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Unacknowledged Potential Factors in Catastrophic Bat Die-off Arising from Coal Fly Ash Geoengineering

  • Transdyne Corporation, California
  • Florida Department of Health in Monroe County

Abstract and Figures

Bats have great economic and environmental importance, including nocturnal insect control, pollination, seed dispersal and forest regeneration. Bats, however, like insects and birds are suffering a precipitous global decline due to anthropogenic causes. Deliberate air pollution in the form of undisclosed tropospheric aerosol geoengineering (TAG) has extremely damaging effects throughout the biosphere. Forensic scientific evidence implicates coal fly ash (CFA), the toxic waste product of coal-burning, as the main constituent of the jet-sprayed particulate trails seen around the world. Coal fly ash is a primary source of the ultrafine and nano-sized particulate fraction of air pollution that adversely impacts human and environmental health. Recently, countless exogenous magnetic pollution particles from combustion sources were found in human brains and heart tissue. Previous studies reveal that aerosolized CFA is a significant factor in the catastrophic global decline of birds and insects. Insects can accumulate aerosolized CFA on their body surfaces and/or ingest CFA particulates that insectivorous bats then consume. Bats are excellent mammalian bioindicators of environmental contaminants and it is known that their tissue contains high levels of metals and persistent organic pollutants. From a review of the literature, we show that the pollutant element ratios in bat tissue and bat guano are consistent with an origin in CFA-type air pollution. These findings suggest that CFA, including its use in covert climate engineering operations, is an unacknowledged factor in the morbidity and mortality of bats. Bats, therefore, are an important "canary in the coal mine" pointing to the urgency of halting covert climate engineering and greatly reducing ultrafine particulate air pollution.
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Asian Journal of Biology
8(4): 1-13, 2019; Article no.AJOB.53746
ISSN: 2456-7124
Unacknowledged Potential Factors in Catastrophic
Bat Die-off Arising from Coal Fly Ash
J. Marvin Herndon
and Mark Whiteside
Transdyne Corporation, 11044 Red Rock Drive, San Diego, CA 92131, USA.
Florida Department of Health in Monroe County, 1100 Simonton Street, Key West, FL 33040, USA.
Authors’ contributions
This work was a joint effort between the authors that is part of an ongoing collaboration
aimed at providing scientific, medical, public health implications and evidence related to
aerosolized coal fly ash including its use in the near-daily, near-global covert geoengineering
activity. Author JMH was primary responsible for geophysical and mineralogical
considerations. Author MW was primarily responsible for medical and public health
considerations. Both authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Article Information
DOI: 10.9734/AJOB/2019/v8i430067
(1) Dr. P. Dhasarathan, Department of Biotechnology, Prathyusha Engineering College, Anna University, India.
Dr. Paola Angelini, Department of Chemistry, Biology and Biotechnology, University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy.
Antipas T. S. Massawe, University of Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania.
S. Basavarajappa, University of Mysore, India.
Sie Long Kek, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, Malaysia.
Orchidea Maria Lecian, Sapienza University of Rome, Italy.
(5) Peter Stallinga, University of Algarve, Portugal.
Complete Peer review History:
Received 05 November 2019
Accepted 10 January 2020
Published 15 January 2020
Bats have great economic and environmental importance, including nocturnal insect control,
pollination, seed dispersal and forest regeneration. Bats, however, like insects and birds are
suffering a precipitous global decline due to anthropogenic causes. Deliberate air pollution in the
form of undisclosed tropospheric aerosol geoengineering (TAG) has extremely damaging effects
throughout the biosphere. Forensic scientific evidence implicates coal fly ash (CFA), the toxic waste
product of coal-burning, as the main constituent of the jet-sprayed particulate trails seen around the
world. Coal fly ash is a primary source of the ultrafine and nano-sized particulate fraction of air
Review Article
Herndon and Whiteside; AJOB, 8(4): 1-13, 2019; Article no.AJOB.53746
pollution that adversely impacts human and environmental health. Recently, countless exogenous
magnetic pollution particles from combustion sources were found in human brains and heart tissue.
Previous studies reveal that aerosolized CFA is a significant factor in the catastrophic global decline
of birds and insects. Insects can accumulate aerosolized CFA on their body surfaces and/or ingest
CFA particulates that insectivorous bats then consume. Bats are excellent mammalian bioindicators
of environmental contaminants and it is known that their tissue contains high levels of metals and
persistent organic pollutants. From a review of the literature, we show that the pollutant element
ratios in bat tissue and bat guano are consistent with an origin in CFA-type air pollution. These
findings suggest that CFA, including its use in covert climate engineering operations, is an
unacknowledged factor in the morbidity and mortality of bats. Bats, therefore, are an important
"canary in the coal mine" pointing to the urgency of halting covert climate engineering and greatly
reducing ultrafine particulate air pollution.
Keywords: White-nose syndrome; aerosol particulates; coal fly ash; particulate pollution; global
In her 1962 seminal book Silent Spring [1],
Rachel Carson (1907-1964) challenged the
widely held, but the unrealistically-arrogant
perception that humans could master nature
through the use of chemicals. Her revelations of
the harmful consequences of dichloro-diphenyl-
trichloroethane (DDT) and other pesticides
helped to spawn the modern environmental
movement [2].
In less than two decades, a new and far more
pervasive environmental threat arose that was
orchestrated and perpetrated, not by the
chemical industry, but by international
governance seeking improvement of the
environment through use of environmental
modification techniques which refers to “any
technique for changing through the deliberate
manipulation of natural processes the
dynamics, composition or structure of the Earth,
including its biota, lithosphere, hydrosphere and
atmosphere, or of outer space [3], which
hereafter we refer to as “geoengineering”.
Rachel Carson benefitted from highly
cooperative and favourable mainstream media
attention, including the serialization of her book
by The New Yorker magazine and a Columbia
Broadcasting System (CBS) Reports exposé [4].
In striking contrast, the pervasive environmental
geoengineering threat, for more than a decade,
undertaken with increasing scope, intensity, and
geographical range to become a near-daily,
near-global activity, has been accompanied by
concerted efforts to mislead the public [5-7] and
the scientific community [8,9] and to hide the
public health risks [10,11].
There is deployment-evidence of one
geoengineering activity aimed at melting glacial
ice [12,13], however, the most widely observed
geoengineering-evidence involves the jet-
spraying of pollution particulates into the
troposphere [14-17] which alter climate/weather
and cause global warming [18]. Geoengineering
aerial particulate trails, shown in Fig. 1, rapidly
spread out, briefly appearing like cirrus clouds,
before becoming a white haze in the sky [19,20].
Gravity and atmospheric convection disperse the
aerial-particulates throughout the lower
atmosphere, mixing with the air that biota,
including humans, breathe, and ultimately
settling to ground in a matter of days to weeks
Geoengineering jet-laid particulate trails are not
to be confused with “contrails”, which
occasionally form from engine-exhaust moisture
under unusually cold, humid conditions and
which evaporate quickly becoming invisible gas
[22]. There are, however, concerted efforts to
deceive the public into falsely believing that the
deliberately emplaced particulate trails are ice-
crystal contrails [5,8].
Pollution particles in the troposphere are heated
by solar radiation and by radiation from Earth.
That heat is transferred to the atmosphere by
molecular collisions, which reduces the
temperature difference relative to the surface air.
The reduction in adverse temperature gradient
reduces atmospheric convection and
concomitantly reduces convective heat loss from
the surface [23-25]. The pollution-particles jet-
sprayed into the troposphere cause global
and/or regional warming, and cause climate
chaos, disrupting natural weather patterns,
potentially causing either droughts or
deluges, corrupting natural habitats, harming
agriculture, and poisoning the environment
Herndon and Whiteside; AJOB, 8(4): 1-13, 2019; Article no.AJOB.53746
In a manner more fundamental than Carson [1],
James E. Lovelock and Lynn Margulis [27-31]
developed the Gaia theory, which in essence
describes the realm of inextricable and complex
interrelationships by and between the living
matter of Earth and the physical states and
conditions of Earth’s various environments.
Within the Gaia understanding, any
environmental modification”, i.e.
geoengineering, especially deliberately emplaced
aerosol particulate pollution, is bound to have
unanticipated, severe, and greater adverse
consequences for life on Earth, analogous to, but
far more devastating, than the pesticides
disclosed by Carson [1].
Air pollution particles have devastating
consequences for human health, including being
the leading environmental cause of morbidity and
mortality worldwide [32,33]. Air pollution
particulates penetrate deep into lungs and
systemic circulation, and contribute to stroke and
neurodegenerative disease [34-36], heart
disease [37,38], lung cancer [39], COPD [40,41],
respiratory infections [42,43], and asthma
Spherical magnetite particulates have been
found in the brains of persons with dementia [35].
Recently, reactive iron magnetic particulates
were found in abundance in the hearts of
persons from highly polluted areas [37].
Air pollution particulates are risk factors for
children having cognitive defects [46,47], for
cognitive decline at all ages [48], for cognitive
decline in older women [49], and Alzheimer's
Dementia later in life [48].
Consistent with the Gaia theory of Lovelock and
Margulis [27-31], the near-daily, near-global
ongoing tropospheric particulate-emplacement is
expected to have severely adverse
consequences throughout the biosphere. The
evidence of those severely adverse
consequences is unambiguous, specifically in
connection with the globally-catastrophic demise
of insects [50], birds [51], forests [52], and the
proliferation of harmful algae [53].
Geoengineering is an activity that poisons
the planet with mercury [20], damages the
ozone layer that shields life from harmful
solar ultraviolet radiation [54-57], exacerbates
wildfires [19], and does yet untold damage to
the web of life on Earth through the
disruption of habitats and food sources caused
by geoengineered climate chaos
[19,58-61]. Indeed, altering global weather
patterns could potentially imperil global food
supplies [62].
Bats (order Chiroptera) are the most widely
distributed terrestrial mammals, comprising
nearly 20% of mammalian species, or about
1400 species to date. Bats have great economic
importance, with ecosystem services including
nocturnal insect control, pollination, seed
dispersal, and forest regeneration. Bat
populations are now in serious decline [63], just
as are bird [64] and insect [65] populations. Data
now indicate that over of bat species are
threatened, with populations of an additional ½
either unknown or declining, indicating that at
least 80% of bat species now require attention
and conservation efforts [63]. Here we review
unacknowledged potentially major contributory
factors in global catastrophic bat die-off that arise
from the use and consequences of aerosolized
CFA for covert weather and climate
Global threats to bats are directly related to
increasing human populations that bring extra
demands for land, food, and resources leading to
degradation or destruction of habitats for bats.
Pressures of deforestation, development, and
climate change are felt most acutely in tropical
regions of the world which hold the greatest
diversity of bat species [66]. Threats to bats can
be ranked into categories that include invasive
species, disease, energy production, biological
resource use, agricultural practices,
development, pollution, and climate change. For
most bat species, the impact of pollution and
climate change is largely unknown due to lack of
sufficient study or understanding of these issues
[67]. An extensive literature review reveals that
no one has addressed the implications of
ongoing geoengineering on bat morbidity and
A global review of multiple mortality events
(MME's) in bats reveals that before the year
2000, persecution and intentional killing by
humans caused the greatest proportion of MME's
in bats. Intentional killing of bats occurred in
South America for vampire bat control, in Asia
and Australia for fruit depredation control, and in
Africa and Asia for human food. Historically,
abiotic and biotic causes and accidents were
also responsible for bat mortality. However, there
Herndon and Whiteside; AJOB, 8(4): 1-13, 2019; Article no.AJOB.53746
Fig. 1. From [23]. Geoengineering particulate trails with photographers’ permission. Clockwise
from upper left: Soddy-Daisy, Tennessee, USA (David Tulis); Reiat, Switzerland (Rogerio
Camboim SA); Warrington, Cheshire, UK (Catherine Singleton); Alderney, UK looking toward
France (Neil Howard); Luxembourg (Paul Berg); New York, New York, USA (Mementosis)
was a major shift in MME's in bats around the
year 2000 when mortality from industrial wind-
power facilities and emerging diseases like
white-nose syndrome became important causes
of MME's. The majority of reported MME's
continue to be anthropogenic in origin, with an
expected sharp increase in bat mortality from
pollution and climate change, e.g. heatwaves,
storms, flooding, and drought [68], which to a
great extent are consequences of ongoing
tropospheric geoengineering that causes global
warming and weather-chaos [23,26]. For
example, mass die-offs of pteropodid bats like
the Australian flying foxes due to temperature
extremes over 42ºC have now been documented
Although bats are ecologically diverse, with a
range of species specializing in feeding on fruit,
nectar, blood, fish and even small mammals
the large majority of bats are insectivorous. The
drastic global decline in insect populations
portends a sharp reduction in food supply for
most bats [65]. This reduction in insect biomass
at ground level leads to less availability and
quality of insects in the aerosphere, resulting in
higher search efforts and increased energy
expenditure by bats. This is particularly true in
modern industrialized countries, where insect
biomass is sharply decreasing and it may
become critical for open-space foraging bats.
Particulate pollution from all sources, including
geoengineering, is principally responsible for
global warming and climate change [18,24,
25,70]. Global climate is likely to change the
phenology, intensity, and directions of large-
scale insect migration patterns, with potentially
Herndon and Whiteside; AJOB, 8(4): 1-13, 2019; Article no.AJOB.53746
serious consequences for bats as insect
consumers [71]. Climate change alters the
emergence patterns of bats, the timing of which
must be balanced among predation risk,
competition, and foraging opportunities [72].
Widespread use of insecticides and insect-
resistant crops contributes to both to decreased
insect abundance and chemical poisoning of bats
[63]. Our work suggests that most of the
remaining insects have been contaminated by
toxic elements contained in CFA, the toxic
waste product of coal-burning which is widely
utilized in environmental modification, weather
modification, and climate engineering [50].
When coal is burned, the heavy ash settles
beneath the burner, while the light ash, called
CFA, condenses and accumulates in the hot
gases above the burner, producing the
characteristic spherical shape of CFA particles
that result from the surface tension of the melt
Coal fly ash is a cheap and abundant waste
product that requires little additional processing
for use in undisclosed tropospheric aerosol
geoengineering operations. Forensic scientific
evidence implicates aerosolized CFA as the main
constituent of the jet-sprayed particulate trails
now observed on a near-daily, near-global basis
Coal fly ash particulate pollution in the
troposphere mixes with the air we all breathe and
is toxic to nearly all biota, including humans [74].
We have shown that aerosolized CFA, evidenced
as used for covert geoengineering operations
[20,26,52], is an unacknowledged factor in the
catastrophic global die-off of trees [52], insects
[50] and birds [51], as well as in the proliferation
of harmful algae [53].
CFA is a primary source of ultrafine and nano-
sized (<0.1 µm) air pollution particles that affect
human and environmental health [75]. Emissions
of CFA from Western power plants, unlike many
in China and India, are reduced by the use of
electrostatic precipitators or filters, but the
collection efficiency of these technologies is
lowest for ultrafine and nanoparticles [76]. The
primary elements in CFA are oxides of silicon,
aluminium, iron, and calcium, with lesser
amounts of magnesium, sulfur, sodium, chlorine,
and potassium. Trace elements in CFA include
arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, lead,
mercury, nickel, selenium, strontium, titanium,
and the radionuclides uranium, thorium and their
daughter products. CFA contains unconsumed
carbon (soot) and small amounts of polycyclic
hydrocarbons [77,78].
There are several ways bats may be exposed to
the toxins of aerosolized CFA. Nano-particulates
of CFA can directly enter bat bodies through
respiration or trans-dermally as they can in
humans [36,39,40]. Additionally, the metals of
CFA can be partially extracted by water [79],
including extraction by body-moisture in vivo or
by atmospheric moisture that ultimately can
contaminate bats’ drinking-water sources.
Moreover and perhaps most significantly, insects
can accumulate aerosolized CFA on their body
surfaces and/or ingest CFA particulates [80-83]
that insectivorous bats then consume.
Evidence indicates that bat activity and
population diversity are affected by air pollution.
Higher bat flight activity and higher bat
population diversity are found at less disturbed
and polluted forest areas compared to urban
areas with heavy industrial pollution [84]. The
increasingly large amounts of combustion-type
pollution particles released into the atmosphere
appear to harm the specialized respiratory
organs and high metabolism of foraging bats
Bat navigation is dominated by echolocation, but
other modalities, including an iron/magnetic
sensory system, are essential to the bat’s
familiarity with the terrain [85]. Recent evidence
supports the contention that bats use magnetite
) particles located in their heads for
sensing and orientation in the Earth’s magnetic
field [86]. Countless combustion-derived
exogenous magnetic pollution particles have
been found in brains of humans with dementia
that match the spherical magnetite nanoparticles
in CFA [35,36]. Presumably, exposure to
exogenous magnetite nano-particles from CFA-
type air pollution can impair the bat’s magnetic
sense and navigation.
Metal contamination is an important
environmental stressor that has been implicated
as a factor in the global decline of bats.
Traditionally cited anthropogenic sources of
metal pollutants include combustion-type air
pollution, industrial run-off, and contaminated
food and water sources [87]. The year-after-year,
Herndon and Whiteside; AJOB, 8(4): 1-13, 2019; Article no.AJOB.53746
Fig. 2. Average metallic composition of insectivorous male bat livers expressed as ratios for
comparison with corresponding ratios from average bat guano, snow mould and CFA samples
near-daily, near-global atmospheric pollution for
geoengineering environmental modification,
evidenced as CFA, must now be seen as a major
factor in the global decline of bats.
Bats are excellent bio-indicators for metal
pollution because of their longevity, their high
trophic level, and their frequent association with
man. The elemental composition of bat guano
reflects the undigested portion of ingested prey
and can provide clues as to the source of the
pollution [88]. Fig. 2 shows the similarity of
average metallic element compositions
determined from male insectivorous bat livers
and bat guano with corresponding average
element ratios of laboratory CFA [79] and
aerosolized CFA that was trapped by
snowflakes, brought down, subsequently
released upon partial melting and re-trapped on
underlying snow mould [51,52]. Not all element
ratios were determined in each of the four data
sources. For the 9 instances of element ratios
from all four data sources, at a 95% confidence
interval, each individual data-source value was
not significantly different, as determined
statistically using the student t-test.
Metals in bats tend to accumulate in internal
organs including the liver and kidney. The effect
of multiple pollutants including metals in bats and
their interaction with other environmental
stressors remains largely unexplored [88].
Documented effects of heavy metals in bats
include hepatopathy, DNA damage,
hemochromatosis, and neurological disease.
Eleven metals: arsenic, cadmium, cobalt,
chromium, copper, mercury, manganese, nickel,
lead, tin, and thallium (all trace elements in CFA)
are known to be potentially toxic to mammals
including bats [89]. Cadmium, lead, and mercury
are among the most commonly reported
elements associated with toxicity in bats [90].
Mercury contamination of the environment is one
of the consequences of aerosolized CFA used
for geoengineering [20]. Mercury is one of the
elemental contaminants of California pacific
coastal fog [91,92]. Other elemental
contaminants of California pacific coastal fog
were found to be consistent with CFA
contamination [52]. Recent investigations of a
limited number of species demonstrated that
pacific coastal biota had significantly greater
mercury content than comparable species from
inland areas not exposed to the coastal fog [93].
Although bats were not included in that study,
they should be for future investigations.
Bats are important bio-indicators for
environmental contaminants other than metals. A
wide range of contaminants of emerging concern
was found in the tissue of bats from the
northeastern United States, with the suggestion
that these contaminants of emerging concern
have the potential to affect physiological function
in bats, including hibernation, immune function,
Herndon and Whiteside; AJOB, 8(4): 1-13, 2019; Article no.AJOB.53746
and response to white-nose syndrome [94]. High
concentrations of persistent organic pollutants,
including polychlorinated biphenyls,
polybrominated diphenyl ethers, polybrominated
biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides were
found in the fatty tissue of little brown bats
(Myotis lucifugus) with white-nose syndrome in
New York [95]. Significant levels of both trace
metals (e.g. Ag, Cd, Co, Hg, Pb, Se, V, and Zn)
and organochlorine contaminants were
measured in carcasses of southern bent-wing
bats (Miniopterus sp.) in southeastern Australia
[96]. Note that CFA contains significant amounts
of persistent organic pollutants, including
polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and
polychlorinated biphenyls [77,78].
White-nose syndrome (WNS) is a newly
emerged disease that potentially threatens all
temperate bat species. White-nose syndrome is
caused by the pathogenic fungus
Pseudogymnoascus destructans and it has
decimated the populations of several hibernating
North American bats. First discovered in 2006 in
New York State, W NS spread rapidly across the
eastern U.S. and has caused population
collapses of certain bats; e.g. it is predicted to
lead to the regional extinction of the little brown
bat (Myotis lucifugus), previously one of the most
common bats in North America [97]. White-nose
is a cold-loving fungus that grows on the
exposed skin surfaces (including snout, ears,
and wing membranes) of affected bats during
hibernation. Disease manifestations of White
Nose include depletion of fat reserves,
dehydration, premature arousal from hibernation,
and ulcerated and necrotic wing lesions.
Bat metabolism and the animal's immune
response are reduced during hibernation. Further
immune suppression may result from other
causes including chemical/heavy metal
contamination. As bats are known to harbour
high levels of chemical toxins, further studies
are needed to assess the impact of this toxicity
on the bat's immune system [98]. During
arousal from hibernation, the sudden reversal of
immune suppression associated with
euthermia can lead to a paradoxical worsening of
the white-nose fungal infection, so-called
immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome
As noted above, the Gaia theory, developed by
James E. Lovelock and Lynn Margulis [27-31], in
essence, describes the realm of inextricable and
complex interrelationships by and between the
living matter of Earth and the physical states and
conditions of Earth's various environments.
Upsetting that delicate balance may have
unforeseen consequences. For example, we
have shown that the addition of iron to the
marine environment can shift the global plankton
balance favouring harmful over beneficial algae
[53]. White Nose Syndrome seems to have
emerged and proliferated at the same time that
aerial particulate geoengineering accelerated in
range, scope, and intensity, suggesting the
possibility that causal relationships might be
Among the metals detected in bat tissues like
liver and kidney, iron is usually found at very high
levels [88]. Iron is an essential element for
mammals and other living creatures but it is one
that requires strict balance. Iron imbalance, or
altered iron homeostasis, results from excessive
or misplaced reactive iron in the body, promoting
a wide variety of diseases [100].
Captive Egyptian fruit bats (Rousettus
aegyptiacus) frequently develop iron storage
disease associated with increased infection rates
and cancer, including hepatocellular carcinoma
[101]. There is recent evidence that
environmental pollutants (including persistent
organic pollutants and metals) disrupt iron
homeostasis, producing adverse biological
effects [102].
Detection of fungal iron-gathering siderophores
on the wings of bats with WNS suggests that
these molecules play a role in infection and/or
tissue invasion [103]. In mammals, iron-rich
brown fat has a limited distribution in the body
and is involved in thermoregulatory processes. In
hibernating bats, thermogenesis by brown fat is
necessary for both arousal and maintenance of
hibernation [104].
It was recently discovered that the ferritin heavy-
heart (FHH) chain component of ferritin (the main
iron storage protein) acts as a master regulator
of organismal iron homeostasis, coupling
nutritional iron supply to redox homeostasis,
energy expenditure, and thermoregulation [105].
Bats rely on brown adipose tissue for energy,
and feeding on highly contaminated insect prey
is likely to change the fatty acid profile in
this particular bat tissue, with effects on
mitochondrial functioning, torpor, and energy
usage [106].
Herndon and Whiteside; AJOB, 8(4): 1-13, 2019; Article no.AJOB.53746
Further verification of the data from our review of
CFA-type pollutants in bats should be obtained
from bat samples in various habitats from widely
separated geographical areas. Living bats do not
need to be sacrificed for these studies. Tissue for
element sampling can be obtained from bats
killed in mass mortality events. Guano samples
tend to contain the same heavy metals detected
in analyzed bat tissue [88]. The fur is another
non-invasive proxy that can be used to monitor
metal contamination in bats. Furthermore, fur
analyses are capable of yielding data on the
recent, long term, and chronic metal exposure
Air pollution is the leading environmental cause
of disease and death in the human population.
Deliberate air pollution in the form of “covert”
tropospheric aerosol geoengineering produces
damaging effects throughout the biosphere. Jet-
sprayed particulate trails bear the clear footprint
of CFA, the highly toxic waste product of coal
burning. Coal fly ash, including its use in climate
engineering operations, has contributed to the
catastrophic global loss of trees, insects, birds
and other living things. The recent finding of
countless exogenous, spherical, magnetic
nanoparticles in the brain and hearts of persons
living in highly polluted areas provides definite
evidence of the near-universal exposure of
humans to the combustion products of fossil
fuels, including CFA.
Bats have great economic and environmental
importance, including nocturnal insect control,
pollination, seed dispersal, and forest
regeneration. Bats, however, are suffering a
precipitous global decline due to multiple
anthropogenic causes. Bats are extremely
important mammalian bio-indicators of
environmental contamination. They are exposed
to environmental contaminants from food and
water sources as well as air pollution. Bats are
known to have high levels of heavy metals and
persistent organic pollutants in their tissue. This
work suggests that element ratios in bat tissue
and bat guano are consistent with their origin in
CFA. These findings provide yet another
ominous sign that CFA, including its use in
climate engineering, poses a dire threat to the
entire web of life on Earth.
Immediate steps that must be taken include
(1) a halt to global “hidden in plain sight”
tropospheric aerosol geoengineering, (2) the
reduction of harmful combustion-type
nanoparticle emissions and (3) the development
of international programs to quantify, monitor,
and regulate ultrafine particulate air pollution.
Bats are an important “canary in the coal mine”
telling us these steps constitute a moral
imperative if we and our children are to have a
viable future.
The products used for this research are
commonly and predominantly use products in our
area of research and country. There is absolutely
no conflict of interest between the authors and
producers of the products because we do not
intend to use these products as an avenue for
any litigation but for the advancement of
knowledge. Also, the research was not funded by
the producing company rather it was funded by
personal efforts of the authors.
Authors have declared that no competing
interests exist.
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... Aerosolized coal fly ash contributes to global warming [22], disrupts habitats [23], contaminates the environment with mercury [24], decimates populations of insects [25], bats [26], and birds [27]. Aerosolized coal fly ash also kills trees [28,29], exacerbates wildfires [30], enables harmful algae in our waters [31], and destroys the stratospheric ozone layer that shields surface-life from the sun's deadly ultraviolet radiation [32,33]. ...
... Aerosolized coal fly ash contributes to global warming [22], disrupts habitats [23], contaminates the environment with mercury [24], decimates populations of insects [25], bats [26], and birds [27]. Aerosolized coal fly ash also kills trees [28,29], exacerbates wildfires [30], enables harmful algae in our waters [31], and, destroys the stratospheric ozone layer that shields surface-life from the sun's deadly ultraviolet radiation [32,33]. ...
Full-text available
Earth's life support systems are breaking down, including the stratospheric ozone layer, which protects all higher life on the planet from deadly ultraviolet radiation. This breakdown is a direct result of human activities including the large-scale manipulation of processes that affect Earth's climate, otherwise known as geoengineering. We present further evidence that coal fly ash, utilized in tropospheric aerosol geoengineering, is the primary cause of stratospheric ozone depletion, not chlorofluorocarbons, as "decreed" by the Montreal Protocol. The misdiagnosis was a potentially fatal mistake by mankind. Coal fly ash particles, uplifted to the stratosphere, are collected and trapped by polar stratospheric clouds. In springtime, as these clouds begin to melt/evaporate, multiple coal fly ash compounds and elements are released to react with and consume stratospheric ozone. Contrary to the prevailing narrative, the stratospheric ozone layer has already been badly damaged and now increasingly deadly ultraviolet radiation, UV-B and UV-C, penetrates to Earth's surface. Our time is short to permanently end all geoengineering activities, and to reduce and/or eliminate all sources of aerosolized coal fly ash, including first and foremost the jet-sprayed emplacements into the troposphere that are systematically breaking down Earth's support systems and poisoning life on this planet.
... Wildlife species are suffering a precipitous global decline [118]. Aerosolized coal fly ash is a significant factor in the catastrophic global decline in the populations of insects [119], birds [103], and bats [120]. Insects can ingest and/or accumulate toxic coal fly ash on their body surfaces which then birds and insectivorous bats consume. ...
Full-text available
Five hundred years ago the Roman Catholic Church wrongly opposed science. In my fifty years as a scientist, I have observed the Catholic Church reaching out to science, wholly unaware of widespread corruption and cartel-like behavior under guise of science, which leads, I allege, to the Vatican aiding and abetting activities that are not only anti-Christian, but which pose grave risks to human and environmental health.
... Aerosolized coal fly ash, causes global warming [32], disrupts habitats [33], harms agriculture [8,12], contaminates the environment with mercury [14], decimates populations of insects [34], bats [35], and birds [36]. Aerosolized coal fly ash also kills trees [15,37], exacerbates wildfires [10], enables harmful algae in our waters [38], and destroys the stratospheric ozone layer that shields surface-life from the sun's deadly ultraviolet radiation [39][40][41]. ...
Full-text available
We provide a preponderance of evidence that worldwide covert environmental modification (geoengineering) activities have been ongoing for several decades, citing numerous peer-reviewed scientific and medical articles and other sources in support of our allegation that such activities are causing innumerable harms to Earth’s systems. These harms include, but are not limited to, catastrophic loss of wildlife, aggravation of global warming and climate chaos; disruption of habitats; aggravation of droughts and concomitant degradation of agriculture; and depletion of stratospheric ozone, which exposes surface life to deadly solar ultraviolet radiation. In 1978 the United Nations (UN) oversaw the creation of the Convention on the Prohibition of Military or Other Hostile Use of Environmental Modification Techniques (ENMOD), a deliberately vague and deceitful international treaty that has served as a Trojan horse to provide a “legal” basis for subsequent worldwide geoengineering activities (as described herein). Since the creation of the UN Environmental Program (UNEP) in 1972, the UN and some of its other agencies, including the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), and the World Health Organization (WHO), has formally committed itself to the integrity of the planetary environment. We appeal to the International Criminal Court to render judgement in favor of the world’s individual citizens, whose fundamental rights have been abrogated by planetary geoengineering, as herein documented. We respectfully request the following relief from the International Criminal Court: 1) Immediate and permanent end to the ENMOD Convention; 2) Permanent global injunction on all activities undertaken under ENMOD’s authority; 3) Declassification of all documents related to ENMOD activities as well as making all such documents freely available to the world; 4) Establishment of a legal body, fashioned after the International Military Tribunal at Nuremburg, to hear evidence and render justice for planetary treason and crimes against humanity and the environment.
... Aerosolized coal fly ash contributes to global warming [102], disrupts habitats [90], contaminates the environment with mercury [24], decimates populations of insects [103], bats [104], and birds [94]. Aerosolized coal fly ash also kills trees [105,106], exacerbates wildfires [107], enables harmful algae in our waters [108], and, as described here, destroys the stratospheric ozone layer that shields surface-life from the sun's deadly ultraviolet radiation. ...
Full-text available
We present compelling evidence that supports our contention that aerosolized coal fly ash particles are the main agents responsible for stratospheric ozone depletion, not chlorofluorocarbon gases. Aerosolized coal fly ash particles, uplifted to the stratosphere, not only serve as ice-nucleating agents, but are trapped and concentrated in stratospheric clouds, including Polar Stratospheric Clouds. In springtime, as stratospheric clouds begin to melt/evaporate, said ozone-consuming coal fly ash particles are released making them available to react with and consume stratospheric ozone. Ceasing to contaminate the environment with aerosolized coal fly ash will decrease stratospheric ozone destruction, reduce global warming, and will significantly improve human and environmental health.
... As described in a recently published book [50], Figure 3, chemtrails, evidenced as consisting mainly of coal fly ash, the waste product of coal-burning, is a toxic nightmare that mixes with the air we breathe. Aerosolized coal fly ash is a significant risk factor for COPD and respiratory disease [51], lung cancer [52], and neurodegenerative disease [53], and is potentially a major agent in the globally-catastrophic demise of insects [54], bats [55], birds [56], and forests [57] as well as exacerbating increases in harmful algae in water bodies [58], poisoning the environment with mercury [59], and destroying the ozone layer that protects life from harmful solar ultraviolet radiation [60]. These converging catastrophes represent an existential threat to humanity, especially in the wider context of the numerous anthropogenic threats to the biosphere. ...
Full-text available
Chemtrails and Covid-19, two faces of Evil, threaten all life on our planet solely for political reasons. If we are to have a viable future on this planet, a critical mass of humanity must wake up to the atrocities of the ongoing chemtrail and biological operations. People must break out of their mass formation hypnosis and distractions, start to look up, and bear witness to the terrible suffering of the natural world around us. We are not separate entities from the rest of the biosphere: if the forests die, the wildlife dies, and the oceans die, we too will die. Our time is short – action is urgently needed now to salvage what remains of our natural life support systems and give our children a healthy and viable future.
... Wildlife species are suffering a precipitous global decline [1]. Aerosolized coal fly ash is a significant factor in the catastrophic global decline in the populations of insects [39], birds [28], and bats [40]. Insects can ingest and/or accumulate toxic coal fly ash on their body surfaces which then birds and insectivorous bats consume. ...
Full-text available
The title might suggest that this is a fictional work about an invasion from outer space. Wrong. It is a true recitation of forensic scientific and medical investigations of a near-global, near-daily conspicuous activity whose actual nature and intent is cloaked in secrecy and disinformation.
... Particulate pollution emplaced into the troposphere traps heat that would otherwise be removed by convection [66]. These aerosols alter natural weather patterns, often creating either "drought or deluge" [67], poison the environment [68], damage the protective ozone layer [69], cause global warming [66,70], and are toxic to nearly all biota [71][72][73][74]. ...
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The coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic exploded into a world already reeling from climate change, degradation of natural systems, and pandemics of air pollution and noncommunicable diseases. These pandemics are interrelated; air pollution, the world’s biggest killer, is a major contributor to noncommunicable disease. Air pollution is a probable cofactor in the spread and severity of COVID-19. There are shared mechanisms of injury by the emerging COVID-19 immunopathology, ultrafine air pollutants, and chronic degenerative disease. A key feature of each is oxidative stress, including that caused by iron dysregulation. Exogenous combustion-derived magnetite nanoparticles found in human brains and hearts are strongly implicated in the development of cardiometabolic and neurogenerative disease. Altered iron balance favoring excess reactive or misplaced iron is probably the most important predisposing condition for severe COVID-19 infection. Ultrafine-particle/nanoparticle toxicity and COVID-19 immunopathology on the subcellular level are both characterized by iron dysregulation, mitochondrial dysfunction, and endoplasmic reticulum stress. Primary sources of the most damaging ultrafine pollution particles are fossil fuel combustion, vehicle emissions, and coal fly ash utilized in undisclosed tropospheric aerosol geoengineering. The same ultrafine particles when emitted or placed into the troposphere alter the world’s cloud layers and reduce atmospheric convection, directly contributing to climate change and global warming. Pandemics can only be tackled by international cooperation. Immediate steps that must be taken include monitoring and control of ultrafine particulate air pollution, and prompt cessation of geoengineering operations.
Anthropocene is the current geological epoch on planet Earth, characterized by climate change, land use change, deforestation, pollution, among other phenomena related to human activities. In this chapter, we revised the effects of these human activities on the Mexican bat populations. To achieve this goal, we designed a literature review protocol and executed it using Google Scholar search engine and Web of Science database. Our literature protocol resulted in 2571 documents, with only 68 related with the Anthropocene threats to Mexican bats. The topics most studied were land use change (e.g., deforestation and agriculture), human–bat conflicts, and human infrastructure impact. There is a significant taxonomic bias toward phyllostomid bats, a group mainly studied by mist-netting. Overall, studies show that human activities in Mexico result in the reduction of activity and relative abundance of bats, suggesting that species richness and changes in the composition are not the best diversity parameters to evaluate the effect of human activities on Mexican bats. Pollution and climate change effects on Mexican bats are poorly investigated topics. Finally, Anthropocene effects on Mexican bat diversity threaten the benefits provided to the Mexican populace.
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California's Giant Sequoias and Coast Redwoods, long symbols of strength, longevity, and resilience, have survived natural climate change for as long as 3,000 years, but are now succumbing to human manipulation of the natural environment. Scientists concerned with the wellbeing of these magnificent trees blame their recent die-offs on climate change, drought, and insects while turning a blind eye to the primary underlying cause: environmental modification by jet-emplacement in the troposphere of toxic particles evidenced as coal combustion fly ash. Said aerosolized particulates cause droughts and deluges, heat the troposphere, contaminate rain, snow, and fog with plant-killing toxins including chemically-mobile aluminum, coat foliage, and exacerbate forest fires. The aerial spraying depletes stratospheric ozone, allowing damaging ultraviolet radiation B and C to reach Earth's surface. These environmental stressors weaken the trees to the point they are attacked by insects and pathogenic fungi. Here we disclose the unspoken, underlying cause of the die-offs of Giant Sequoias and Coast Redwoods. Through a diabolically-deceptive, Trojan horse, United Nations' International Treaty the governments of sovereign nations were coerced to wage environmental warfare against their own citizens and the natural environment under the guise of peaceful environmental modification. Remaining trees, and indeed much of the life on Earth, can only be saved if this environmental modification is halted.
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At about the same time that Russian President declared that “We are really witnessing global warming, the reasons, however, remain obscure....”, I published the first of six scientific articles disclosing the evidence and basis for understanding that particulate pollution, not anthropogenic greenhouse gases, is the main cause of global warming. The global warming that occurred during World War II, but which quickly subsided after hostilities ceased, was key to that understanding. The disquieting parallel of scientific behaviour during World War II and at present is key to understanding the challenges humanity faces today concerning science and society.
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In an interconnected world, simultaneous extreme weather events in distant regions could potentially impose high-end risks for societies1,2. In the mid-latitudes, circumglobal Rossby waves are associated with a strongly meandering jet stream and might cause simultaneous heatwaves and floods across the northern hemisphere3–6. For example, in the summer of 2018, several heat and rainfall extremes occurred near-simultaneously7. Here we show that Rossby waves with wavenumbers 5 and 7 have a preferred phase position and constitute recurrent atmospheric circulation patterns in summer. Those patterns can induce simultaneous heat extremes in specific regions: Central North America, Eastern Europe and Eastern Asia for wave 5, and Western Central North America, Western Europe and Western Asia for wave 7. The probability of simultaneous heat extremes in these regions increases by a factor of up to 20 for the most severe heat events when either of these two waves dominate the circulation. Two or more weeks per summer spent in the wave-5 or wave-7 regime are associated with 4% reductions in crop production when averaged across the affected regions, with regional decreases of up to 11%. As these regions are important for global food production, the identified teleconnections have the potential to fuel multiple harvest failures, posing risks to global food security8. A large-scale meandering in the jet stream can cause simultaneous heat extremes in distant regions. When Rossby waves with wavenumbers 5 and 7 dominate circulation, there is an increased risk of heat extremes across major food-producing regions, raising the potential of multiple crop failures.
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Coastal marine atmospheric fog has recently been implicated as a potential source of ocean-derived monomethylmercury (MMHg) to coastal terrestrial ecosystems through the process of sea-to-land advection of foggy air masses followed by wet deposition. This study examined whether pumas (Puma concolor) in coastal central California, USA, and their associated food web, have elevated concentrations of MMHg, which could be indicative of their habitat being in a region that is regularly inundated with marine fog. We found that adult puma fur and fur-normalized whiskers in our marine fog-influenced study region had a mean (± SE) total Hg (THg) (a convenient surrogate for MMHg) concentration of 1544 ± 151 ng g-1 (N = 94), which was three times higher (P<0.01) than mean THg in comparable samples from inland areas of California (492 ± 119 ng g-1, N = 18). Pumas in California eat primarily black-tailed and/or mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), and THg in deer fur from the two regions was also significantly different (coastal 28.1 ± 2.9, N = 55, vs. inland 15.5 ± 1.5 ng g-1, N = 40). We suggest that atmospheric deposition of MMHg through fog may be contributing to this pattern, as we also observed significantly higher MMHg concentrations in lace lichen (Ramalina menziesii), a deer food and a bioindicator of atmospheric deposition, at sites with the highest fog frequencies. At these ocean-facing sites, deer samples had significantly higher THg concentrations compared to those from more inland bay-facing sites. Our results suggest that fog-borne MMHg, while likely a small fraction of Hg in all atmospheric deposition, may contribute, disproportionately, to the bioaccumulation of Hg to levels that approach toxicological thresholds in at least one apex predator. As global mercury levels increase, coastal food webs may be at risk to the toxicological effects of increased methylmercury burdens.
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High elevation, thin ozone layer, and clear sky produce intense ultraviolet (UV) radiation in the tropical Andes. Recent models suggest that tropical stratospheric ozone will slightly decrease in the coming decades, potentially resulting in more UV anomalies. Data collected between 4300 and 5916 m above sea level (asl) in Bolivia show how this trend could dramatically impact surface solar irradiance. During 61 days, two Eldonet dosimeters recorded extreme UV-B irradiance equivalent to a UV index (UVI) of 43.3, which is the highest ground value ever reported. If they become more common, events of this magnitude may have societal and ecological implications, which make understanding the process leading to their generation critical. Our data show that this event and other major UV spikes were consistent with rising UV-B/UV-A ratios in the days to hours preceding the spikes, trajectories of negative ozone anomalies (NOAs), and radiative transfer modeling.
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Red tide is the term used in Florida (USA) and elsewhere to describe a type of marine harmful algal bloom (HAB) that grows out of control and produces neurotoxins that adversely affect humans, birds, fish, shellfish, and marine mammals. HABs are becoming more abundant, extensive, and closer to shore, and longer in duration than any time in recorded history. Our objective is to review the effects the multifold components of aerosolized coal fly ash as they relate to the increasing occurrences of HABs. Aerosolized coal fly ash (CFA) pollutants from non-sequestered coal-fired power plant emissions and from undisclosed, although “hidden in plain sight,” tropospheric particulate geoengineering operations are inflicting irreparable damage to the world’s surface water-bodies and causing great harm to human health (including lung cancer, respiratory and neurodegenerative diseases) and environmental health (including major die-offs of insects, birds and trees). Florida’s ever-growing toxic nightmare of red tides and blue-green algae is a microcosm of similar activity globally. Atmospheric deposition of aerosol particulates, most importantly bioavailable iron, has drastically shifted the global plankton community balance in the direction of harmful algae and cyanobacterial blooms in fresh and salt water. Proposed geoengineering schemes of iron fertilization of the ocean would only make a bad situation unimaginably worse. Based on the evidence presented here, the global spread of harmful algae blooms will only be contained by rapidly reducing particulate air pollution both by implementation of universal industrial particulate-trapping and by the immediate halting of jet-sprayed particulate aerosols. Corrective actions depend not only on international cooperation, but on ending the deadly code of silence throughout government, academe, and media on the subject of ongoing tropospheric aerosol geoengineering. Long-standing weather control, climate intervention, and geoengineering operations have come to threaten not only all humans but the entire web of life on Earth.
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Climate extremes, such as droughts or heat waves, can lead to harvest failures and threaten the livelihoods of agricultural producers and the food security of communities worldwide. Improving our understanding of their impacts on crop yields is crucial to enhance the resilience of the global food system. This study analyses, to our knowledge for the first time, the impacts of climate extremes on yield anomalies of maize, soybeans, rice and spring wheat at the global scale using sub-national yield data and applying a machine-learning algorithm. We find that growing season climate factors - including mean climate as well as climate extremes - explain 20%-49% of the variance of yield anomalies (the range describes the differences between crop types), with 18%-43% of the explained variance attributable to climate extremes, depending on crop type. Temperature-related extremes show a stronger association with yield anomalies than precipitation-related factors, while irrigation partly mitigates negative effects of high temperature extremes. We developed a composite indicator to identify hotspot regions that are critical for global production and particularly susceptible to the effects of climate extremes. These regions include North America for maize, spring wheat and soy production, Asia in the case of maize and rice production as well as Europe for spring wheat production. Our study highlights the importance of considering climate extremes for agricultural predictions and adaptation planning and provides an overview of critical regions that are most susceptible to variations in growing season climate and climate extremes.
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Bats are an ecologically and taxonomically diverse group accounting for roughly a fifth of mammalian diversity worldwide. Many of the threats bats face (e.g., habitat loss, bushmeat hunting, and climate change) reflect the conservation challenges of our era. However, compared to other mammals and birds, we know significantly less about the population status of most bat species, which makes prioritizing and planning conservation actions challenging. Over a third of bat species assessed by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) are considered threatened or data deficient, and well over half of the species have unknown or decreasing population trends. That equals 988 species, or 80% of bats assessed by IUCN, needing conservation or research attention. Delivering conservation to bat species will require sustained efforts to assess population status and trends and address data deficiencies. Successful bat conservation must integrate research and conservation to identify stressors and their solutions and to test the efficacy of actions to stabilize or increase populations. Global and regional networks that connect researchers, conservation practitioners, and local stakeholders to share knowledge, build capacity, and prioritize and coordinate research and conservation efforts, are vital to ensuring sustainable bat populations worldwide. This paper provides an overview of the global status of bat conservation by reviewing the major anthropogenic threats to bats and special challenges to bat conservation. The authors also discuss two habitats with particular significance for bat conservation, namely islands and subterranean features, and the value of bats to ecosystems. The article concludes with suggestions toward meeting the enduring challenges for global bat conservation.
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Objective The ferritin heavy/heart chain (FTH) gene encodes the ferroxidase component of the iron (Fe) sequestering ferritin complex, which plays a central role in the regulation of cellular Fe metabolism. Here we tested the hypothesis that ferritin regulates organismal Fe metabolism in a manner that impacts energy balance and thermal homeostasis. Methods We developed a mouse strain, referred herein as FthR26 fl/fl, expressing a tamoxifen-inducible Cre recombinase under the control of the Rosa26 (R26) promoter and carrying two LoxP (fl) sites: one at the 5′end of the Fth promoter and another the 3' end of the first Fth exon. Tamoxifen administration induces global deletion of Fth in adult FthR26Δ/Δ mice, testing whether FTH is required for maintenance of organismal homeostasis. Results Under standard nutritional Fe supply, Fth deletion in adult FthR26Δ/Δ mice led to a profound deregulation of organismal Fe metabolism, oxidative stress, inflammation, and multi-organ damage, culminating in death. Unexpectedly, Fth deletion was also associated with a profound atrophy of white and brown adipose tissue as well as with collapse of energy expenditure and thermogenesis. This was attributed mechanistically to mitochondrial dysfunction, as assessed in the liver and in adipose tissue. Conclusion The FTH component of ferritin acts as a master regulator of organismal Fe homeostasis, coupling nutritional Fe supply to organismal redox homeostasis, energy expenditure and thermoregulation.
Air pollution is a risk factor for cardiovascular and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Iron-rich, strongly magnetic, combustion- and friction-derived nanoparticles (CFDNPs) are abundant in particulate air pollution. Metropolitan Mexico City (MMC) young residents have abundant brain CFDNPs associated with AD pathology. We aimed to identify if magnetic CFDNPs are present in urbanites' hearts and associated with cell damage. We used magnetic analysis and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to identify heart CFDNPs and measured oxidative stress (cellular prion protein, PrPC), and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress (glucose regulated protein, GRP78) in 72 subjects age 23.8 ± 9.4y: 63 MMC residents, with Alzheimer Continuum vs 9 controls. Magnetite/maghemite nanoparticles displaying the typical rounded crystal morphologies and fused surface textures of CFDNPs were more abundant in MMC residents' hearts. NPs, ∼2-10 × more abundant in exposed vs controls, were present inside mitochondria in ventricular cardiomyocytes, in ER, at mitochondria-ER contact sites (MERCs), intercalated disks, endothelial and mast cells. Erythrocytes were identified transferring 'hitchhiking' NPs to activated endothelium. Magnetic CFDNP concentrations and particle numbers ranged from 0.2 to 1.7 μg/g and ∼2 to 22 × 109/g, respectively. Co-occurring with cardiomyocyte NPs were abnormal mitochondria and MERCs, dilated ER, and lipofuscin. MMC residents had strong left ventricular PrPC and bi-ventricular GRP78 up-regulation. The health impact of up to ∼22 billion magnetic NPs/g of ventricular tissue are likely reflecting the combination of surface charge, ferrimagnetism, and redox activity, and includes their potential for disruption of the heart's electrical impulse pathways, hyperthermia and alignment and/or rotation in response to magnetic fields. Exposure to solid NPs appears to be directly associated with early and significant cardiac damage. Identification of strongly magnetic CFDNPs in the hearts of children and young adults provides an important novel layer of information for understanding CVD pathogenesis emphasizing the urgent need for prioritization of particulate air pollution control.