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Gestaltpsychologie und Person. Entwicklungen der Gestaltpsychologie

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Abstract

Das vorliegende Buch beschreibt die Beziehungen zwischen Gestalttheorie und Person. Es ging aus der Arbeit einer Gruppe von Psychologen hervor, die sich mit folgenden Aspekten der Person befassten: Die Person und ihr Ich; die Person in Aktion; die Person in Beziehung; die Enstehung der Person; die Person im Dialog; die Person und die Zentrierung. Der hauptsächliche Zugang zur Untersuchung dieser Aspekte ist ein relationaler und feldtheoretischer, dem zufolge die Faktoren, die das Verhalten bestimmen, nicht nur aus dem innerpersonalen System abeleitet werden können, sondern auch von den Beziehungen zwischen Individuum und der konkreten Situation abhängen, in das es eingebettet ist.
... Viele Beispiele für GT-WA (vgl. Pizzo Russo, 2015) und gestalttheoretische Grundlagenforschung zur Wahrnehmung in der Kunst sind durch Beiträge von Argenton (2009), Garau (1999), Galli (2010Galli ( , 2017, Kanizsa (1980), Bartoli (2006) u.a. dokumentiert, ein Zeichen der Verbundenheit italienischer PsychologInnen mit Arnheim. ...
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Landscape planning lacked an evidence-based method for the reflection of planning models on the imaginary level in order to present the image content and the relationships in the image as the basis for interpretation in a verifiable manner. The contribution is based on the thesis that the perceptual analysis according to Rudolf Arnheim can be translated into landscape planning. The case study, here an illustration with two plan sketches for urban and landscape development, is described and interpreted with the Gestalt theoretical perceptual analysis according to the criteria theme, theses, principle sketches and composition lines, interpretation, conclusion and Gestalt theoretical results. The analysed planning sketches have a low “reality level” and are part of the imaginary level. The theory of science contained therein can be understood by Gestalt theory as elementary theory of design. In the sketches, the living spaces and economic areas of the city are divided into the elements ‘settlement’ and ‘landscape’ and thereby undergo a revaluation of their significance. The replacement of figure (city) and ground (landscape) can be interpreted in terms of gestalt theory as a change of theme in the sketches as the greatest possible structural exchange. The results of the analysis are processed as research theses in the contextualisation of landscape planning and thus examined scientifically on the basis of circumstantial evidence against the reality of the living environments of the urban dwellers. The contribution proves that the perceptual analysis according to R. Arnheim is a suitable method in landscape planning for describing and interpreting graphic representations of planning models. Interdisciplinary cooperation is a contribution to the holistic treatment of a topic, because structuralist landscape planning has structural similarities with Gestalt theory and is committed to the dialogical principle. As a theory of organisation (development), Gestalt theory derives principles, structures, their relationships and qualities and is therefore suitable as a meta-theory of landscape planning to characterise the values and ethical bases in planning. This applies to all areas of the field of consciousness in landscape planning.
... Sie folgten deren Entwicklung jeweils in den Bereichen Momente der Begegnung, Proto-Konversation, und Fokus der Aufmerksamkeit. Die Autoren beziehen sich explizit auf die Gestalttheorie und belegen die Notwendigkeit, das Verhalten des Kindes als Teil eines breiteren Feldes zu interpretieren, nämlich von Geburt an als Erfahrungen einer Person in der Beziehung (Galli, 2010). Schlüsselwörter: Primäre Intersubjektivität, Momente der Begegnung, Proto-Konversation, Fokus der Aufmerksamkeit, Gestalttheorie. ...
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For the study of the first year of life, Sander, Stern, and Gomez each chose the adult–infant relationship as the unit of analysis; they followed its development, respectively, in moments of meeting , in the proto-conversation and in the focus of attention . The authors explicitly refer to the Gestalt theory and support the need to interpret the behavior of the child as part of a wider context, as the experiences of a person in relation (Galli, 2010) since birth.
Chapter
"You make me angry" - "You make me happy": in such formulations a whole world full of strange relationships and distributions of power is revealed - usually quite unnoticed, but all the more effective. In the first part of this article, Andrzej Żuczkowski explores the background and theoretical explanations for this peculiar world, based on memories of his encounter with this topic during his Transactional Analysis training. His analysis is mainly based on considerations and findings of the Belgian experimental psychologist Albert Michotte (1881-1965), whose name is inseparably connected with the research of "phenomenal causality", and of Wolfgang Metzger. Gerhard Stemberger concludes by addressing the viewpoint that determines the understanding and handling of the phenomena of naïve feeling-causality in Gestalt Theoretical Psychotherapy.
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Il libro è dedicato allo studio della soggettività fenomenica in prospettiva multidisciplinare. Partendo dalla constatazione che i teorici della scuola della Gestalt si sono dedicati soprattutto all'oggettività fenomenica, le ricerche dell'Autore evidenziano la necessità di integrare metodologie di discipline diverse per studiare la relazione interpersonale come struttura dialogica, tenendo conto dei ruoli che le persone hanno nel campo globale, del rapporto Io-Noi e delle teorie a cui si fa riferimento, pur rispettando i modelli antropologici e i principi metodologici della Gestalt. The book is dedicated to the study of phenomenal subjectivity in a multidisciplinary perspective. Starting from the observation that the theorists of the School of Gestalt have devoted themselves mainly to phenomenal objectivity, the author's research highlights the need to integrate methodologies of different disciplines to study the relationship interpersonal structure as a dialogue structure, taking into account the roles that people have in the global field, the Io-We relationship and the theories referred to, while respecting the anthropological models and methodological principles of Gestalt.
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The Society for Gestalt Theory and its Applications (GTA) is celebrating its 40th anniversary this year. The task of this article was to give a selection of gestalt theoretical research, which was created within the framework of the GTA. After a brief introduction to the theory, recent developments that have emerged since the founding of the Society and have found expression in the journal Gestalt Theory, as well as in many other publications, have been discussed. A number of contributions to the fundamental area could be cited: consciousness research, multifield approach, synergetics, language, development, and so on. The transfer of basic knowledge to a number of application-oriented disciplines, namely, psychotherapy, education, arts, culture, nation and society, organizations, and so on, has been presented. The article has shown that Gestalt theory has great relevance in both basic and application-related areas and can cover a wide range of issues.
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Daniel N. Stern’s research on the first years of life offers the view of an active newborn, developing in a continuous dialogue with the Other. The mother places the infant feelings at the center of her attention. The infant gets in tune with the mother, and learns that she welcomes and understands his inner states. Such attunement is a primary holistic experience, taking place because of the infant innate ability to perceive the “interpersonal happenings” as a unitary Gestalt, emerging “from the theoretically separate experiences of movement, force, time, space and intention”. Large convergence exists between Daniel Stern’s developmental psychology and Gestalt theory: both view the infant development occurring within an inter-subjective matrix, not as a process with phases or stages, but rather as a progressive organization of structures.
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Der Beitrag stellt grundlegende gestalttheoretische Auffassungen von Ich und Selbst vor. Sie unterscheiden sich von anderen Konzepten darin, dass sie Ich und Selbst nicht als feststehende Gegebenheiten oder als steuernde Zentralinstanzen des Psychischen verstehen, sondern als Teil eines psychologischen Feldes in dynamischer Wechselbeziehung zu ihrer psychologischen Umwelt. Zu diesem Thema haben namhafte Vertreter der Gestalttheorie der Berliner Schule seit der Frühzeit dieses Ansatzes einige allgemeine und spezielle Thesen vorgelegt, die zum Teil auch experimentell belegt werden konnten. Sie beleuchten das Ich-Welt-Verhältnis im Alltäglichen wie auch im Fall von psychischen Störungen. Situativen Veränderungen unterworfen ist schon die Ausdehnung des phänomenalen Ich, aber auch sein Ort in der Welt, seine funktionale Einpassung, seine Binnendifferenzierung, seine Durchlässigkeit zur Umwelt und vieles mehr. Die bedeutende funktionale Rolle dieser Plastizität der phänomenalen Welt in ihrer wechselnden Ich-Umwelt-Gliederung für das Leben der Menschen hebt Wolfgang Metzger hervor, indem er die anschauliche Welt als „zentrales Steuerungsorgan“ bezeichnet. Ich und Selbst als Teile dieses Feldes in ihrer Wechselbeziehung zum psychischen Gesamtfeld werden im vorliegenden Beitrag aus der Perspektive von Max Wertheimer, Kurt Koffka, Wolfgang Köhler, Kurt Lewin, Wolfgang Metzger, Mary Henle und Giuseppe Galli beleuchtet.
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