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This research work aims to answer the question, compared to conventional media, whether the use of Padlet as a microblogging platform can improve students' German writing skills for A2 - B1 level CEFR standard. Students in the class A wrote with conventional paper sheet. Meanwhile, students in the class B wrote essay writing assignment through the Padlet platform. The study took place in Malang, Indonesia and lasted for one semester. In summary 45 students participated. The pre-test data indicated that there is no difference in the results of the pre-test in the control class and experiment class. The post test scores were obtained from two writing assessments in both classes. The test results indicated the data value sig 0.326 in the ANOVA table, which means that there are no differences in the post-test results in the two classes. Thus, it was concluded that the use of Padlet in microblogging activities in writing did not affect the results of student writing scores. Nevertheless, the use of Padlet has not any disadvantages, whereas students get additonal digital skills and respond additionally positively to the use of Padlet.
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Paper—Microblogging with Padlet: Students’ New Writing Experience on A2B1 Common European
Microblogging with Padlet: Students’ New Writing
Experience on A2B1 Common European Framework of
Reference for Languages (CEFR)
https://doi.org/10.3991/ijet.v15i01.11804
Kharis ()
Universitas Negeri Malang, Malang, Indonesia
m.kharis.fs@um.ac.id
Martin Ebner
Graz University of Technology, Graz, Austria
Primardiana Hermilia Wijayati, Edy Hidayat, Lilis Afifah
Universitas Negeri Malang, Malang, Indonesia
AbstractThis research work aims to answer the question, compared to
conventional media, whether the use of Padlet as a microblogging platform can
improve students' German writing skills for A2 - B1 level CEFR standard. Stu-
dents in class A wrote with a conventional paper sheet. Meanwhile, students in
class B wrote an essay writing assignment through the Padlet platform. The
study took place in Malang, Indonesia and lasted for one semester. In summary,
45 students participated. The pre-test data indicated that there is no difference in
the results of the pre-test in the control class and experiment class. The post-test
scores were obtained from two writing assessments in both classes. The test re-
sults indicated the data value sig 0.326 in the ANOVA table, which means that
there are no differences in the post-test results in the two classes. Thus, it was
concluded that the use of Padlet in microblogging activities in writing did not
affect the results of student writing scores. Nevertheless, the use of Padlet has
not any disadvantages, whereas students get additional digital skills and respond
additionally positively to the use of Padlet.
KeywordsMicroblogging, learning media, German writing skills A2 B1,
CEFR
1 Introduction
German as a foreign language is at least offered at 13 universities in Indonesia, and
it aims to provide foreign language skills other than English, including to students of
Universitas Negeri Malang (Malang State University). German skills and
proficiencies of third-semester students of the 2017 batch are illustrated in the results
of the score in course Deutsch 3, which was obtained in the last semester of the
2018/2019 academic year. In this semester, the students are at level A2-B1 CEFR in
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Paper—Microblogging with Padlet: Students’ New Writing Experience on A2B1 Common European
German skills. The average value for the German skills was 68.9. The score for
writing skills in the midterm exam obtained an average class score of 72.4, while the
score of the writing skills in the final semester exam obtained an average class value
of 72.8. It can be assumed that students still encounter difficulties in writing skills.
As known, the German skills and proficiencies are based on the level of difficulty.
The level of mastery of German is explained in the CEFR, in German is referred to as
Gemeinsamer Europäische Referenzrahmen (GER), which is a guideline for the Eu-
ropean language standards that applies internationally. There are six levels of mastery
of the Deutsch, namely A1 and A2 (elementary language usage), B1 and B2 (inde-
pendent language usage), as well as C1 and C2 (competent language usage). Each of
these levels is described in Kannbeschreibung (Can-description), both receptive and
productive skills and proficiencies [1].
Language learning, especially foreign languages, is a complex process with various
problems. Existing constraints and problems are often influenced by many factors that
are closely related to foreign language learning, including external and internal factors
[2]. Learning external factors are, for example, the availability of teaching media in
the form of books and media learning, learning techniques, and other external factors.
While, the internal factors are, for example, the talent and interest, motivation, and
other internal factors [3].
As part of four language skills, writing skills need to be taken into account to a
greater extent, because it is based on the fact, that writing skill is the most challenging
language skill and the most recent form of language skill mastered by language learn-
ers [4]. Thus, learners need to use specific techniques and must be assisted by certain
media to develop their writing skills. Based on the explanation above, this research
study aims to answer the question, whether the use of a microblogging platform can
improve students' German writing skills. Furthermore, students need not only learn
the language itself but also need skills in using several tools and applications for writ-
ing because media usage plays a significant role in the learning process, and it can
better explain what verbal communication cannot explain. The learning experience
might become more interesting, and thus awakens the motivation of the learners.
Learning media usage must be used wisely, therefore the learning goals can be
achieved easier. For example, the theory of Mayer stated, that the learning effect is
higher when the learners are presented with pictures to the text, rather than just text
alone [5].
In general, computers are used in learning, both inside and outside the classroom.
Li's research result shows that CAT (computer-aided technology) verifies the benefi-
cial role in writing and also provides practical advice for writing improvements [6].
Related to the use of media in learning, currently, blogs are used as a medium for
writing. As a result, students enhance their efficiency in writing and become more
involved in the online class [7]. Blogs in the scope and features of smaller facilities
are known as microblogging, and it is one of the recent technology in the Web 2.0 era
[8]. Research conducted by Ebner et al. exposes that microblogging media can be
regarded as a recent form of communication that can informally support learning
outside the classroom [8], enhance critical thinking skills, [9], as well as assessment
skills [10].
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In this study, the use of microblogging was explicitly intended for students to write
German essays. Bicen and Cavus stated, that microblogging could be used in the
education sector as it is consistent with students' features and trends in social media
interaction [11]. Interaction and communication are seen as significant components of
the teaching process, and these opportunities can be realized by microblogging [12].
Results from Jusoh's study show that both learners and instructors are more likely to
use social media than learning management systems [13].
Meanwhile, the most microblogging media used by research participants in Bicen
and Cavus research was Twitter [11], it was used as a means of communication and
assessment of learning outcomes, for example, teachers/lecturers send information
about lectures, results of assignment assessments, and peer review among students
[14]. However, this media still has shortcomings, including input data security, layout
display, and limited data space. In addition, several aspects of social media and
opened data are stated as the main disadvantage of using social media in education
[15].
Lestari and Kurniawan compared Padlet with several other online media. After
knowing the characteristics, advantages, and disadvantages of each social media,
Padlet was used for their research [16]. Based on these considerations, in this study,
platform Padlet was used to provide personal space in writing, as well as the security
of the personal data of the authors. Padlet is an application that allows users to
collaborate with text, photos, videos, or other content. Padlet functions like an online
sheet of paper or bulletin board where users can individually and collaboratively place
content on a Web page [10], [17]. Concisely, Padlet helps the lecturer to give the task
for the students, give comments, and also the whole class can see the result of each
college students’ work [18] and as well as opportunities for peer learning and self-
assessment since students have immediate access to a broad spectrum of responses
from classmates rather than a few responses from the vocal ones [19].
The word microblog is derived from micro and blog. The word micro means small,
and the word blog (web-blog) means an online journal. Thus, the term microblog
refers to the meaning of online journals on a small scale. In short, microblog is under-
stood as a form of a blog that allows users to write a short text and publish it, either to
be read by the public in general or by a limited group chosen by the author. The bene-
fits of microblogging consist primarily in the possibility of giving immediate feed-
back, and in the recording of writing processes. Currently, the biggest microblog me-
dia is Twitter and is commonly used as a means of communicating. The use of mi-
croblog in Deutsch writing skills is important because students are always motivated
to write and send texts, ask questions, comment on blogs [20]. Besides, online learn-
ing allows students to focus and learn and have flexibility with much preparation time
for discussion [21].
1.1 Problem of research
Through this microblogging writing activity, it is expected that students' skills and
abilities in essay writing on Deutsch can be improved. The issue of this study can be
explained as follows based on the above definition: how is the outcome of implement-
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Paper—Microblogging with Padlet: Students’ New Writing Experience on A2B1 Common European
ing the Padlet microblogging platform as a teaching model for German writing skill at
level A2 - B1 CEFR Standard opposed to traditional media.
1.2 Research focus
Based on the introduction above, the formulated hypothesis is as follows:
Using Padlet as a microblogging platform can hold or even improve writing skills
for the A2-B1 Standard CEFR/GER level. To answer the hypothesis as mentioned
earlier, four essential questions are formulated as follows:
Do the two classes, according to the pre-test, acquire the same level?
Did one of the two classes, according to the post-test, acquire a higher level?
Is there a correlation between the use of Padlet and the acquisition of the score?
Did the number of words in the essay correlate with the acquisition of values?
2 Methodology of Research
To answer the research question above, the subject of the research study was de-
termined, namely students who acquired in the A2 - B1 CEFR for Deutsch. Class A
took a role as the control class consisted of 23 female and 3 male students. Mean-
while, class B took a role as the experimental class consisted of 16 female and 3 male
students. The respondents are within the range of 19-22 years. This research was con-
ducted in one semester from January to July 2019. Then, the pre-test and post-test
were used in both classes. Writing assignments given to students in the first half of the
semester are used as pre-test scores while writing assignments in the last half of the
semester are used as post-tests. The purpose of this class division was to compare the
learning outcomes between the two classes. The steps used to obtain data in this study
are as seen in table 1:
Table 1. Assessment given to the two groups.
Steps
Control Class
Experimental Class
Content Discussion
Writing task for students
Writing task for students
Individual Assignment
Conventionally writing task through
paper-based
Writing task through online platform
Padlet, uploading: text, image, and
video
Commenting and answering questions
in the online platform
Submitting the writing to the lecturer
Individual Assessment
yes
yes
Post-test
yes
yes
Questionnaire
no
yes
There is no special treatment in the experimental class, but an assessment for the
use of Padlet as a microblogging platform. The control class did paper-based writing
assignments, while the experimental class did online web-based writing assignments
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through the Padlet microblogging platform. According to the two distribution activi-
ties above, some important points can be explained as follows:
The data obtained was in the form of a narrative essay written in Deutsch by the
students
The narrative essays were scored by using a 10-100 scale. The assessment of es-
says considering:
a) The ability of students to develop ideas based on instructions (Leitpunkte),
b) Student's ability to communicate writing ideas,
c) Grammatical and writing structure accuracy,
d) Readability of text.
After the score was given, the word numbers in the essay were counted.
It is assumed, that student writing motivation is reflected in the number of words
written in essays. The more text written means, the more motivated someone is in
writing.
Fig. 1. Example of a writing task given to students.
2.1 Sample of research
Before giving an assessment, three pre-tests were given to two classes. The pre-test
was given in the form of an essay writing assignment with the topics as seen in table
2:
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Paper—Microblogging with Padlet: Students’ New Writing Experience on A2B1 Common European
Table 2. Themes to pre-tests
Theme to pre-test 1
Theme to pre-test 2
Theme to pre-test 3
Handy im studentischen Leben
Fernsehsendung am Wochenende
Beschreibung des
Deutschinstituts
Familienfeste
Alltagsleben
persönlicher Brief
Each writing assignment is equipped with Leitpunkte as an aid to the outline. Alt-
hough they have different themes, based on the results of the one-sample t-test, it is
known that the levels of difficulty on the themes in both classes are the same. This is
done to answer the research question (1) according to the pre-test, do the two classes
acquire the same level? To answer this question, one sample test is required. The test
results show the following data, that points out a sig. value (2-tailed) = 0,000 (less
than 0.05), thus there was no difference in the average of the three pre-tests in the
control class. The data point out a sig. value (2-tailed) = 0,000 (less than 0.05), thus
there was no difference in the mean of the pre-test in the experimental class.
Furthermore, the pre-test data from both classes showed that the value of sig 0.000
(<0.05) means that the data is normally distributed. Furthermore, the pre-test data
from the two classes showed that the value of sig 0.000 (<0.05) which means that the
data was homogenous, and the sig value of 0.452 in the ANOVA table (> 0.05) means
that there were no differences in the pre-test results in the control class and experi-
ment. From the three pre-tests conducted by students in both classes, it can be con-
cluded that students in both classes are at the same level of writing ability.
3 Results of Research
After performing the pre-test, students in both classes were given a writing assign-
ment as a post-test. Students in class A wrote with a conventional paper sheet. Mean-
while, students in class B wrote an essay writing assignment using Deutsch through
the Padlet platform. In addition, these students can respond to essays written by other
students in the form of comments, questions, answers, and other non-linguistic re-
sponses.
Table 3. Themes to the post-tests
Class
Theme to post-test 1
Theme to post-test 2
A
Liebe aus dem ersten Blick
Bildergeschichte
B
Kommentare schreiben
Unterhaltung am Wochenende
Similar to the pre-test, each writing assignment is equipped with Leitpunkte as an
aid to the outline. Although they have different themes, based on the results of the
one-sample t-test, it is known that the levels of the two classes are the same.
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3.1 Data analysis
To investigate if there is a correlation between the use of Padlet and the acquisition
of score, a homogeneity test, and ANOVA test were carried out, as shown in table 4.
Table 4. ANOVA
Sum of Squares
df
Mean Square
F
Sig.
Between Groups
42.690
1
42.690
.986
.326
Within Groups
1819.099
42
43.312
Total
1861.790
43
The results indicate that the sig 0.326 presented in the ANOVA table was > 0.05; it
means that there are no differences in the post-test results in the experimental class
and the control class. Thus, it can be concluded that the use of the Padlet platform on
microblogging activities for Deutsch writing skills does not affect the results of stu-
dent writing scores, whether positively nor negatively.
Furthermore, to answer question number (4), an analysis of the correlation test us-
ing Pearson Correlation was conducted, as shown in table 5:
Table 5. Pearson Correlation Results: post-test results and number of words in essays.
Post-tests
Class A
Remarks
Conclusion
1
0.372
Weak and positive
No significant correlation
2
0.015
Weak and positive
No significant correlation
Class B
1
0.535
Strong and positive
Significant correlation
2
0.241
Weak and positive
No significant correlation
The correlation test results indicate that there is a significant relationship between
the acquisition of the first post-test score with the number of words in the essay, con-
tradictory, there is no relationship to the second post-test test. It proves that mi-
croblogging with Padlet increases student's motivation in writing more extended es-
says.
Related to the previous experience with a blog, all respondents participated to fill
out a questionnaire, as shown in table 6:
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Paper—Microblogging with Padlet: Students’ New Writing Experience on A2B1 Common European
Fig. 2. Previous blog experience (number in percent)
Figure 2 shows, that most students have new experiences in writing blogs with
Padlet. Interestingly, most students recognized that they are connected to other stu-
dents, but only a few are motivated to write comments, even though this is a new
experience.
4 Discussion
Although there is no influence on the writing skill of Deutsch, the use of Padlet in
learning has at least some strengths and weaknesses. The following is the student's
positive response to Padlet:
Motivate students to write, and it offers new experiences.
Enable a more relaxed discussion opportunity for introverted people, since it does
not have to be face to face.
Enable to read, and comment on the writing of other students, and make it possible
to revise it.
Enable to insert images, videos, and audio.
Besides, Padlet is easy to apply, interactive, and more communicative [18].
Similar to the result conducted by He, the majority of college learners could im-
prove learners’ English writing learning autonomy with Pigaiwang [22], an applica-
tion similar to Padlet. Another research result conducted by Garcia et.all pointed that
using blogs for students' learning outcomes was better, but students recognized that
the benefits of blogs are influenced by students' attitudes towards the use of technolo-
gy in teaching and learning activities, and previous experiences with blogs [23].
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This study reinforces the results of Deni and Zainal's research, which concluded
that even though a small number of students had some negative perceptions of Padlet,
most of the students perceived Padlet use very positively [24]. Although it has many
advantages, the use of blogs in writing skills must consider the potential confounding
factors that may occur. The use of the internet for learning must take into account the
supporting factors because technology is fickle and unpredictable. Internet access
comes and goes, and sites go down for maintenance without warning [19].
Meanwhile, some students provided negative feedback on the use of Padlet be-
cause:
The complicated process of editing the posted writing task.
Padlet requires an internet connection while accessing.
The results of the questionnaire showed that many students still objected to as-
signments via the internet. As known, internet access in Indonesia is still relatively
expensive. In addition, to be able to run the features appropriately, the Padlet platform
requires compatible smartphone devices with adequate specifications. Thus, the use of
an old smartphone device can result in a slow-loading menu process, and this can
demotivate students to use Padlet as a media of writing assignments. For students, the
use of Padlet as a new medium in writing skills in German essays is indeed a new
experience, but its use must consider supporting factors. Garcia's research results have
shown the importance of understanding student expectations while teaching blogs and
the need to carefully plan and monitor the use of blogs [23].
This study reinforces the results of Deni & Zainal's research, which concluded that
most students who were only actively engaged in Padlet activities on case-study-
related tasks. The positive perception of Padlet as a learning tool does not influence
students’ frequency of use [24], but previous experience working with blogs can in-
fluence the successful use of Padlet in writing skills. These findings can be used as a
framework to design a writing learning by using Padlet as a blog.
5 Conclusion
Based on the results of this scientific study, we can state the following:
The use of microblogging based on the Padlet platform has no disadvantages for
students in the academic or non-academic field. Students who used Padlet did at
least as well as their colleagues.
Compared to the control class, the score of the experimental class did not show any
better results, but the writing skills could be improved at the beginning of the
activities. The students gained new writing experience and were highly motivated
to complete their tasks.
During the semester, the experimental group encountered various technical
difficulties, including the availability of internet access and the ability of
smartphones to access individual Padlet.
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Paper—Microblogging with Padlet: Students’ New Writing Experience on A2B1 Common European
Besides, there have been many positive reactions regarding the use of Padlet for
microblogging. Here it could be pointed out that students welcome the use of new
media in teaching.
The study also showed that using Padlet as a learning medium requires better
pedagogical strategies to achieve higher learning outcomes, e.g., more intensive
writing support, comments and improvement suggestions from lecturers to
motivate students to write.
6 Acknowledgement
The authors express their profound gratitude to Prof. Dr. Martin Ebner, Head of
Department, OU Educational Technology, Graz University of Technology, Austria,
for the enormous contribution in composing this paper. In addition, the authors
express gratitude to the Faculty of Letters, Universitas Negeri Malang for funding this
research.
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8 Authors
Kharis is a lecturer for the German language in the German Department, Universi-
tas Negeri Malang, Indonesia, Jl. Semarang 5, Malang 65145. He teaches the courses
Writing I, Writing II and Media for German Language Learning.Email:
m.kharis.fs@um.ac.id
Martin Ebner is a researcher in the field of seamless learning, open educational
resources, learning analytics, making and computer science for children. He is now
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Paper—Microblogging with Padlet: Students’ New Writing Experience on A2B1 Common European
Head of Department, OU Educational Technology, Graz University of Technology,
Rechbauerstraße 12, 8010 Graz, Austria.
Primardiana Hermilia Wijayati is a lecturer for the German language in the Ger-
man Department, Universitas Negeri Malang, Indonesia, Jl. Semarang 5, Malang
65145. She teaches the courses Research Method.
Edy Hidayat is a lecturer for the German language in the German Department,
Universitas Negeri Malang, Indonesia, Jl. Semarang 5, Malang 65145. He teaches the
courses Writing I, Writing II, and Free Speech.
Lilis Afifah is a lecturer for the German language in the German Department, Uni-
versitas Negeri Malang, Indonesia, Jl. Semarang 5, Malang 65145. She teaches the
courses German Language level A1-B1 CEFR.
Article submitted 2019-10-03. Resubmitted 2019-12-01. Final acceptance 2019-12-03. Final version
published as submitted by the authors.
iJET Vol. 15, No. 1, 2020
187
... Kedua, untuk menciptakan pembelajaran yang efisien, lengkap, dan mudah digunakan untuk guru dan untuk melakukan pembelajaran kolaboratif. Pembelajaran ini meliputi kegiatan sharing/berbagi segala macam format dokumen, melalui komunikasi antara siswa, dengan pendampingan oleh guru/dosen.Meskipun demikian, pembelajaran dengan padlet setidaknya memiliki beberapa kelebihan, antara lain (1) memotivasi mahasiswa menulis, karena padlet memberi pengalaman baru, (2) lebih mudah berdiskusi dengan orang yang introvert, karena tidak harus tatap muka, (3) bisa membaca, dan berkomentar tulisan mahasiswa lain, dan menungkinkan untuk merevisinya (4) dapat memasukkan gambar, video, dan audio, (5) mudah pengoperasiannya, interaktif serta komunikatif(Kharis et al., 2020).Namun perlu diketahui, bahwa penggunaan internet dalam pembelajaran harus memperhatikan faktor-faktor pendukungnya, karena technology is fickle and unpredictable. Internet access comes and goes, and sites go down for maintenance without warning ...
... Kedua, untuk menciptakan pembelajaran yang efisien, lengkap, dan mudah digunakan untuk guru dan untuk melakukan pembelajaran kolaboratif. Pembelajaran ini meliputi kegiatan sharing/berbagi segala macam format dokumen, melalui komunikasi antara siswa, dengan pendampingan oleh guru/dosen.Meskipun demikian, pembelajaran dengan padlet setidaknya memiliki beberapa kelebihan, antara lain (1) memotivasi mahasiswa menulis, karena padlet memberi pengalaman baru, (2) lebih mudah berdiskusi dengan orang yang introvert, karena tidak harus tatap muka, (3) bisa membaca, dan berkomentar tulisan mahasiswa lain, dan menungkinkan untuk merevisinya (4) dapat memasukkan gambar, video dan audio, (5) mudah pengoperasiannya, interaktif serta komunikatif(Kharis et al., 2020).Namun perlu diketahui, bahwa penggunaan internet dalam pembelajaran harus memperhatikan faktor-faktor pendukungnya, karena technology is fickle and unpredictable. Internet access comes and goes, and sites go down for maintenance without warning ...
... Kedua, untuk menciptakan pembelajaran yang efisien, lengkap, dan mudah digunakan untuk guru dan untuk melakukan pembelajaran kolaboratif. Pembelajaran ini meliputi kegiatan sharing/berbagi segala macam format dokumen, melalui komunikasi antara siswa, dengan pendampingan oleh guru/dosen.Meskipun demikian, pembelajaran dengan padlet setidaknya memiliki beberapa kelebihan, antara lain (1) memotivasi mahasiswa menulis, karena padlet memberi pengalaman baru, (2) lebih mudah berdiskusi dengan orang yang introvert, karena tidak harus tatap muka, (3) bisa membaca, dan berkomentar tulisan mahasiswa lain, dan menungkinkan untuk merevisinya (4) dapat memasukkan gambar, video, dan audio, (5) mudah pengoperasiannya, interaktif serta komunikatif(Kharis et al., 2020).Namun perlu diketahui, bahwa penggunaan internet dalam pembelajaran harus memperhatikan faktor-faktor pendukungnya, karena technology is fickle and unpredictable. Internet access comes and goes, and sites go down for maintenance without warning ...
... Kedua, untuk menciptakan pembelajaran yang efisien, lengkap, dan mudah digunakan untuk guru dan untuk melakukan pembelajaran kolaboratif. Pembelajaran ini meliputi kegiatan sharing/berbagi segala macam format dokumen, melalui komunikasi antara siswa, dengan pendampingan oleh guru/dosen.Meskipun demikian, pembelajaran dengan padlet setidaknya memiliki beberapa kelebihan, antara lain (1) memotivasi mahasiswa menulis, karena padlet memberi pengalaman baru, (2) lebih mudah berdiskusi dengan orang yang introvert, karena tidak harus tatap muka, (3) bisa membaca, dan berkomentar tulisan mahasiswa lain, dan menungkinkan untuk merevisinya (4) dapat memasukkan gambar, video dan audio, (5) mudah pengoperasiannya, interaktif serta komunikatif(Kharis et al., 2020).Namun perlu diketahui, bahwa penggunaan internet dalam pembelajaran harus memperhatikan faktor-faktor pendukungnya, karena technology is fickle and unpredictable. Internet access comes and goes, and sites go down for maintenance without warning ...
... Kedua, untuk menciptakan pembelajaran yang efisien, lengkap, dan mudah digunakan untuk guru dan untuk melakukan pembelajaran kolaboratif. Pembelajaran ini meliputi kegiatan sharing/berbagi segala macam format dokumen, melalui komunikasi antara siswa, dengan pendampingan oleh guru/dosen.Meskipun demikian, pembelajaran dengan padlet setidaknya memiliki beberapa kelebihan, antara lain (1) memotivasi mahasiswa menulis, karena padlet memberi pengalaman baru, (2) lebih mudah berdiskusi dengan orang yang introvert, karena tidak harus tatap muka, (3) bisa membaca, dan berkomentar tulisan mahasiswa lain, dan menungkinkan untuk merevisinya (4) dapat memasukkan gambar, video, dan audio, (5) mudah pengoperasiannya, interaktif serta komunikatif(Kharis et al., 2020).Namun perlu diketahui, bahwa penggunaan internet dalam pembelajaran harus memperhatikan faktor-faktor pendukungnya, karena technology is fickle and unpredictable. Internet access comes and goes, and sites go down for maintenance without warning ...
... Kedua, untuk menciptakan pembelajaran yang efisien, lengkap, dan mudah digunakan untuk guru dan untuk melakukan pembelajaran kolaboratif. Pembelajaran ini meliputi kegiatan sharing/berbagi segala macam format dokumen, melalui komunikasi antara siswa, dengan pendampingan oleh guru/dosen.Meskipun demikian, pembelajaran dengan padlet setidaknya memiliki beberapa kelebihan, antara lain (1) memotivasi mahasiswa menulis, karena padlet memberi pengalaman baru, (2) lebih mudah berdiskusi dengan orang yang introvert, karena tidak harus tatap muka, (3) bisa membaca, dan berkomentar tulisan mahasiswa lain, dan menungkinkan untuk merevisinya (4) dapat memasukkan gambar, video dan audio, (5) mudah pengoperasiannya, interaktif serta komunikatif(Kharis et al., 2020).Namun perlu diketahui, bahwa penggunaan internet dalam pembelajaran harus memperhatikan faktor-faktor pendukungnya, karena technology is fickle and unpredictable. Internet access comes and goes, and sites go down for maintenance without warning ...
... Writing is one of the four language skills and it is an essential aspect in language classes [15]. Nowadays, writing plays a significant role in the field of foreign language teaching since it demands great effort and commitment [1], [16]. ...
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