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Local Wisdom of Repong Damar for Landslide Mitigation in Way Krui Sub-district Pesisir Barat Regency Lampung

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Local Wisdom of Repong Damar for Landslide
Mitigation in Way Krui Sub-district Pesisir Barat
Regency Lampung
Meri Herlina, Dewi Liesnoor Setyowati, Juhadi
meriherlina@6695@gmail.com1, dewiliesnoorsetyowati@gmail.com2, juhadigeo@mail.unnes.ac.id3
Universitas Negeri Semarang, Indonesia
Abstract. Environmental problems are now becoming great issue and are the most
frequent happened. Therefore, local wisdom plays an important role in protecting the
environment, one of which is the local wisdom of Repong Damar as a form of landslide
mitigation for the Way Krui society in the Pesisir Barat Regency, Lampung. The
objectives of this study: to examine the local wisdom of Way Krui society in landslide
mitigation; to explore the strategic adaptability of the Way Krui society in the facing a
landslide. The approach of research uses a qualitative, the sampling technique snowball
sampling, data collection techniques observation, interview and documentation. The
validity of data uses triangulation. The result of the study: the local wisdom of the
society to manage Repong Damar as a form of landslide mitigation is the existence of
prohibited forests. So if the society destroys Repong Damar it is believed that it will be
miserable and will get a bad disaster. The strategic adaptability that society does to keep
Repong Damar stay sustainable.
Keywords: Local Wisdom, Mitigation, Landslide
1. Introduction
The environmental problems become a great issue because the environment is very
influential for human life and the environmental problems turned out to be closely related to
local wisdom. One of them is local wisdom of Repong Damar has been carried out by the
community so that it still survives until now even though not all people run the customary law.
Even though the sustainability of forest like Repong Damar management is very dependent on
the participation of local communities in management [1].
Landslide is one of the most common disasters in Pesisir Barat Regency, within a year
that in 2017 there has been a landslide twice. Pesisir Barat Regency is an area that is included
in the zone I and zone II, which is prone to catastrophic land movements such as landslides
and soil erosion [2]. The danger of landslide has a great influence on the survival of human
life and always threatens the safety of human beings [3].
The landslide that occurred in Way Krui Sub-district caused along the road is surrounded
by mountains or cliffs so that when the heavy rains in a long time then there will be a landslide
because the land can not resist the heat of the water. Landslides that occur cause casualties,
property loss, and environmental damage [4]. So the disaster that resulted in thousands of
casualties loss of property is not something good for human [5]. So it can be concluded that
any disaster will surely inflict damage to human beings such as casualties and environmental
damage and it is not a good impact on human beings.
ISET 2019, June 29, Semarang, Indonesia
Copyright © 2020 EAI
DOI 10.4108/eai.29-6-2019.2290240
Landslides are movements of land mass from higher areas to lower areas. The danger of
landslides such as other natural hazards, landslides can be characterized by their intensity such
as the high intensity of rain [6]. The cause of landslides is the movement of land in unstable
soil conditions which is often triggered by high rainfall [7].
Based on the disaster events and the condition of people in the disaster-prone described
above, then efforts are needed in understanding and anticipating natural conditions in an
integrated manner. One of its forms, through disaster risk reduction efforts is through local
wisdom. This means that public awareness of efforts to reduce the risk of landslides is very
important [8].
Local wisdom is an activity, knowledge, and belief of a society in managing nature that
oriented to environmental sustainability. Local wisdom is formed as a process of interaction
between humans and their environment in order to meet various needs [9]. And this local
wisdom arises through a process of internalization that is long and lasts for generations as a
result of interactions between humans and their environment [10].Local wisdom is the
expression of the tribe or ethnicity that produce specific works [11]. Such works can be a rule,
law, or dieksprsikan through behavior and art [12]. Another opinion said that local wisdom
includes values, norms, beliefs, ethics, customs, and special rules [13].
The conclusion from above opinion is that local wisdom is a view and traditional
knowledge that is a reference in behaving and has been practiced for generations to meet the
needs and challenges in the life of people. Local wisdom functions and is meaningful are both
beneficial to natural and human resources, preserving custom and culture, and being beneficial
for life.
The study of local wisdom and disaster mitigation in traditional communities in Indonesia
is actually seen in relation to natural resources and human resources. In traditional (local)
human society and nature is a unity because both of them are created by the Almighty. Nature
and humans are believed to have the same spirit. Nature can be friendly if humans treat wisely
and vice versa will be angry if we destroy it [14].
This study aims to: 1) Identify the local wisdom of the Way Krui Sub-district community
for landslide disaster mitigation; 2) Analyzing the adaptation strategy of the Way Krui Sub-
district society in the face of landslides.
2. Method
The location of this study was in Way Krui Sub-district, Pesisir Barat Regency, Lampung
Province.
Figure 1. Research Location
This research approach uses a qualitative approach, with a phenomenological concept in
which researchers express phenomena experienced by individuals naturally and to explain in
detail the findings in the field. The focus of research is the form of local wisdom and the
relationship of local wisdom to disaster mitigation. The informants of this study were the
community and the chairman of the BPBD of Pesisir Barat District to explore the disaster and
local wisdom of the community, while the supporting informants were community leaders and
village leaders who were resilient to the disaster. The technique of collecting data uses
techniques: observation, researchers observe directly the phenomena that exist in the field,
'interviews, carried out since March 18 for two weeks with communities experiencing
disasters, BPBD leaders, community leaders and village leaders resilient to disasters;
documentation to obtain secondary data such as research area profiles, disaster records and
history of local wisdom. Validity techniques use data triangulation techniques that compare
various types of data from different situations and triangulation of theories to provide a better
understanding of data. Data analysis techniques are domain analysis, taxonomy, components
and themes
3. Results and Discussion
3.1 Wisdom of Repong Damar
Repong Damar is the local wisdom of the Pesisir Krui society in sustainable forest
preservation. The management of repong damar in the West Coast area is one of the
biodiversity conservation models carried out by the community [15].
Figure 2. Repong Damar
Based on the results of the study, the people did not know for certain when the Repong
Damar existed and how it originated, which they knew was Repong Damar, which had grown
since the past and still exists because of the inheritance system, meaning it has been passed
down for generations.
Another opinion says that the resin tree has been cultivated by the Pesisir Krui society
since the Belanda era around 120 years ago and has become a part of the local community
farming system through the cultivation of mixed forest trees (damar) with several agricultural
commodities both seasonal crops (such as rice) and other annual crops (such as coffee, pepper,
and fruits).
Repong Damar cultivation is done in hereditary and related to the local customary system.
On that basis, the management of Repong Damar by the coastal community is a part of life
closely related to economic and ecological values.
Table 1. The Benefits of Repong Damar
Benefits
Forms
Economics
Utilization of sap
Utilization of wood
Ecology
Forest sustainability
Landslide barrier
Source: Meri, May. 2019
Economically, damar tree is utilized from the rubber yield and the wood yield. Sap of
damar has economic value because the benefits can be used as a base material for the
manufacture of paints, dyes, ink, cosmetics, resin, wax and so forth. Damar Repong began to
be utilized by the results after at least 20 years old. Under normal growth conditions or not
disturbed by pests, whereas the wood from plant of damar is very beneficial for life like to
build a house [16]. Both products of the damar can later increase food security for the
surrounding society.
Table 2. How to preserve Repong Damar
No
The Way of Society
1
The existence of prohibited forests
2
Legacy system
3
Regent regulations
4
Selective logging
Source: Meri, May. 2019
Figure 3. Economic Benefit of Damar Sap
Source: World of Indra and Onan
Ecologically, Repong Damar contributes to the preservation of the surrounding
environment, and Repong Damar serves to preserve the preservation of forests to maintain
natural balance including natural balance so as not to occur due to disaster because the roots of
hard crops such as damar trees are able to hold the soil to prevent landslides.
The people of Pesisir Barat Regency, especially the people who live relying on damar
trees, have their own ways to preserve Repong Damar, which is by the existence of prohibited
forests, anyone who cuts down the forest excessively is believed will suffer. The values and
norms that have existed for a long time related to the management of Repong Damar are
indeed in accordance with the needs of society, which in the end now become a customs or
habit that is carried out by the society.
The regions of Way Krui Sub-district, especially in Labuhan Mandi Village, are divided
into several areas based on the ownership Repong Damar, where the first to the fifth area is
privately owned by the people and not affected by the sanctions if cutting damar trees. But the
sixth area to twelfth was a forest of people but enter into a protected forest areas, in which the
people can utilize dammar sap and when the tree is cut down, it must be licensed by society
leaders or local peratin with the right reasons. If the society violates this, then the person who
violates will receive punishment in the form of reforestation or even imprisoned accordance to
the mistake made.
The preservation of Repong Damar is not sufficient with the existence of customary law
or government law, but what is equally important is how the society provides understanding to
the younger generation not to damage Repong Damar as a source of life for the society. The
message means that the society must maintain Repong Damar if they do not want to live
miserably.
3.2 Community Adaptation Strategies
Adaptation is a factor that related to the ability to respond to changes occur [17].
Adaptation is a public response to environmental change [18]. Regarding to adaptation, the
adaptation in this study is physical and social adaptation.
Table 3. Adaptation to landslide
Form
Preservation of Repong Damar
Resettlement
Embankment construction
The existence of mutual
cooperation
Source: Meri, May. 2019
The physical adaptation, which is done by the society is the reforestation which is done by
the society when there are trees being cut down, this is done by the society because this damar
tree is a source of life for the people. So when the trees are cut down and not replaced, their
source of life will also disappear.
The second physical adaptation and what the government does are evacuating a disaster-
affected society by providing assistance to move houses to safer places. The most severe
disaster in Labuhan Mandi Village in Way Krui Sub-district was during the disaster in 2002.
At the time of the disaster caused 16 houses were hit by a landslide and were severely
damaged and caused 11 causalities and one person has not yet been found.
The third physical adaptation is the construction of dikes to cover rock cliffs or slopes.
This can help to minimize the occurrence of aftershocks because the land will be held back by
the embankment.
Figure 4. Landslide Mitigation Efforts at Way Krui
Source: Photo of Meri, March. 2019
Social adaptation, Social adaptation by the community is an improvement or adjustment
to public facilities or social facilities. The public facilities that were affected when the
landslide occurred were roads which were covered by mudslide material so that the traffic
route from Pesisir Barat Regency to Liwa West Lampung Regency experiencing congestion.
Another facility affected by the landslide was the collapse of electricity poles caused by the
fall of trees. In this disaster management the society together with the BPBD carried out road
cleaning up and removing fallen trees, and as well as establish the electricity poles again but in
different places, so that the same incident did not happen again.
After several adaptation strategies carried out by the society, of course people have hope
that landslide disasters do not happen again. The following are presented in table 4.
Table 4. Community expectations
Hope
Form of Hope
Society
Environmentally conscious
Do not build houses in areas
that prone to landslide
Government
Regular socialization
Source: Meri, May. 2019
3.3 Analysis of Repong Damar for Landslide Mitigation
Damar tree has several roles in preventing land movements or landslides, there are three
roles of damar trees, namely the role of canopy intersection, root and evapotranspiration:
The first role, the vegetation begins with the canopy role of storing water, thereby
reducing the amount of rainwater that reaches the ground.
The second role, the large root will have the grip of the land which can reduce the
possibility of soil movement and increase the shear strength of the soil.
The third role, evapotranspiration. In the zones that have high rainfall intensity, the
evapotranspiration process plays a role in reducing the saturation of the soil so that there is no
accumulation of water in the impermeable layer which will actually be a slip material in
shallow landslide.
Based on the above opinion, it has been proven that damar trees have an important role in
resisting land movement when a landslide will occur. This is reinforced by the reason that the
roots have functions such as strengthening the soil, provide support to the upper soil thereby
reducing erosion.
Figure 5. Landslide Prone Areas in Way Krui Sub-district
Source: Photo of Meri, March. 2019
4. Conclusion
Local wisdom of the society to manage Repong Damar as a form of landslide
mitigation is the existence of prohibited forests. So if the society destroys Repong Damar it is
believed that it will be miserable and will get a bad disaster. The adaptation strategy carried
out by the community is physical and social adaptation. Physical adaptation through
resettlement, repairs to public facilities affected by landslides and construction of dikes to
prevent subsequent landslides and of course the preservation of Repong damar by
reforestation. The social adaptation of the society is by the existence of society cooperation in
restoring the original condition as previously.
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... As a form of preservation of Repong Damar, the community is involved in customary law, where if the damar tree is cut down intentionally and carelessly it will be a disaster that befell the logger's family, on the other hand if enriching the damar garden with other plants such as clove trees, durian, jengkol, and so on, then resin gum harvest will increase. With the existence of customary law or government, protection of Repong Damar is not enough, but what is no less important is how the community provides understanding to the younger generation so as not to damage Repong Damar as a source of community life (Herlina et al, 2020). ...
... Research on Repong Damar was researched by Herlina et al (2020) entitled "Local Wisdom of Repong Damar for Landslide Mitigation in Way Krui Sub-district Pesisir Barat Regency Lampung". This study examines the local wisdom of Repong Damar which focuses only on the Way Krui community. ...
... Another opinion says that the damar tree has been cultivated by the Krui Coastal community since the Dutch era about 120 years ago and has become part of the local community's agricultural system through the cultivation of mixed forest trees (damar) with several agricultural commodities, both seasonal crops (such as rice) and other crops. other annual crops (such as coffee, pepper, and fruits) (Herlina et al, 2020). The people of Pesisir Barat Regency, especially those who depend on tree resin, have their own way of preserving Repong Damar, namely with the existence of a forbidden forest, anyone who cuts forest excessively is believed to suffer. ...
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The background of this research is that Pesisir Barat Regency is prone to landslides, so that landslide disaster mitigation efforts are needed using the local wisdom of RepongDamar. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of RepongDamar in landslide disaster mitigation. The method used in this study is a qualitative method with a descriptive approach. The results of the study describeRepongDamar's role in landslide disaster mitigation efforts includes the role of the canopy as a water reservoir, thereby reducing the amount of rainwater that reaches the ground. The second role is that large roots will have a grip on the soil which can reduce the possibility of soil movement and increase the shear strength of the soil. The third role, evapotranspiration plays a role in reducing soil saturation, so that water does not accumulate in the impermeable layer. The existence of RepongDamar will minimize the occurrence of erosion, because RepongDamar has woody trees that have strong roots such as damar, duku, petai, jengkol, teak and durian trees.
... Kedua produk yang dihasilkan dari pohon damar tersebut pada akhirnya dapat meningkatkan ketahanan pangan untuk masyarakat. Selanjutnya dari segi ekologis, pohon damar memiliki 3 peran dalam mencegah pergerakan tanah atau longsor yaitu: 1) vegetasi diawali dengan peran kanopi sebagai penyimpan air sehingga mengurangi jumlah air hujan yang sampai ke tanah; 2) akar yang besar akan memiliki daya cengkram tanah yang dapat mengurangi kemungkinan terjadinya pergerakan tanah dan meningkatkan kekuatan geser tanah; dan 3) evapotranspirasi yang berperan dalam mengurangi kejenuhan tanah sehingga tidak terjadi penumpukan air pada lapisan kedap air yang justru akan menjadi material slip pada longsoran dangkal (Herlina, Setyowati & Juhadi, 2020). ...
... (Sumber: Herlina, Setyowati & Juhadi, 2020) Pengelolaan Repong Damar di kawasan Pantai Barat merupakan salah satu model konservasi keanekaragaman hayati yang dilakukan oleh masyarakat (Juhadi, 2013). Berdasarkan penelitian Herlina, Setyowati & Juhadi (2020) diketahui bahwa masyarakat belum mengetahui secara pasti kapan Repong Damar ada dan dari mana itu berasal, yang mereka tahu Repong Damar telah tumbuh sejak dahulu kala dan masih eksis karena sistem pewarisan, artinya sudah turun-temurun. ...
... (Sumber: Herlina, Setyowati & Juhadi, 2020) Pengelolaan Repong Damar di kawasan Pantai Barat merupakan salah satu model konservasi keanekaragaman hayati yang dilakukan oleh masyarakat (Juhadi, 2013). Berdasarkan penelitian Herlina, Setyowati & Juhadi (2020) diketahui bahwa masyarakat belum mengetahui secara pasti kapan Repong Damar ada dan dari mana itu berasal, yang mereka tahu Repong Damar telah tumbuh sejak dahulu kala dan masih eksis karena sistem pewarisan, artinya sudah turun-temurun. Pendapat lain mengatakan bahwa pohon damar telah dibudidayakan oleh masyarakat Pesisir Krui sekitar 120 tahun yang lalu atau sejak zaman Belanda. ...
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Bencana tanah longsor telah menyebabkan korban jiwa, kerugian harta benda, dan kerusakan lingkungan. Jumlah kejadian tanah longsor semakin meningkat hampir setiap tahunnya terutama saat memasuki musim penghujan. Berdasarkan statistik, dalam kurun waktu tahun 2005 – 2011 tercatat kejadian tanah longsor sebanyak 809 lokasi yang tersebar di seluruh wilayah Indonesia dan mengakibatkan korban jiwa sebanyak 2484 orang tewas. Walaupun rawan terhadap bencana tanah longsor, pengetahuan masyarakat di Indonesia mengenai bencana ini cukup rendah. Ini dikarenakan langkanya bahan pendidikan atau media pembelajaran yang menarik di masyarakat mengenai bencana dan mitigasinya. Dalam hal ini Badan Geologi melalui Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) membuat media pembelajaran melalui penerbitan buku tentang tanah longsor untuk tingkat TK sampai SMA. Pemahaman tentang bencana sejak usia dini diprediksi akan lebih memberi kesadaran bukan hanya tentang bencana itu sendiri namun juga tentang bagaimana menjaga kelestarian alam untuk mengurangi efek mematikan dari bencana seperti ini. Media pembelajaran melalui buku ilmiah populer ini akan mengenalkan kepada anak-anak tentang; 1) Bagaimana bencana datang dan ciri-ciri daerah rentan bencana itu; 2) Apa tindakan yang harus dilakukan saat melihat/ merasakan tanda-tanda akan terjadinya bencana; 3) Apa yang bisa kita lakukan untuk meminimalkan bencana di kemudian hari. Kedua buku ini disampaikan secara sederhana, menarik dan informatif yang disesuaikan dengan minat anak-anak usia TK – SMA dalam bentuk komik dan buku yang berwarna serta penuh gambar.
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Based on evolving issues and given the importance of the role of forests in a bsorbing carbon from the air and forest biomass, need a lot of research that could encourage the further development of carbon in biomass. The purpose of this study was to determine the potential for carbon stored in standing damar mata kucing (Shorea javanica). The experiment was conducted at Pekon Gunung Kemala Krui West Lampung, from May to Juni 2013. Methods used are non-destructive method. This method is away of sampling to perform measurements with out harvesting. Estimation oft he potential of carbon up take in stands with diameter >30cm using equations that have been validated. Estimate the relationship and influence of biomass and carbon is to make regression test. The results showed that the total biomass of 249,72 tons/ha and carbon sequestration in stands of damar mata kucing and 124,86 tons/ha. Based on the results of statistical tests in order to get the linear regression equation of the potential for carbon sequestration in Pekon Mount Kemala, namely Y(biomass) = -518,59 + 15,31 (density) + 9,02 (height)(R2 = 0,970) and Y(carbon)= -259,43 + 7,67 (density) + 4,51 (height) (R2 = 0,97). Key words : damar mata kucing, carbon sequestration, non-destructive method, SPSS
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Landslide is the main natural disaster in the study area of North Sumedang and South Sumedang sub-districts. The spatial distribution of landslide hazard and risk are not available yet that important for decision making. The aim of research is to providegeographic information system technology for developing a model for landslide hazard mitigation. The results show that a part of the area in the North Sumedang and South Sumedang subdistrict has moderate class covering 8.460,41 Ha (65,5%) and high landslide hazard is covering 2.798,44 Ha (21,67%), low landslide hazard zone = 1.570,25 Ha (12,16%) and very low landslide hazard 85,69 Ha (0,66%). By combining landslide hazard and property value, a prediction of landslide risk was produced. Despite the majority of the area has low risk class (9.564,16 Ha/74,07%), but the highrisk area occurred in minimal places (86,44 Ha/0,67%). This phenomena showed that area with high potential level of landslide hazard is not always having a high value of risk. Since the risk calculation is determined by properties value such as:infrastructure, road network and land use. While the landslide hazardous level is determined by natural factors such as : slope, soil type, geology and land use.
Arahan Pengembangan Kawasan Usaha Agro Terpadu Berbasis Komoditas Kelapa di Kabupaten Lampung Barat
  • A Basmar
Basmar, A. 2018. Arahan Pengembangan Kawasan Usaha Agro Terpadu Berbasis Komoditas Kelapa di Kabupaten Lampung Barat. Bogor: Sekolah Pasca Sarjana IPB.
Erosi dan Mitigasi Bencana
  • D L Setyowati
Setyowati, D. L. (2010). Erosi dan Mitigasi Bencana.