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Motivational interviewing (MI) is an evidence-based intervention that has proved effective across diverse clinical contexts with clients ambivalent about and resistant to behavioral change. This article argues that the principles of MI can be successfully applied to law enforcement (LE) interviews with high-value detainees (HVDs; i.e., terrorist suspects). Although the forms of ambivalence and resistance may differ from those in clinical contexts, HVDs must make the decision whether to talk or not when they are interviewed. We argue there is likely ambivalence regarding this. We theorized that 4 MI-consistent (MI) skills may be useful for LE interviewers: reflective listening, summaries, rolling with resistance, and developing discrepancies. Using the Observing Rapport Based Interpersonal Techniques coding manual (Alison, Alison, Elntib, & Noone, 2012), we analyzed 804 tapes of LE interviews with 75 terrorism suspects in the United Kingdom. Multilevel structural equation modeling revealed that MI skills encouraged detainee engagement and subsequent information gain. It also revealed that any approach antithetical to MI had a profoundly negative impact on detainee engagement and subsequent information gain-potentially through creating reactance (a form of resistance based on motivations to regain a freedom when it is threatened). Overall, this research provides unique evidence for the use of specific skills and approaches that can increase or decrease HVD engagement and information provided. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).
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The Right to Silence and the Permission to Talk: Motivational Interviewing
and High-Value Detainees
Frances Surmon-Böhr, Laurence Alison, Paul Christiansen, and Emily Alison
University of Liverpool
Motivational interviewing (MI) is an evidence-based intervention that has proved effective across
diverse clinical contexts with clients ambivalent about and resistant to behavioral change. This
article argues that the principles of MI can be successfully applied to law enforcement (LE)
interviews with high-value detainees (HVDs; i.e., terrorist suspects). Although the forms of
ambivalence and resistance may differ from those in clinical contexts, HVDs must make the
decision whether to talk or not when they are interviewed. We argue there is likely ambivalence
regarding this. We theorized that 4 MI-consistent (MI) skills may be useful for LE interviewers:
reflective listening, summaries, rolling with resistance, and developing discrepancies. Using the
Observing Rapport Based Interpersonal Techniques coding manual (Alison, Alison, Elntib, &
Noone, 2012), we analyzed 804 tapes of LE interviews with 75 terrorism suspects in the United
Kingdom. Multilevel structural equation modeling revealed that MI skills encouraged detainee
engagement and subsequent information gain. It also revealed that any approach antithetical to MI
had a profoundly negative impact on detainee engagement and subsequent information gain—
potentially through creating reactance (a form of resistance based on motivations to regain a
freedom when it is threatened). Overall, this research provides unique evidence for the use of
specific skills and approaches that can increase or decrease HVD engagement and information
Public Significance Statement
This article provides empirical support for using a humane, respectful, and compassionate approach
to interrogating high-value detainees (i.e., terrorist suspects) to encourage cooperation and disclosure
of information. These findings have potential to improve methods of national security while
promoting fair treatment of detainees.
Keywords: motivational interviewing, high-value detainees, interrogation, terrorism, rapport
Motivational interviewing (MI)—an evidence-based clin-
ical intervention originally developed for treating substance
misuse—is described as (a) person-centered, using clients’
own knowledge and expertise about themselves (Tudor,
2008)—and (b) goal-directive, insofar as therapists inten-
tionally target clients’ ambivalence about behavioral change
(W. R. Miller & Rollnick, 2013). In its original context,
ambivalence refers to simultaneous motivations drawing a
client toward or away from substance misuse (W. R. Miller
& Rollnick, 2013). Therapists practicing MI provide a di-
rective but nonjudgmental environment for clients to artic-
ulate their thoughts, feelings, and beliefs surrounding the
contemplation of behavioral change. Client insight mo-
ments are never forced by therapists, because attempts to
push in favor of change can create client reactance—a form
of resistance in which a person is motivated to regain a
freedom after it has been either lost or threatened (Brehm,
1966). Consequently, berating, rational arguments, and even
gentle encouragement can reinforce clients’ defensive artic-
ulation of motivations to stick with the misuse pattern
whereas, previously, they were contemplating change
(W. R. Miller & Rollnick, 2013). Conversely, acknowledg-
This article was published Online First January 16, 2020.
XFrances Surmon-Böhr, Laurence Alison, Paul Christiansen, and Em-
ily Alison, Centre for Critical and Major Incident Psychology, School of
Psychology, University of Liverpool.
Part of the data used in this study was collected as part of a project
funded by High-Value Suspect Interrogation Group (HIG) FBI-HIG Con-
tract DJF-3900001-148419, awarded to Laurence Alison at the University
of Liverpool. Statements of fact, opinion, and analysis in the study are
those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the official policy or
position of the HIG or the U.S. government. The authors would like to
thank the regional Counter-Terrorism Units and the National Counter
Terrorism Policing Headquarters for its support.
Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Frances
Surmon-Böhr, Centre for Critical and Major Incident Psychology, Univer-
sity of Liverpool, Eleanor Rathbone Building, Bedford Street South, Liv-
erpool L69 7ZA, United Kingdom. E-mail:
This document is copyrighted by the American Psychological Association or one of its allied publishers.
Content may be shared at no cost, but any requests to reuse this content in part or whole must go through the American Psychological Association.
American Psychologist
© 2020 American Psychological Association 2020, Vol. 75, No. 7, 1011–1021
ISSN: 0003-066X
... That is, interviewers should avoid situations in which the suspect believes there is little or no hope for maintaining or recovering their credibility. Experimental and observational research suggests that providing a nonjudgmental and non-guilt-presumptive environment can increase the likelihood suspects will disclose concealed information (Alison et al., 2013;May et al., 2017;Surmon-Böhr et al., 2020). For these reasons, the SoS approach avoids direct accusations of culpability or of deception. ...
... There is a risk that such confrontations could lead to suspects becoming less engaged and more withholding with information, particularly if they are done judgmentally (e.g. involving an accusation of deception; Alison et al., 2013;Surmon-Böhr et al., 2020). However, it seems these effects on self-assessment and perceived interaction quality were not sufficient to discourage participants from attempting to create a credible impression by disclosing information about their activities. ...
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The Shift-of-Strategy (SoS) approach is an extension of the Strategic Use of Evidence technique. In the SoS approach, interviewers influence suspects’ strategies to encourage suspects to become more forthcoming with information by challenging discrepancies between their statements and the available evidence, in a non-accusatory manner. Our aim was to test the effectiveness of two variations of the SoS approach, one in which the interviewer responded immediately to any discrepancies with the evidence (Reactive) and one in which the interviewer only responded to severe discrepancies (Selective). We predicted that the SoS approach conditions would be more effective at eliciting new information from mock suspects, compared to direct questioning. In a laboratory experiment, N = 300 mock suspects committed a simulated crime and were interviewed using one of the two versions of the SoS approach or with an interviewing approach that did not involve the presentation of evidence. The Reactive version of the SoS approach was more effective than direct questioning at eliciting new information from mock suspects. The Reactive technique also led participants to change their strategies during the interview. The present experiment provided initial support for the core principles of the SoS approach.
... A first operational consideration is that investigators are unlikely to be able to disclose one item of evidence after another without facing barriers to the subject's forthcomingness (Surmon-Böhr et al., 2020), especially as the more incriminating items of evidence are being disclosed. Hence, it is important that investigators are trained not only in how to disclose the evidence, but also in how to mitigate and resolve psychological barriers to forthcomingness (Alison et al., 2013;Brimbal et al., 2019;Dianiska et al., 2021;Kelly et al., 2016;Oleszkiewicz & Granhag, 2019;Vrij et al., 2014). ...
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Studying evidence disclosure methods in laboratory-based settings provides important contributions to evidence-based interview practices. However, methods developed through controlled testing need to be adapted to an operational context to ensure appropriate use in practice. The present project synthesized laboratory research on evidence disclosure and practical experience of homicide and robbery investigations to identify an operational purpose for disclosing evidence in investigative interviews. That purpose is to substantiate the reliability of the available evidence and thereby enhance the integrity of the investigation. To this end, we identified the concept of proximity as a strategic foundation to evidence disclosure. We developed a 2-day training program covering four modules (foundational interviewing, planning and preparation, investigative agenda, and resistance to evidence disclosure) and tested U.S. investigators’ interview performance by having them interview mock subjects before and after training. The findings show that the investigators became (a) accustomed to frame the evidence for disclosure and (b) less inclined to bluff and bait with evidence, make accusations, and ask leading questions, thereby (c) eliciting more statements that were reliably inconsistent to the available evidence while (d) reducing the contamination of admissions and statement-evidence inconsistencies. We attribute the adherence to the training to the fact that we specified an operational purpose for evidence disclosure, used proximity as a strategic concept, and integrated the disclosure strategy within the pursuit of a thorough investigation.
... Thus, although rapport might certainly operate on its own to increase the amount and accuracy of information provided, it could also interact with other tactics to facilitate their operation or make their effects more powerful. Such a possibility is generally supported by research indicating that the effects of rapport are often indirect and conveyed by other variables (Brimbal et al., 2021;Christiansen et al., 2018;Surmon-Böhr et al., 2020). The possibility that rapport allows for or increases the effects of other interrogation tactics is more specifically supported by the fact that common strategies used to build rapport are also critical factors for facilitating persuasion. ...
... Even in the most extreme situations, new research finds the application of MI has proved helpful. Research has found that neither torture (O'Mara, 2017) nor other aggressive interrogation methods (Alison, et al., 2014) are as successful as interventions based on development of a working alliance.. MI has also recently been applied to counter-terrorism policing and deradicalization efforts (Clark, 2019) as well as improving interrogation techniques with detainees (Surmon-Böhr, et al., 2020). Ramping up coercion and toughness is paradoxical-the more you do it, the worse it gets. ...
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The Risk-Need-Responsivity (RNR) model provides an empirically validated approach for reducing risk and lowering recidivism. Through considerable research over time, the first two principles of Risk and Need have been well developed and expanded. The third core principle of Responsivity has been overlooked and has lagged behind, even though it encompasses offender engagement and motivation. The good news for correctional treatment is the focus on the responsivity principle has been increasing—and expanding. Understanding the value of engagement and motivation has sparked an expansion of specific responsivity to include the provider-offender relationship. Numerous studies on this relationship find the best reductions in recidivism come from blending control and alliance to establish a synthetic or hybrid approach—one that calls supervision staff to establish a “dualrelationship.” This paper will point out the RNR model authors’ endorsements and recommendations for the use of Motivational Interviewing (MI) in correctional settings. MI’s ability to increase an offender’s readiness to change while offering direct practice methods for establishing dual relationships are explored. That MI represents the largest share of what the responsivity principle seeks to accomplish has led MI to be labeled a “natural fit” for community corrections. Several benefits that MI offers the rehabilitation process are detailed.
... Vallano et al., 2015), building trust (e.g. Brimbal et al., 2020) and following Motivational Interviewing Principles (Surmon-Böhr et al., 2020). Field research have illustrated the usefulness of applying information-gathering techniques that build upon skillful rapport-based questioning rather than coercive techniques (e.g. ...
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Purpose Research‐based interviewing techniques typically rely upon suspects being, at least partially, responsive and engaged in the conversation. To date, the scientific literature is more limited regarding situations where suspects exercise their legal right to silence. The present study aimed to examine Swedish police officers' self‐reported strategies when interviewing suspects who decline to answer questions. Methods A total of 289 police officers responded to a national survey that included questions about handling silence. The participants worked with a wide range of criminal cases, including financial crimes, fraud, violent offences, domestic abuse, volume crime and traffic violations. We used content analysis to examine their written responses to the open‐ended question : ‘What, if any, strategies do you use when interviewing suspects who speak very little or not at all?’ Results Four main categories were identified relating to (1) question strategies (e.g. asking the questions anyway, using silence), (2) information strategies (e.g. emphasizing the benefits of cooperating and informing about their legal right to silence), (3) supportive strategies (e.g. being friendly and asking about reasons for silence) and (4) procedural strategies (e.g. changing interviewers and conducting multiple interviews). Practitioners working with violent crimes reported meeting silent suspects more frequently compared with practitioners working with other criminal offences. Conclusions The results provide an initial exploration into the various strategies used by police interviewers when questioning suspects who decline to answer questions. Further research is necessary for understanding and evaluating the ethics and effectiveness of such strategies.
... However, at the end of the study, all the materials taught to the experimental group were also presented to the control group in the form of a training package. The motivational interview sessions were based on the AIM model and structured around the book "Motivational Interviewing: Preparing People for Change" by Surmon-Böhr and Alison (10). ...
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Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of motivational interviewing based on the ability, information, and motivation (AIM) model on adherence to treatment and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in female patients with type 2 diabetes. Materials and Methods: In this randomized controlled clinical trial 60 women with type 2 diabetes were randomly selected from the 73 patients who referred to the endocrinology department of Imam Hossein Hospital in Tehran province from December 2018 to April 2019. The experimental group (n= 30) was treated with family empowerment therapy based on self-compassion for eight weekly 90-minute sessions while the control group (n= 30) received the usual hospital treatments. Data collection instrument was Morisky medication adherence scale and HbA1c measurements in three phases. Multivariate repeated measures analysis of variance was used to analyze the data. Data analysis was carried out using SPSS-21 software package. Results: The findings showed that the mean score of adherence to treatment in the group treated with motivational interviewing based on the AIM model was significantly higher than that of the control group (P= 0.001). In addition, women with diabetes in the experimental group had a significantly lower mean HbA1c score compared to the control group (P= 0.001). Conclusion: The results of this study showed that motivational interviewing based on the AIM model can be effective in improving adherence to treatment and reducing HbA1c in women with type 2 diabetes.
Background Criminal justice agencies are well positioned to help prevent the radicalisation of individuals and groups, stop those radicalised from engaging in violence, and reduce the likelihood of terrorist attacks. This Evidence and Gap Map (EGM) presents the existing evidence and gaps in the evaluation research. Objectives To identify the existing evidence that considers the effectiveness of criminal justice interventions in preventing radicalisation, violent extremism and terrorism. Search Methods We conducted a comprehensive search of the academic and grey literature to locate relevant studies for the EGM. Our search locations included the Global Policing Database (GPD), eight electronic platforms encompassing over 20 academic databases, five trial registries and over 30 government and non‐government websites. The systematic search was carried out between 8 June 2022 and 1 August 2022. Selection Criteria We captured criminal justice interventions published between January 2002 and December 2021 that aimed to prevent radicalisation, violent extremism, and/or terrorism. Criminal justice agencies were broadly defined to include police, courts, and corrections (both custodial and community). Eligible populations included criminal justice practitioners, places, communities or family members, victims, or individuals/groups who are radicalised or at risk of becoming radicalised. Our map includes systematic reviews, randomised controlled trials, and strong quasi‐experimental studies. We placed no limits on study outcomes, language, or geographic location. Data Collection and Analysis Our screening approach differed slightly for the different sources, but all documents were assessed in the systematic review software program DistillerSR on the same final eligibility criteria. Once included, we extracted information from studies using a standardised form that allowed us to collect key data for our EGM. Eligible systematic reviews were assessed for risk of bias using the AMSTAR 2 critical appraisal tool. Main Results The systematic search identified 63,763 unique records. After screening, there were 70 studies eligible for the EGM (from 71 documents), of which two were systematic reviews (assessed as moderate quality), 16 were randomised controlled trials, and 52 were strong quasi‐experimental studies. The majority of studies ( n = 58) reported on policing interventions. Limited evidence was found related to courts or corrections interventions. The impact of these interventions was measured by a wide variety of outcomes ( n = 50). These measures were thematically grouped under nine broad categories including (1) terrorism, (2) extremism or radicalisation, (3) non‐terror related crime and recidivism, (4) citizen perceptions/intentions toward the criminal justice system and government, (5) psychosocial, (6) criminal justice practitioner behaviours/attitudes/beliefs, (7) racially targeted criminal justice practices, (8) investigation efficacy, and (9) organisational factors. The most commonly assessed outcomes included measures of terrorism, investigation efficacy, and organisational factors. Very limited research assessed intervention effectiveness against measures of extremism and/or radicalisation. Authors’ Conclusions Conducting high‐quality evaluation research on rare and hidden problems presents a challenge for criminal justice research. The map reveals a number of significant gaps in studies evaluating criminal justice responses to terrorism and radicalisation. We conclude that future research should focus attention on studies that consolidate sound measurement of terrorism‐related outcomes to better capture the potential benefits and harms of counter‐terrorism programs, policies and practices which involve criminal justice agencies.
On average, more than 200 child sex offences were recorded by UK police every day in 2020, and investigations for offences including rape, online grooming and sexual assault against children in the United Kingdom (UK) increased by 57% from 2014/15 to 2019/20. The interview process is central to information gathering, but empirical research regarding the obtention of information through child sexual abuse (CSA) suspect interviewing is still limited. The current study analyses 45 hours of interviews with CSA suspects focusing on behaviours consistent (and inconsistent) with motivational interviewing (MI) using the Observing Rapport-Based Interpersonal Techniques coding manual. In line with previous research demonstrating the efficacy of MI with terrorist suspects, this article focuses on the same four key interviewer skills identified in the therapeutic literature (reflective listening, summarising, rolling with resistance and developing discrepancies). It looks at their effects on information yield (information of intelligence value) and suspect engagement. Results revealed that the four MI-consistent behaviours increased information gain. Also, approaches antithetical to MI (including assumptive questioning, judgemental summaries, fighting resistance and accusatory challenges) had a significant negative impact on suspect engagement and, by extension, reduced yield – potentially by creating suspect reactance (where the individual is motivated to regain a freedom they feel is being threatened). Hence, MI approaches are efficacious for information-gathering efforts, and using an approach antithetical to the spirit of motivational interviewing (like pressuring, confronting and judging) with CSA suspects will always make things worse.
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In criminal investigations, it may happen that the police will collect and use information that is actually incorrect. Making sure that such error is detected and corrected is part of the legal and operational burden placed on any investigating officer, but especially on the Senior Investigative Officer (SIO). This present study explored to what degree different interview styles will affect SIO decision-making, since interviewing witnesses and suspects is an important source of information for the police. A sample of 115 Dutch and Norwegian SIOs therefore performed an online vignette task. They read about a fictitious, but realistic case and received a report of an interview with the suspect. In this interview, the suspect had provided an alibi for one of the pieces of information that were disclosed to her and that actually was an incorrect piece of information. In the report the SIOs received, the interviewer either picked up the alibi (adaptive style), reacted indifferently to it (neutral) or discredited it right away (maladaptive). A significant effect was found for interview style being associated with SIOs’ responsiveness: the SIOs who read the adaptive or neutral interview report were significantly more responsive to the alibi than those who read the maladaptive report. The implications of this finding are discussed.
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The benefits that Motivational Interviewing can extend to probation and parole services. Multiple benefits are explained.
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Suspect interviewing and interrogation practices have been studied in many different countries, including those in North America, Europe, Asia, and Australia. These studies have produced useful and interesting findings, while also leaving an opening for future inquiry. Specifically, previous research has noted that we might expect interrogation and interviewing practices to vary among different countries or regions, due to distinct approaches to suspect questioning. However, to our knowledge, few previous studies have examined the comparative use of tactics, techniques, and procedures employed to elicit confessions and information from criminal suspects across multiple countries. In the present study, using a consistent survey, we contrasted the interviewing and interrogation practices of 185 practitioners from America, Canada, and Europe, Australia, and New Zealand. In large part, we found that American and Canadian interrogators were similar to one another, and conformed to an accusatorial approach (in both deception detection and questioning techniques). In contrast, interviewers from Europe, Australia, and New Zealand conformed more to an information-gathering approach.
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Motivation is a well-established predictor of recovery for addictive behaviors. Treatments aimed at changing substance use and gambling frequently employ motivational enhancing strategies, based in the principles of Motivational Interviewing (MI). Evidence for these approaches across addictive behaviors does not always paint a clear picture. The purpose of this review was to examine existing reviews of motivational-based interventions for various substances of abuse and gambling in the last decade to gain a deeper understanding of the current evidence and implications for future research and clinical practice. Literature searches were conducted to identify review articles from January 1, 2007 to January 30, 2017 for motivational enhancing interventions for alcohol, tobacco, drugs, marijuana, cocaine, opioids, methamphetamines, and gambling. Of the 144 articles assessed we included a total of 34 review articles in our review, including 6 Cochrane reviews. This review supports use of motivationally enhancing interventions across addictive behaviors with strongest evidence supporting use in alcohol and tobacco, with brief interventions showing strong efficacy. There is strong support for MI with marijuana and some support for gambling. Insufficient evidence is available for methamphetamine or opiate use. There are important caveats. In most cases, MI is more effective than no treatment and as effective (but not necessarily more effective) than other active treatments. Findings for effectiveness of more intensive motivational interventions or combinations are mixed. Treatment fidelity assessments, limited subpopulation analyses, and differences in dose, outcomes, and protocol specification continue to pose significant problems for reviews.
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Introduction: The stages of change model suggests that individuals seeking treatment are in the 'preparation' or the 'action' stage of change, which is the desired outcome of successful Motivational Interviewing (MI) interventions. MI is known to enhance treatment attendance among individuals with mental health problems. Aim: This study examined the published research on MI as a pre-treatment to enhance attendance among individuals treatment-seeking and non-treatment seeking for mental health issues. Methods: Fourteen randomised controlled trials were identified and MI efficacy was examined dichotomously: attendance or non-attendance for post-MI therapy. Sub group analysis investigated treatment seeking and non-treatment seeking groups. Results: Despite wide variations in sample sizes, blinding and monitoring, intervention fidelity was absent in the majority of published studies. Meta-analysis revealed that MI pre-treatment improved attendance relative to comparison groups. Conclusions: Individuals not seeking treatment for mental health issues benefitted the most from MI. Despite differences in MI treatment intensity, short interventions were as effective as longer interventions, whereas two MI sessions for as little as 15 minutes were effective in enhancing treatment attendance. Implications for practice: MI is a useful tool for clinicians in all therapeutic interactions to help motivate patients to seek assistance for mental health issues. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Building on a substantial body of literature examining interrogation methods employed by police investigators and their relationship to suspect behaviors, we analyzed a sample of audio and video interrogation recordings of individuals suspected of serious violent crimes. Existing survey research has focused on the tactics reportedly used, at what rate, and under what conditions; observational studies detail which methods are actually employed. With a few notable exceptions, these foundational studies were static examinations of interrogation methods that documented the absence or presence of various approaches. In the present study, we cast interrogation as a dynamic phenomenon and code the recordings in 5-min intervals to examine how interrogation methods and suspect cooperation change over time. Employing the interrogation taxonomy framework, particularly 4 discrete domains-rapport and relationship building, emotion provocation, presentation of evidence, and confrontation/competition-we found that the emphasis of the domains varied across interrogations and were significantly different when suspects confessed versus when they denied involvement. In regression models, suspect cooperation was positively influenced by the rapport and relationship building domain, though it was negatively impacted by presentation of evidence and confrontation/competition. Moreover, we found that the negative effects of confrontation/competition on suspect cooperation lasted for up to 15 min. The implications of the findings for practice and future research include the benefits of a rapport-based approach, the deleterious effects of accusatorial methods, and the importance of studying when, not just if, certain interrogation techniques are employed. (PsycINFO Database Record
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This chapter describes the Strategic Use of Evidence (SUE) technique - an interview method aimed at eliciting cues to deception, and thereby improving the chances of correct judgments of deception and truth. The chapter begins with a general overview of research on deception and its detection, in order to provide a context for the SUE technique. The psychological foundations of the technique are described, with a particular focus on suspects' counter-interrogation strategies. We then review the empirical research on the SUE technique, in order to illustrate how the principles of the SUE technique can be translated into interview tactics. We also describe how these tactics produce different verbal responses from lying and truth-telling suspects, and how these cues can be utilized by lie-catchers in order to detect deception. Finally, we will provide a meta-analysis of the available research on the SUE technique.
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Principal component analysis of an operational field sample of 181 police interrogations with terrorist suspects identified five counter interrogation factors: passive (refusing to look at interviewers, remaining silent); passive verbal (monosyllabic response, claiming lack of memory); verbal (discussing an unrelated topic, providing well known information, providing a scripted response) with two single item components: retraction of previous statements and no comment. Analysis revealed significant differences in the use of counter interrogation tactics between terrorist groups, with paramilitary suspects using more passive, verbal and no comment tactics than right wing and international terrorists. International terrorists made significantly more use of retraction tactics than right wing and paramilitary groups.
Reactance is one of the most common underlying causes of resistance. Reactance, a term coined by Brehm, is the reaction that occurs when a person feels their freedom of choice is threatened. Reactance can be especially troublesome for those attempting to gather information through interviews, such as mental health or law enforcement personnel. We explore resistance and reactance, and methods identified to ameliorate these phenomena when they arise during both clinical and forensic interviewing, such as the use of particular language construction, optimal eye contact, acknowledgment of resistance, providing limited and double-bind choices, and advancing the interview through affirmative comments.
Can the person-centred approach work in time-limited counselling and psychotherapy? This is a question that many practitioners grapple with as demand for brief therapy increases - particularly in the public sector. Brief Person-Centred Therapies is the first book to tackle the subject, bringing together the experience and insights of a leading international team of person-centred specialists. The book examines the "theoretical fit" between the person-centred approach and brief therapy. It also explores the issues which arise when working briefly in a range of different settings, including primary care, higher education and business. Brief Person-Centred Therapies is essential reading for all person-centered trainees and for practitioners who want to work in services where brief work is called for.