Malthus’s works were extensively discussed in France during the nineteenth century, raising numerous lively controversies. The present chapter is a first outline history of these receptions. The circumstances and intellectual context in which Malthus’s works circulated in French-speaking countries have first to be highlighted: an assessment of some legacies from the eighteenth century is thus in order before studying the complex history of the various editions of Malthus’s works in the French language. The reception of Malthus’s Principles of Political Economy and Definitions in Political Economy, which led to direct exchanges with Jean-Baptiste Say, is then examined. While these discussions remained confined to specialised literature, the Essay on the Principle of Population, by contrast, provoked huge controversies over pauperism, morals and the social question: their most salient points are then examined. The chapter concludes with the evolution of the discussions towards the end of the period, when Malthus’s name came to be associated with social Darwinism, neo-Malthusianism and some changing views on population, which shifted the emphasis from its quantity to its quality. An appendix gives a few examples of how the controversies over the Essay found an echo in the works written by the most celebrated novelists of the time.