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... The Lake Alaotra gentle lemur (Hapalemur alaotrensis) is one of the five lemur species included in the 2018-2020 list of The World's 25 Most Endangered Primates (14). It is the only lemur species living exclusively in a wetland and its limited geographical range, combined with increasing habitat degradation and hunting pressure, have brought this species to the brink of extinction (15,16). ...
The Lake Alaotra gentle lemur (Hapalemur alaotrensis) is one of the 25 most endangered primates in the world and shows low success rate in captive breeding programmes. It is therefore vital to further understand its reproductive biology. We studied a captive troop consisting of five individuals hosted at Jersey Zoo during breeding and non-breeding periods over 1 year. We collected behavioural data (n = 318 h) using all occurrence of some behaviours and ad libitum sampling methods, as well as faecal (n = 54) and anogenital scent (n = 35) samples of the breeding female. We measured sex hormone levels using enzyme immunoassay technique and investigated the volatile component of odour signals using solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We observed sexual and aggressive behaviours occasionally during the breeding period. Our regression analysis showed that only period significantly predicted rates of female anogenital scent-marking, whereby the female performed anogenital scent-marking more frequently during the breeding rather than the non-breeding period. In contrast, female hormone levels did not significantly explain variation in rates of neither male nor female olfactory, sexual and affiliative behaviours, suggesting that individuals' behaviour alone is not an effective indicator of the ovulation window. The volatile chemical profile of anogenital odour secretions changed over the study, with four compounds distinguishing the fertile window during the breeding period. In conclusion, our findings suggest that anogenital scent-marking may signal the reproductive status of captive female gentle lemurs.
... More than 60% of all non-human primate populations have been identified as highly susceptible to changes in the environment (Schloss et al., 2012;Schwitzer et al., 2019) and are consequently threatened with extinction (Estrada et al., 2017). Seasonal change can play an important role in the life history of different organisms, across varied habitats and time, and at least some primates will also experience naturally occurring environmental change at varying life history stages (Carré and Cheddadi, 2017). ...
As global non-human primate populations show dramatic declines due to climate change, land transformation and other anthropogenic stressors, it has become imperative to study physiological responses to environmental change in order to understand primate adaptability and enhance species conservation strategies. We examined the effects of seasonality on faecal glucocorticoid metabolite (fGCM) concentrations of free-ranging male and female thick-tailed greater galagos (Otolemur crassicaudatus) in an Afromontane habitat. To do so, we established an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for monitoring fGCM concentrations in the species using a biological validation. Following this, faecal samples were collected each month over the course of a year from free-ranging males and females situated in the Soutpansberg Mountains, Limpopo, South Africa. Multivariate analyses revealed lactation period was a driver of fGCM levels, whereas sex and food availability mostly influenced seasonal fGCM concentrations in the total population. Thus far, the results of this study show that drivers of fGCM levels, an indication of increased adrenocortical activity, in O. crassicaudatus are numerous and complex within the natural environment. The species may be adapted to such conditions and an extreme change to any one component may result in elevated fGCM levels. This increases our understanding of strepsirrhine primate physiology and offers initial insights into species adaptability to a challenging environment.
... (8) Bring the plight of E. baumstarki to wide national and international attention to enhance support for its conservation. This includes publishing a profile for E. baumstarki in "Primates in Peril" (Schwitzer et al., 2019) to firmly establish it as one of the world's 25 most threatened primates. ...
The "Critically Endangered" southern patas monkey Erythrocebus baumstarki, thought to be endemic to Tanzania, has been resurrected to species level based on its geographic isolation, and on the coloration and pattern of its pelage. This study presents the first evidence for E. baumstarki in Kenya and reviews its historic and current geographic distributions based on the literature, museum specimens, online platforms, responses to requests for site records, and our own fieldwork. The distribution of E. baumstarki in the early 20th century was roughly 66,000 km2 . This has declined about 85% to around 9700 km2 at present (post-2009). The current "Extent of Occurrence" is only about 2150 km2 . This species was extirpated from Kenya in about 2015 and from the Kilimanjaro Region in Tanzania in about 2011. At present, E. baumstarki appears to be restricted to the protected areas of the western Serengeti, with the western Serengeti National Park being the stronghold. The number of individuals remaining is probably between 100 and 200, including between 50 and 100 mature individuals. The ultimate threat to E. baumstarki is the very rapidly increasing human population, while the main proximate threats are the degradation, loss, and fragmentation of natural habitats, and the related competition with people and livestock for habitat and water, particularly during droughts. Other problems are hunting by poachers and domestic dogs, and probably loss of genetic variation and climate change. This article provides recommendations for reducing the threats and promoting the recovery of E. baumstarki. We hope this article heightens awareness of the dire conservation status of E. baumstarki and encourages an increase in research and conservation action for this monkey.
The Ecuadorian Brown-headed Spider Monkey (Ateles fusciceps fusciceps) is one of the most threatened primates globally; recently, it was recorded in areas where it had been considered locally extinct. We used ecological niche models to generate potential suitable areas within its current distribution and assess its potential adaptation to future climate change scenarios by 2050. The potential suitable areas for its distribution total 9556 km2. Habitat loss has divided the current range of the species in two large areas (north and south), and the effects of climate change will likely divide the section in several ecological units by 2050. Under the influence of climate change, the environmentally suitable area will contract between 26 and 46%. This contraction affects landscapes outside protected areas where A. f. fusciceps is currently present. Our results show a high fragility of ecosystems where the species is present, and current conditions pose a high risk for the species in the short term. We recommend focusing conservation efforts in northern protected areas while improving connectivity between southern forest remnants, where ecological conditions will remain steady in the medium term.
Global and spatially explicit information about the interaction between habitat and wildlife species is critical to enhancing conservation efforts. Despite the recognized importance of mangrove forests to non-human primates, the relationship between the two lacks understanding. To counter this, we created the MangPrim-21 database to map and measure the locations of interactions between all non-human primates and all mangrove forests globally. We report our findings across the global, national, and local scales for all inventoried non-human primates and all inventoried mangrove forests. Globally, we find that half of all non-primates potentially use mangrove forests, and more than half of the global mangrove forest falls within the delineated range of at least one non-human primate species. Nationally, we find that Indonesia, Madagascar, Brazil, Cameroon, and Malaysia likely have the most non-human primate and mangrove forest interactions. At the subnational level, we find that several discrete locations in Kalimantan are critical to both mangrove forests and non-human primates. The MangPrim-21 database provides a globally consistent and locally applicable database of non-human primate and mangrove forest interactions. The results presented have broader implications for non-human primate and mangrove conservation and global actions to protect both. Additionally, our results raise questions about the idea that non-human primates primarily use mangrove forests as a refuge from human encroachment and habitat degradation.
Morphofunctional characteristics of the large intestine are rarely explored to understand the physiology, behavior and ecology of neotropical primates. In this study, we analyzed the histometric parameters of the large intestine of hybrid marmosets (Callithrix sp.) captured in forest fragments of Viçosa‐Brazil, under seasonal interference. These animals were predominantly insectivorous in the rainy season and gummivores in the dry season. Large intestine fragments were collected and processed according to histological methods and stained with toluidine blue for general analysis, periodic acid of Schiff (PAS) and Alcian blue (AB) for goblet cells, Grimelius and Masson Fontana for argyrophil and argentaffin endocrine cells. Several histometric parameters were more expressive in the large intestine of the rainy season marmosets: greater thickness of the parietal layers, greater number of argyrophil and argentaffin endocrine cells, and AB‐positive goblet cells, characteristics favor secretomotor functions and reduce the passage time of the fecal bolus, which is consistent with an insectivorous diet. In contrast, parameters such as crypt width, height of the absorptive cells and striated border, and the number of PAS‐positive cells were more expressive in the dry season marmosets, reflecting the need for longer passage time for digestion and absorption of food items from tree gum, which are more complex and demand the action of microorganisms present in the large intestine, as well as greater protection against the abrasive action of dietary fibers and against microorganisms. Thus, it can be said that the marmoset's large intestine has morphological adaptations to maximize energy intake from the diet, which alternates under the influence of seasonality.
Brazil has a high diversity of primates, but increasing anthropogenic pressures and climate change could influence forest cover in the country and cause future changes in the distribution of primate populations. Here we aim to assess the long-term suitability of habitats for the conservation of three threatened Brazilian primates
(Alouatta belzebul, Sapajus flavius and Sapajus libidinosus) through (1) estimating their current and future distributions using species distribution models, (2) evaluating how much of the areas projected to be suitable is represented within protected areas and priority areas for biodiversity conservation, and (3) assessing the extent of remaining forest cover in areas predicted to be suitable for these species. We
found that 88% of the suitable areas are outside protected areas and only 24% are located in areas with forest cover. Although not within protected areas, 27% of the climatically suitable areas are considered priority areas for conservation. Future projections, considering a severe climate change scenario, indicate that A. belzebul, S. flavius and S. libidinosus may lose up to 94, 98 and 54% of their suitable
range, respectively. The establishment of primate populations
and their long-term survival in these areas are at risk. Mitigation actions such as the implementation of new protected areas, forest restoration and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions will be essential for the conservation of Brazilian primates.
The golden langur, Trachypithecus geei, is among the world's 25 most endangered primates. It is endemic to India and Bhutan. Its distribution is limited to a small forest belt in western Assam in India and in Bhutan, between the River Manas in the east, River Sankosh in the west, and the Brahmaputra in the south. We carried out a survey of the golden langur in the Chakrashila Wildlife Sanctuary, the sole protected habitat for golden langurs in India, from December 2016 to March 2017. Modified line transects and total count methods were used for data collection. A total of 558 individuals in 72 groups were counted along the transects through direct sightings. Group size ranged from 2 to 18 individuals, with a mean size of 7.75. The adult male to female sex ratio was 1:2.06 and the ratio of adult females to infants was 1:0.461. The age structure of the population observed comprised 62.4% adults, 22.4% juveniles, and 15.2% infants. Encroachment, illegal tree felling, fuelwood collection and grazing by the different fringe villages are identified as major threats for golden langurs in and around the sanctuary. This information on the status and threats spectrum of the golden langur in Chakrashila Wildlife Sanctuary will help in formulating the future conservation and management guidelines.
Ethnoprimatology, the combining of primatological and anthropological practice and the viewing of humans and other primates as living in integrated and shared ecological and social spaces, has become an increasingly popular approach to primate studies in the twenty-first century. Offering an insight into the investigation and documentation of human-nonhuman primate relations in the Anthropocene, this book guides the reader through the preparation, design, implementation, and analysis of an ethnoprimatological research project, offering practical examples of the vast array of methods and techniques at chapter level. With contributions from the world's leading experts in the field, Ethnoprimatology critically analyses current primate conservation efforts, outlines their major research questions, theoretical bases and methods, and tackles the challenges and complexities involved in mixed-methods research. Documenting the spectrum of current research in the field, it is an ideal volume for students and researchers in ethnoprimatology, primatology, anthropology, and conservation biology.
(Current Biology 27, 3487–3498; November 20, 2017) It has been brought to the authors’ attention that two small typographical errors occurred in Figures 2 and 3. In Figure 2, the correct sample size for the number of sequenced individuals from Central Kalimantan is n = 8. In Figure 3C, the correct assumed mutation rate in the RCCR analysis is 1.50 × 10⁻⁸. Figures 2 and 3 http://zoobank.org have been corrected online and in print, and the original erroneous figures are included here for reference. Furthermore, two short sections indicating the lodgment of P. tapanuliensis as a new species with the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature have now been added to the text. The LSID (Life Science Identifier) for this publication is urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:68FBFE28-103C-4E95-89BD-974A70D026F7. The authors apologize for these errors and omissions.
Primates are among the most threatened taxa of mammals in the world. Tracking the status of primates requires continually assessing population distribution, abundance, and threats, which in turn requires the extent of a species’ occurrence to be known. Defining this important parameter in practice can be difficult. In this article we demonstrate how camera traps can be used to address this with a case study involving two macaque species on the northernmost peninsula of Sulawesi, Indonesia. We deployed 83 camera traps across the suspected interface between the Critically Endangered Macaca nigra and the Vulnerable Macaca nigrescens. Using spatially explicit photographic records of both species, we found the boundary between the two species is 14.85 km farther west than previously defined. We estimate that the additional area encompassed by this new boundary location equates to 224 km² of suitable habitat for M. nigra, an increase of 7.5%. This has important implications for more accurately assessing the threatened status of both species in the future. As camera traps become cheaper, their deployment at broader spatial scales is becoming more feasible, which in turn provides opportunities to enhance our ecological understanding of species. Here, we demonstrate an additional insight that can be gained from such technology, by showing how the range extent of a Critically Endangered primate can be accurately demarcated. Accordingly, we encourage primatologists to think more broadly about the possible applications of camera traps and to include them as tools in their conservation inventories.