dimension, Intention to use, Perceived usability, Anxiety. Based on our findings, it seems there is a critical disjunction between researchers' efforts to equip social robots with human manners and social intelligence and participants' rejection of this technology precisely because it mimics being human. Further, we report that ICT familiarity as assessed using PISA's Information Communication Technology—ICT familiarity factors is related to robot acceptability. These findings need further examination to inform educational robotics design and Human‐Robot Interaction research and teacher education and training. Practitioners notes What is already known about this topic In the age of robotic technology, teachers face requirements to prepare students for work and life with social robots. Social robots are tested for classroom integration. Teachers' readiness to implement robot lessons depends on their beliefs about social robotic technology's contribution to teaching. Research and development in the field of social robotics still tend to focus more frequently on technology applications rather than pedagogical issues and advancing teaching and learning. What this paper adds Participants refuse to accept the idea of social robot‐based instruction. The identified belief pattern is based mainly on the perceived social dimension, intention to use, perceived usability and anxiety. Participants critically perceive the robot's social dimension. Some of PISA's ICT familiarity factors are related to robots acceptability factors. Implication for policy and/or practice The policy and practice need to address how social robots could be integrated into current teaching and learning practices and more importantly how could robotic technology facilitate innovative pedagogical models for effective and efficient learning. The introduction of social robots should follow instructional design requirements and not merely technological advancement. Teacher initial education has to provide social robotic learning environments for pre‐service teachers to experiment and design. What is already known about this topic In the age of robotic technology, teachers face requirements to prepare students for work and life with social robots. Social robots are tested for classroom integration. Teachers' readiness to implement robot lessons depends on their beliefs about social robotic technology's contribution to teaching. Research and development in the field of social robotics still tend to focus more frequently on technology applications rather than pedagogical issues and advancing teaching and learning. What this paper adds Participants refuse to accept the idea of social robot‐based instruction. The identified belief pattern is based mainly on the perceived social dimension, intention to use, perceived usability and anxiety. Participants critically perceive the robot's social dimension. Some of PISA's ICT familiarity factors are related to robots acceptability factors. Implication for policy and/or practice The policy and practice need to address how social robots could be integrated into current teaching and learning practices and more importantly how could robotic technology facilitate innovative pedagogical models for effective and efficient learning. The introduction of social robots should follow instructional design requirements and not merely technological advancement. Teacher initial education has to provide social robotic learning environments for pre‐service teachers to experiment and design.
... Considering school environments, networked digital technologies can enable online learning through access to digital resources, engagement in collaborative environments, global communications, and the creation of multimedia content. For teaching staff working in schools, current developments in digital technologies mean that teachers' roles in the classroom need to be revisited, with teacher professional development requiring a focus on pedagogical practices relevant to online learning (Sumakul, 2019). ...
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Article
Aim/Purpose: ICT integration into classroom pedagogical practices is considered an essential aspect of learning processes in developed countries but there are issues in developing countries regarding funding, infrastructure, access, and teacher skills and professional learning. This article presents some aspects of the findings of a study in one remote region within a developing country after the implementation of a widescale ICT initiative. This study investigates issues for implementing ICT in schools in relation to teacher and school leader attitudes, access and ICT use, and improvements needed in Papua which is one of the most remote regions of Indonesia. The paper frames these issues within the context of successful online learning initiatives in developing countries and foreign aid implementation literature, with these aspects being under-researched, especially in significantly remote developing country locations. Background: Developing countries like Indonesia have progressively introduced online learning into school management and classrooms within government planning frameworks and with initial support from foreign aid providers. While there is research available regarding ICT implementation in more urbanized contexts within developing countries, there is a gap in terms of large-scale research which is focused on more remote regions and is supported by foreign aid. Methodology: Mixed methods including surveys and interviews were used to investigate research questions concerning teachers’ and principals’ attitudes, ICT access and use, and perceptions about improvements needed. SPSS software was used for surveys and descriptive analysis, and interviews were analysed through manual coding processes. Contribution: ICT access and e-learning in schools are increasingly becoming relevant in developing country contexts, and this research paper is a preliminary large-scale study that makes a contribution through highlighting issues experienced in more remote locations. This includes specific internet and power issues and transport inaccessibility problems, which highlight the need for locally-based and ongoing coaching of teachers within schools and regions. The paper also draws on the literature about online learning in developing countries and foreign aid towards some possible success directions in isolated contexts, an under-researched area. The importance of education systems establishing ICT skills levels for students integrated across subjects, for well-coordinated planning involving partnerships with hardware and internet providers, as well as the need for school leaders being trained in establishing teacher peer support groups for ongoing coaching, are learnings for Papua and other remote locations from the comparative developing countries literature Findings: The findings highlight teachers’ and school leaders’ positive attitudes to ICT in education, although the results indicate that ICT was frequently applied for administrative purposes rather than for teaching and learning. Principals and teachers highlighted some improvements that were needed including systematic training in computer skills and professional learning about the integration of ICT with teaching and learning, especially in relation to pedagogical practices, as well as the need for improved infrastructure and equipment. Recommendations for Practitioners: The study highlights issues and potential success factors as evident in remote regions of developing countries that have achieved recognition for widescale ICT implementation in schools. This includes issues in relation to policy makers and education authorities working with foreign aid funders. Of significant importance is the need for coordinated and collaborative strategic planning including in relation to sustained professional learning towards student-oriented ICT pedagogies and skilling principals to establish a positive culture and teacher peer coaching. Particularly relevant to developing countries in remote locations is the importance of additionally addressing specific infrastructure and maintenance issues. Recommendation for Researchers: Regarding ICT and its use for student learning, more research is needed in developing countries and, in particular, in more remote locations where specific issues, differing from those encountered in capital cities, may be evident for teachers and principals. Impact on Society: Teachers and principals in remote locations of Indonesia such as Papua have generally positive attitudes about the benefits of online learning but need greater ICT access for students in the classroom and also professional development regarding pedagogical practices to support students in learning effectively through online processes. Future Research: Updated and more detailed comparative research with other developing countries, especially those with remote locations, would be beneficial to more comprehensively identify Papua’s current stage of development and to design appropriate future interventions.
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We present a large-scale study of a series of seven lessons designed to help young children learn English vocabulary as a foreign language using a social robot. The experiment was designed to investigate 1) the effectiveness of a social robot teaching children new words over the course of multiple interactions (supported by a tablet), 2) the added benefit of a robot’s iconic gestures on word learning and retention, and 3) the effect of learning from a robot tutor accompanied by a tablet versus learning from a tablet application alone. For reasons of transparency, the research questions, hypotheses and methods were preregistered. With a sample size of 194 children, our study was statistically well-powered. Our findings demonstrate that children are able to acquire and retain English vocabulary words taught by a robot tutor to a similar extent as when they are taught by a tablet application. In addition, we found no beneficial effect of a robot’s iconic gestures on learning gains.
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Social robots can be used in education as tutors or peer learners. They have been shown to be effective at increasing cognitive and affective outcomes and have achieved outcomes similar to those of human tutoring on restricted tasks. This is largely because of their physical presence, which traditional learning technologies lack. We review the potential of social robots in education, discuss the technical challenges, and consider how the robot’s appearance and behavior affect learning outcomes.
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PRINTEPS is currently being developed as a total intelligent application, which has sub systems for knowledge-based reasoning, speech dialogue, image sensing, motion planning, and machine learning, in order to support end users on easily developing intelligent applications for human-machine collaboration. In this paper, a lesson application for collaborative teaching among a robot, laptop PC, sensor, teachers and students was developed with PRINTEPS. The implementation lesson was performed in a science class for six grade elementary students.
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Technological advances have led to vast amounts of data that has been collected, compiled, and archived, and that is now easily accessible for research. As a result, utilizing existing data for research is becoming more prevalent, and therefore secondary data analysis. While secondary analysis is flexible and can be utilized in several ways, it is also an empirical exercise and a systematic method with procedural and evaluative steps, just as in collecting and evaluating primary data. This paper asserts that secondary data analysis is a viable method to utilize in the process of inquiry when a systematic procedure is followed and presents an illustrative research application utilizing secondary data analysis in library and information science research.
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Social robots are finding increasing application in the domain of education, particularly for children, to support and augment learning opportunities. With an implicit assumption that social and adaptive behaviour is desirable, it is therefore of interest to determine precisely how these aspects of behaviour may be exploited in robots to support children in their learning. In this paper, we explore this issue by evaluating the effect of a social robot tutoring strategy with children learning about prime numbers. It is shown that the tutoring strategy itself leads to improvement, but that the presence of a robot employing this strategy amplifies this effect, resulting in significant learning. However, it was also found that children interacting with a robot using social and adaptive behaviours in addition to the teaching strategy did not learn a significant amount. These results indicate that while the presence of a physical robot leads to improved learning, caution is required when applying social behaviour to a robot in a tutoring context.
Chapter
Jeannette Wing’s 2013 call for education to make coding a key skill coincided with a boom in new education robots. Not surprisingly most of these new robots focus on developing student’s computational thinking abilities and programming know-how. Is that all robots can offer? To find the answer I’ll explore the history of education robots: specifically the ideas of Seymour Papert. What we’ll find is something with far more potential than providing learners with a way of developing their coding skills. And against accepted wisdom, I’ll suggest that as technology develops the need for coders will (in the long term) dwindle but the power of robots to help educate children for the future will increase.
Chapter
The teaching profession demands constant education and training, so it is not surprising that study programmes that provide certain sets of skills to future teachers are under constant change. In this chapter, the focus is on students of class teacher studies who are trained for teaching educational programming languages, but did not have a lot of or any opportunity to work with educational robots. Since educational robotics is gaining more attention at all levels of education, it is almost certain that they will not only have the desire but also the need to use educational robotics in some segment of their future work.
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