Article

How the social dimension of fitness apps can enhance and undermine wellbeing: A dual model of passion perspective

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  • Atlantic Technological University
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Abstract

Purpose While the positive health benefits of fitness apps, which motivate and track physical exercise, are widely acknowledged, the adverse connection between these technologies and wellbeing has received little attention. The purpose of this paper is to determine how the social dimensions of fitness apps predict the type of passion (harmonious and obsessive) one has for physical exercise, and what the resulting positive and negative implications are for wellbeing. Design/methodology/approach Drawing from the theoretical frameworks of social influence and the dual model of passion (DMP), this study develops a model depicting how fitness apps relate to the causes and consequences of harmonious and obsessive passion for exercise. Survey data were collected from 272 fitness app using cyclists and analysed with partial least squares structural equation modelling techniques. Findings Different social influence aspects of fitness apps appeal to different types of exercisers. A harmonious passion for physical exercise is predicted by the positive reciprocal benefits attained from one’s fitness app community, while an obsessive passion is predicted by positive recognition. In turn, a harmonious passion for exercise is negatively associated with life burnout, while an obsessive passion strongly affirms that relationship. In addition, the relationship between social influence and life burnout is fully mediated by the type of passion a fitness app user possesses. Originality/value Underpinned by the DMP, the study provides a theoretical framework explaining how the use of fitness apps can result in opposing wellness outcomes.

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... Following the World Health Organization [94], physical activity is conceptualized as "several entities, including light individual exercise, collective training, individual or team sports participation" [95]. As numerous researchers assert that physical activity is an excellent practice for consolidating mental and physical resources [96,97], individuals who engage in physical activity more actively tend to have more available resources [98]. In other words, with higher engagement in physical activity, people would be able to gain more psychological resources to maintain dynamic and mental optimism and deal with external interferences [98,99]. ...
... This finding is consistent with the previous study that engaging in physical activity contributes to decreasing university students' mobile phone dependence and increasing their self-control [141]. The situation can be explained as follows: physical activity engagement can be regarded as a favorable external stimulus to consolidate mental or physical resources [96,97]. Through actively engaging in physical activity, individuals reap and reserve more mental capital to maintain an optimal state of mind and withstand external distractions in light of the view of Halbesleben et al. [98]. ...
... students' engagement in various recreational and sports activities, taking physical activity as an example, to alleviate the adverse impacts of smartphone usage. On the one hand, taking part in beneficial activities help to decrease the time that would otherwise be spent on smartphones; on the other hand, engaging in beneficial activities can be viewed as an excellent external stimulus to integrate psychological or physical resources [96,97]. ...
Article
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The penetration of smartphones into human life finds expression in problematic smartphone use, particularly under the Covid-19 home confinement. Problematic smartphone use is accompanied by adverse impacts on personal wellbeing and individual performance. However, little is known about the mechanism of such adverse impacts. Motivated by this, the present study strives to answer i) how bedtime smartphone use impacts students’ academic performance through wellbeing-related strains; ii) how to mitigate the adverse consequences of bedtime smartphone use. Drawing upon the stressor-strain-outcome paradigm, the current work presents a comprehensive understanding of how smartphone use indirectly deteriorates college students’ academic performance through the mediators of nomophobia — “the fear of being unavailable to mobile phones” (Author et al., 2021) — and sleep deprivation. This allows a more flexible remedy to alleviate the adverse consequences of smartphone use instead of simply limiting using smartphones. This study collects a two-year longitudinal dataset of 6,093 college students and employs the structural equation modeling technique to examine the stressor‐strain‐outcome relationship among bedtime smartphone use, nomophobia, sleep deprivation, and academic performance. This study finds robust evidence that wellbeing-related strains (i.e., nomophobia and sleep deprivation) mediate the negative relationship between bedtime smartphone use and academic performance. Furthermore, engaging in physical activity effectively mitigates the adverse effects of bedtime smartphone use upon nomophobia and sleep deprivation. This study not only enriches the current literature regarding the indirect effect mechanism of smartphone use but also provides valuable insights for academics and educational policymakers.
... One potential strategy to increase and support college students' physical activity particularly in club running groups is the use of fitness trackers (Kinney et al., 2019). Fitness tracking applications (apps) such as Strava, Runkeeper and Nike + have gained enormous popularity in the last decade (Whelan & Clohessy, 2020). In 2019, nearly 1 in 5 American adults reported using an app to track health information (McCarthy, 2019) and during the first months of the COVID-19 pandemic, downloads of fitness apps increased by 46% worldwide (Ang, 2020). ...
... Research on fitness tracking apps generally (not specifically Strava) has found a positive correlation between their use and physical activity behavior (Barratt, 2017;Conroy et al., 2014;Hamari & Koivisto, 2015;Li et al., 2019;Sailer et al., 2017). However, while some app users are motivated by opportunities for competition and social comparison, others feel obligated to exercise or demotivated by perceived underperformance and may engage in maladaptive or unsafe physical activity behaviors (Barratt, 2017;Feng & Agosto, 2019;Honary et al., 2019;Whelan & Clohessy, 2020). Moreover, some fitness app users may also intentionally modify, withhold or misrepresent their activity data in order to garner additional social recognition or avoid perceptions of judgment (Barratt, 2017). ...
Article
The fitness app Strava incorporates the utility of a fitness tracker with the connection of social media. Since 2009, Strava has attracted over 100 million users, yet little research has assessed the implications of its use. The purpose of this study was to explore the perceived psychosocial implications of Strava use among collegiate club runners. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 18 runners from collegiate running clubs across the United States who were Strava users. Results indicated that runners perceived the psychosocial implications of Strava use to fall into three main themes: 1) self-presentation, 2) social pressure, and 3) motivation. The findings of this study support the utility of Strava to connect collegiate club runners and support their motivation to run while also suggesting some potential concerns related to social pressure and self-presentation that could influence mental or physical health.
... A few recent IS studies examine how motivational drivers influence the use of fitness technology features (Hamari et al., 2018;James et al., 2019a). How fitness technology use (e.g., if exercise is socialized through the fitness technology) drives wellness outcomes (e.g., subjective vitality, life burnout) or IS continuance intentions is also a recently popular area of study (Hamari & Koivisto, 2015;James et al., 2019a;James et al., 2019b;Rockmann, 2019;Whelan & Clohessy, 2020). In these studies, fitness technology users are often differentiated based on their motivation toward exercise (e.g., obsessive or harmonious passion for exercise, intrinsic or extrinsic motivation to exercise) or by the features of the technology they employ (e.g., rewards, social competition, reminders). ...
... Previous studies of fitness technologies focused on how the motivational processes regulating exercise or exercise goals related to the features of fitness technologies that people employed (James et al., 2019a;James et al., 2019b). Other studies have considered how elements of fitness technology use (e.g., recognition, rewards) influences outcomes such as life burnout or continuance through people's passion for exercise or satisfaction or frustration of their competence need (Rockmann, 2019;Whelan & Clohessy, 2020). These studies reveal how people's motivation for exercise influences fitness technology use or how fitness technology use influences motivation to exercise. ...
Article
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The aim of fitness technologies, a combination of wearables and associated applications, is to support users’ health and fitness regimes. The market for fitness technologies continues to increase, and the technologies themselves are quickly advancing. However, it is unclear how effective fitness technologies are in generating wellness outcomes, and there is concern regarding frequent discontinuance behaviors. Accordingly, we develop a model to explain how the perception that fitness technologies satisfy or frustrate the users’ basic psychological needs (BPNs) in exercise mediates the relationships between the users’ goals for fitness technology use and psychological well-being and continuance. We find that users who start using fitness technologies for enjoyment, challenge, revitalization, affiliation, or to make positive improvements to their health or strength and endurance are more likely to report that the fitness technologies are satisfying their BPNs, whereas users who start using them for stress management, social recognition, competition, or weight management are more likely to report BPNs frustration. Notably, users who start using fitness technologies for enjoyment and to make positive improvements to their health or strength and endurance are less likely to report BPNs frustration, and use driven by social recognition goals can decrease BPNs satisfaction. BPNs satisfaction is associated with both increased psychological well-being and continuance, whereas BPNs frustration is negatively associated with both. Fitness technologies must thus be perceived by users to satisfy their BPNs (i.e., autonomy, competence, and relatedness) in exercise to ensure positive outcomes from use.
... Passion signifies an intense affective state that stimulates feelings of joy and excitement, which affect the degree of WOM intentions and commitment towards DAs (Whelan and Clohessy, 2021). Fewer studies posit that passion has an indirect effect on the linkage between usefulness, ease of use, privacy concern, localisation, WOM intention, and commitment (Hernández-Ortega et al., 2022;Song et al., 2022). ...
Article
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Consumers develop a passion for the use of innovations, which is a critical determinant of their success. Research has largely examined drivers of initial acceptance of digital assistants (DAs) and has yet to fully understand the factors driving or deterring consumers' passion towards DAs and the behavioural outcomes. Drawing on the stimulus-organism-response framework, this study examines a unique set of factors (usefulness, ease of use, privacy concern, and localisation) that act as stimuli to drive an organismic state of passion for DAs, and how this produces behavioural responses of word-of-mouth (WOM) intention and commitment to DA use. The study also examines how technology anxiety moderates passion's impact on WOM intentions and commitment. The findings show that usefulness, ease of use, privacy concern, and localisation are significant explanatory variables of consumers' passion towards DAs. Furthermore, passion towards DAs results in WOM intentions and commitment to its use. The findings further show that passion's effect on DAs in explaining WOM intentions and commitment is weakened by technology anxiety. Lastly, passion is the mediating mechanism through which usefulness, ease of use, privacy concern, and localisation impact WOM intentions and commitment. The implications of these findings for theory and practice are highlighted.
... Furthermore, fitness apps that function on a network of digital technologies have modified the exercise experience by extending it as a social experience through sharing of performance-related data with friends and strangers. The social dimension of fitness apps has dual implications for health and wellbeing, of which the negative impacts are regarded less than the positive effects (Whelan and Clohessy, 2021). In this article, we focus on one such potential negative implication, namely the concerns related to the privacy of users when data are shared across platforms. ...
Article
Purpose In this article we aim to understand how the network formed by fitness tracking devices and associated apps as a subset of the broader health-related Internet of things is capable of spreading information. Design/methodology/approach The authors used a combination of a content analysis, network analysis, community detection and simulation. A sample of 922 health-related apps (including manufacturers' apps and developers) were collected through snowball sampling after an initial content analysis from a Google search for fitness tracking devices. Findings The network of fitness apps is disassortative with high-degree nodes connecting to low-degree nodes, follow a power-law degree distribution and present with low community structure. Information spreads faster through the network than an artificial small-world network and fastest when nodes with high degree centrality are the seeds. Practical implications This capability to spread information holds implications for both intended and unintended data sharing. Originality/value The analysis confirms and supports evidence of widespread mobility of data between fitness and health apps that were initially reported in earlier work and in addition provides evidence for the dynamic diffusion capability of the network based on its structure. The structure of the network enables the duality of the purpose of data sharing.
... These affordances are designed to satisfy a core human desire to experience interaction with other humans, leading to social bonding (Ryan & Deci, 2000). Combining these affordances with features of gamification, passionate competitiveness, and peer pressure, fitness apps, and Strava in particular, fuel the engine of social contagion, leading to sharing physical activity performance and sensitive location information (Rowe, Ngwenyama, & Richet, 2020;Whelan & Clohessy, 2020). ...
Thesis
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Data sharing and data harvesting practices not only infringe the privacy rights of individuals but cause significant harms to others as well. Emissions of personally sensitive behavioural data are leaked into the digital economy causing damage to social practices and destabilizing political and informational ecosystems. Data pollution is like industrial pollution, and environmental law suggestions can offer solutions to the problem. Will a Pigouvian tax on data extraction limit or constrain the negative externalities of data pollution? This explorative research aims to investigate whether a data pollution tax can operate as a regulatory instrument to curb data pollution and whether citizens support this measure. Do citizens support a data pollution tax designed so that harms to others, affecting their core human capabilities, will be taxed as a matter of principle? Suppose excessive (corporate) data sharing and extraction practices that cause harm to others will be taxed. Do individuals expect that persons and corporations will change their data transmission practices? Our survey findings show that (United States) citizens consider that harms caused by data pollution should be taxed. Respondents will also substantially decrease their data pollution behaviour once a tax is imposed. However, and to our surprise, our research findings also lay bare a possible ‘bad behaviour paradox’: the more significant the harm caused by some instances of data pollution, the less willing people are to change behaviour relative to the tax imposed.
... Mobile health and medical applications enable users to log and track their personal health metrics (e.g., height, weight, blood glucose levels, exercise data, etc) and share their health achievements with other users via social networks and communities (Hamari and Koivisto, 2015). This ability for users to share and connect with a community of people and benchmark their performance reinforces the power of social influence to download mobile health and medical applications (Li et al., 2017;Whelan and Clohessy, 2020). It has been demonstrated that the process of compliance/conformance, plays a key component in explaining the impact of social influence on technology adoption (Cialdini andGoldstein, 2004: Young, 2009). ...
Article
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The continued proliferation of information technology in all aspects of our lives fosters benefits but also generates risks to individuals’ privacy. In emerging contexts, such as government surveillance technologies, there is a dearth of research investigating the positive and negative drivers of citizens’ acceptance. This is an important gap given the importance of citizen acceptance to the success of these technologies and the need to balance potentially wide-reaching benefits with any dilution of citizen privacy. We conduct a longitudinal examination of the competing influences of positive beliefs and privacy concerns on citizens’ acceptance of a COVID-19 national contact tracing mobile application among 405 Irish citizens. Combining privacy calculus theory with social exchange theory, we find that citizens’ initial acceptance is shaped by their perceptions of health benefits and social influence, with reciprocity exhibiting a sustained influence on acceptance over time and privacy concerns demonstrating a negative, albeit weak influence on willingness to rely on the application. The study offers important empirical and theoretical implications for the privacy literature in the government surveillance, location-based services, and mobile health application contexts, as well as practical implications for governments and developers introducing applications that rely on mass acceptance and reciprocal information disclosure.
... It can serve as a basis for developing interventions for altering one's social media continued use decisions and behaviors. This is especially important given the increase in problematic uses of technology fostered by the development of habitual use (Soror et al., 2015;Turel, 2015b;Seo and Ray, 2019;Tokunga, 2017), and the dire need of reducing information and communication technology negative societal impacts (Islam et al., 2019;Tarafdar et al., 2015a;Whelan and Clohessy, 2020). ...
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... Human-to-human interactions also include interactions between users and other users (Beldad & Hegner, 2018;Kreitzberg, Dailey, Vogt, Robinson, & Zhu, 2016). However, the user-to-user interaction, which is between two entities with the same roles in the service system, has received substantial attention in existing literature as fitness wearables and apps commonly have social networking features that let users interact with other users (Cho & Tian, 2019;Whelan & Clohessy, 2020;Zhu, Dailey, Kreitzberg, & Bernhardt, 2017). User-to-user interaction is therefore not considered in this study. ...
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Consumers develop a passion for the use of innovations, which is a critical determinant of their success. Research has largely examined drivers of initial acceptance of digital assistants (DAs) and has yet to fully understand the factors driving or deterring consumers’ passion towards DAs and the behavioural outcomes. Drawing on the stimulus-organism-response framework, this study examines a unique set of factors (usefulness, ease of use, privacy concern, and localisation) that act as stimuli to drive an organismic state of passion for DAs, and how this produces behavioural responses of word-of-mouth (WOM) intention and commitment to DA use. The study also examines how technology anxiety moderates passion’s impact on WOM intentions and commitment. The findings show that usefulness, ease of use, privacy concern, and localisation are significant explanatory variables of consumers’ passion towards DAs. Furthermore, passion towards DAs results in WOM intentions and commitment to its use. The findings further show that passion’s effect on DAs in explaining WOM intentions and commitment is weakened by technology anxiety. Lastly, passion is the mediating mechanism through which usefulness, ease of use, privacy concern, and localisation impact WOM intentions and commitment. The implications of these findings for theory and practice are highlighted.
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There is an increasing awareness that social networking site (SNS) use includes a socio-psychologically positive and a negative side. However, research remains largely silent on which side dominates in driving SNS use. To address this gap and to better understand the nature of SNSs we examine the positive and negative drivers of SNS use in parallel. We draw on the uses and gratifications theory and place social enhancement and interpersonal connectivity as the socio-psychologically positive gratifications and exhibitionism and voyeurism as the adverse gratifications predicting SNS use. We further link these gratifications to two key psychological needs, namely self-presentation and the need to belong. We conceptualize our dependent variable, SNS use, as a multi-dimensional second-order construct that consists of content production, content consumption, amount of usage, and comprehensiveness of one's profile information. We use longitudinal data from Facebook users to test our research model. The results show that exhibitionism, voyeurism and interpersonal connectivity predict SNS use. Furthermore, the number of friends in the SNS decreases the effect of exhibitionism and increases the effect of social enhancement. Altogether, the role of exhibitionism and voyeurism in predicting SNS use underscores the need for increased awareness of the socio-psychologically dark side of SNSs.
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Introduction: CrossFit is a mix of aerobic and anaerobic exercise regimes with the stated goal of improving fitness and physical performance. It is growing in popularity and has a strong community known to motivate and push the participants to maximal performance. The negative consequences of these extreme exercise patterns have rarely been described. The prevalence of injuries in CrossFit is high but exercise addiction and harmful exercise attitudes have not yet been assessed. The aim of this study was to measure the prevalence of exercise addiction in CrossFit and to evaluate the reliability and validity of the Exercise Addiction Inventory (EAI) in a CrossFit population. Methods: We invited crossfitters to participate in an online survey using Facebook groups. A total of 603 regular crossfitters completed the EAI and additional questions concerning exercise amounts and negative exercise attitudes and beliefs. We used principal component analyses and structural equation models to test the psychometric properties of the EAI and to describe the characteristics of the addicted crossfitters. Results: We found that 5% of the crossfitters were addicted to exercise and that young males had a higher risk. The EAI had good internal reliability (0.73) and construct validity. Thus we found significant positive associations between exercise addiction and the tendency to exercise in spite of injury, feelings of guilt when unable to exercise, passion turning into obsession and taking medication to be able to exercise. Conclusions: Exercise addiction is prevalent in CrossFit and needs further exploration. The EAI is recommended for research in CrossFit communities and applied settings.
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We discuss common method bias in the context of structural equation modeling employing the partial least squares method (PLS-SEM). Two datasets were created through a Monte Carlo simulation to illustrate the discussion: one contaminated by common method bias, and the other not contaminated. A practical approach is presented for the identification of common method bias based on variance inflation factors generated via a full collinearity test. Our discussion builds on an illustrative model in the field of e-collaboration, with outputs generated by the software WarpPLS. We demonstrate that the full collinearity test is successful in the identification of common method bias with a model that nevertheless passes standard convergent and discriminant validity assessment criteria based on a confirmation factor analysis.
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Today, people use a variety of social and gameful (mobile) applications in order to motivate themselves and others to maintain difficult habits such as exercise, sustainable consumption and healthy eating. However, we have yet lacked understanding of how social influence affects willingness to maintain these difficult habits with the help of gamification services. In order to investigate this phenomenon, we measured how social influence predicts attitudes, use and further exercise in the context of gamification of exercise. Our results show that people indeed do “work out for likes”, or in other words, social influence, positive recognition and reciprocity have a positive impact on how much people are willing to exercise as well as their attitudes and willingness to use gamification services. Moreover, we found that the more friends a user has in the service, the larger the effects are. Furthermore, the findings of the empirical study further provide new understanding on the phenomenon of social influence in technology adoption/use continuance in general by showing, in addition to subjective norms, how getting recognized, receiving reciprocal benefits and network effects contribute to use continuance.
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Information Systems enjoyment has been identified as a desirable phenomenon, because it can drive various aspects of system use. In this study, we argue that it can also be a key ingredient in the formation of adverse outcomes, such as technology-related addictions, through the positive reinforcement it generates. We rely on several theoretical mechanisms and, consistent with previous studies, suggest that enjoyment can lead to presumably positive outcomes, such as high engagement. Nevertheless, it can also facilitate the development of a strong habit and reinforce it until it becomes a ‘bad habit’, that can help forming a strong pathological and maladaptive psychological dependency on the use of the IT artifact (i.e., technology addiction). We test and validate this dual effect of enjoyment, with a data set of 194 social networking website users analyzed with SEM techniques. The potential duality of MIS constructs and other implications for research and practice are discussed.
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Exercise addiction is characterized by increasing exercise amounts which take priority over other areas of life. It is mostly observed in individual sports, such as running and weight-lifting, whereas addiction in team sport has not previously been investigated. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of exercise addiction in a team sport (football) compared to an individual sport (fitness) and to test the psychometric properties of the Exercise Addiction Inventory in these populations. The Exercise Addiction Inventory was completed by 274 men in the age group of 16–39 years (98 football players and 176 fitness exercisers). The prevalence of exercise addiction was statistically equal in the two groups (7.1% in football and 9.7% in fitness). The Cronbach's alpha showed good internal reliability in both groups and factor analysis found one underlying factor interpreted as exercise addiction. Less of the variance was explained in the football sample with low loading on item 2: conflicts (0.2). We compared the structure of the scale between the two groups by using structural equation models and we found that exercise addiction can explain the six Exercise Addiction Inventory (EAI) variables. Thus, the EAI is recommended for identification of addiction in both populations but in football players the item of conflicts could be replaced. Motivation for exercise in the football group seemed to be enjoyment and competition, while the fitness group exercised for health and weight reasons. Different motivation for exercise might explain the psychometric differences of the scale, but further studies are warranted.
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Activity tracking apps-such as Strava or Runtastic-are positioned to enhance people's motivation towards physical activity and healthy behavior. Though positive consequences are widely anticipated, users have contradictory relationships with these apps resulting in often harmful experiences. To address the shortcomings in research and practice about why and when positive and negative effects can occur, this study makes an effort by drawing on the concept of affordances and goal theory to explain how user-artifact interactions produce different consequences. We identify six conceptual affordances salient in activity tracking and develop arguments how these affordances become actualized in dependence of the users' goals. We also point out that users will become exposed to affordances that won't necessarily match their goal orientation leading to negative experiences. Our research therefore aims to contribute to a nuanced understanding of activity tracking and to enhance the theoretical accounts of the affordance actualization process.
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Purpose Self-promotion on social networking sites (SNSs) is a controversial issue as it has been attributed to various positive and negative consequences. To better understand the reasons for the mixed consequences and the nature of self-promotion on SNSs, the purpose of this paper is to theorize and empirically investigate the duality of SNS self-promotion and its underlying socio-psychological mechanisms. Design/methodology/approach By drawing on the motivational affordance lens and self-determination theory, this study develops a theoretical account of the duality of self-promotion on SNSs. The author places subjective vitality and SNS addiction as the positive and negative consequences of self-promotion. The model was tested using partial least squares technique with data collected from 289 Finnish Facebook users using a survey. Findings The results show that self-promotion contributes to both subjective vitality and to SNS addiction. Importantly, exhibitionism attenuates the effect of self-promotion on subjective vitality and amplifies the effect of self-promotion on SNS addiction. The feature-level analysis shows that status updates, adding photos, commenting in others’ posts and profile completeness are the main determinants of self-promotion. Status updates, adding photos and check-ins, in turn, have high exhibitionistic appeal. Originality/value To date, the empirical attempts to investigate the duality of SNS use have been rare. In particular, prior research is largely silent in explaining what tilt the outcomes of self-promotion either toward positive or negative direction. The paper fills this theoretical and empirical gap and thus contributes to literature on dualities of SNS use.
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The statistical tests used in the analysis of structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error are examined. A drawback of the commonly applied chi square test, in addition to the known problems related to sample size and power, is that it may indicate an increasing correspondence between the hypothesized model and the observed data as both the measurement properties and the relationship between constructs decline. Further, and contrary to common assertion, the risk of making a Type II error can be substantial even when the sample size is large. Moreover, the present testing methods are unable to assess a model's explanatory power. To overcome these problems, the authors develop and apply a testing system based on measures of shared variance within the structural model, measurement model, and overall model.
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A Primer on Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM), by Hair, Hult, Ringle, and Sarstedt, provides a concise yet very practical guide to understanding and using PLS structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM). PLS-SEM is evolving as a statistical modeling technique and its use has increased exponentially in recent years within a variety of disciplines, due to the recognition that PLS-SEM’s distinctive methodological features make it a viable alternative to the more popular covariance-based SEM approach. This text includes extensive examples on SmartPLS software, and is accompanied by multiple data sets that are available for download from the accompanying website (www.pls-sem.com).
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Partial least squares-based structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) is extensively used in the field of information systems, as well as in many other fields where multivariate statistical methods are used. One of the most fundamental issues in PLS-SEM is that of minimum sample size estimation. The '10-times rule' has been a favourite because of its simplicity of application, even though it tends to yield imprecise estimates. We propose two related methods, based on mathematical equations, as alternatives for minimum sample size estimation in PLS-SEM: the inverse square root method, and the gamma-exponential method. Based on three Monte Carlo experiments, we demonstrate that both methods are fairly accurate. The inverse square root method is particularly attractive in terms of its simplicity of application.
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Changing socio-technical practices occurring within cycling are leading the pursuit, and its participants, to become ever more embedded into the networked digital world. GPS enabled mobile-technologies have introduced a new element of competition into recreational riding, whether on the road, competing over timed virtual segments, or online dissecting and comparing the data that has been logged and shared via dedicated ride-logging applications. In order to understand these technologies qualitative study using reflective diaries and semi-structured interviews has been conducted with experienced club cyclists who had fully experienced the effects of their arrival. These riders claim that the applications influence their route choice and motivate them to cycle more frequently, and at a greater intensity although the engagement changes over time. This paper explores how this increased motivation to exercise and compete is instigated, manifested and maintained in the everyday practices of cyclists, as well as the negative consequences of gamification.
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Despite a huge spike in smartphone overuse, the cognitive and emotional consequences of smartphone overuse have rarely been examined empirically. In two studies, we investigated whether separation from a smartphone influences state anxiety and impairs higher-order cognitive processes, such as executive functions. We found that smartphone separation causes heightened anxiety, which in turn mediates the adverse effect of smartphone separation on all core aspects of executive functions, including shifting (Experiment 1) and inhibitory control and working-memory capacity (Experiment 2). Interestingly, impaired mental shifting was evident regardless of the extent of smartphone addiction, whereas smartphone addiction significantly moderated the negative effect of smartphone separation on inhibitory control, as assessed by the Stroop task. The study sheds light on cognitive mechanisms that may underlie some of these negative consequences of smartphone overuse.
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Mobile and wearable technologies facilitate physiological data collection for health and wellness purposes. Users typically access these data via Online Fitness Community (OFC) platforms (e.g., Fitbit, Strava, RunKeeper). These platforms present users with functionalities centered on self-monitoring, social networking and enjoyment. In order to fully benefit from these functionalities, users need to make a habit out of integrating OFC use into their everyday workout routines. However, research suggests that users often fail to use OFCs over a longer period of time. This study sheds light on the factors that explain persisted OFC use. To that end, the study compares novice and experienced users in terms of their OFC use motives and how these motives contribute to the habitual integration of OFCs into everyday workout routines. Based on the survey responses of 394 OFC users, a multi-sample structural equation model indicates that self-regulatory and social motives directly predict habitual OFC use, and that enjoyment and self-regulatory motives indirectly predict habitual OFC use, by driving the perceived usefulness of OFCs. Moderation analysis revealed that, for novice users, self-regulatory motives are the prime drivers of habitual OFC use, while social motives and enjoyment are more important for experienced users.
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Despite the benefits of exercise, many individuals lack the motivation to integrate it into their daily lives. Recently, there has been a growing interest in the use of game principles in non-game contexts to make an activity that is perceived to be challenging, tedious or boring more enjoyable. With increased enjoyment through the infusion of game elements, it is expected that individuals will be more motivated to partake in the activity. Given this backdrop, the present study seeks to ascertain the utility of gamification for promoting exercise among individuals. We used Fitocracy as the gamification platform. Our results suggest that gamification improves not only attitudes towards and enjoyment of exercise but also shapes behavior in terms of increase in exercise activity. These findings augur well for gamification platforms and their usefulness in motivating exercise among individuals. Finally, our work suggests design implications for applications that aim to gamify exercise.
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Attitude and opinion data provide a basis for inferring the meaning of opinions held by individuals and groups and also for predictions about their future behavior. Such inferences and predictions, if they are to be made effectively, require a theoretical foundation which explains the processes by which people adopt and express particular opinions. Here is a theory of three processes by which persons respond to social influence.
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Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the factors that affect how people maintain their friendships by using information on Plurk. Design/methodology/approach – This study extended the Theory of Planned Behavior model to include both interpersonal curiosity and reciprocity. Data were collected via an online survey with 220 valid samples. The respondents answered the survey questionnaire based on their past experiences using Plurk. The proposed research model was assessed using structural equation modeling as performed in the LISREL program. Findings – The attitude toward using Plurk for maintaining friendships is the strongest predictor of intention to use, followed by perceived behavioral control. The findings indicate that reciprocity has the strongest effect on attitude toward using Plurk for maintaining friendship, followed by subjective norms and interpersonal curiosity. An analysis of the research explained 61 percent of the variance in attitude toward using Plurk for maintaining friendship, and 73 percent of the variance in intention to use Plurk for maintaining friendship. Research limitations/implications – This study only focussed on a limited number of factors, and as a result, the effects of some variables, such as personal characteristics, may have been overlooked. In the future, researchers can extend this model by incorporating more variables into the analysis of maintaining friendships via Plurk. Practical implications – As microblogging firms compete for online customers, it would be useful to gain some understanding of the possible effects of reciprocity and interpersonal curiosity on users’ intention to use Plurk for maintaining friendships. As firms compete for internet marketing, managers should know the potential use of Plurk as an effective channel to promote their products and services to whoever needs them. Originality/value – From the literature available in the public journal databases, no existing research model was found to explain the behavior of Plurk users on microblogs. The paper fulfills this objective.
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Purpose – Building upon studies of value theory and social psychology literature, the purpose of this paper is to empirically test a research model that incorporates antecedents of value (mobile convenience, service compatibility, security risk, and cognitive effort) and mobile value (utilitarian and hedonic value), and social influence (social norms and number of peers) to examine factors affecting user intention toward mobile social networking sites (SNSs). Design/methodology/approach – The proposed model was empirically evaluated using survey data collected from 318 users on their perceptions of mobile SNSs. A structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to assess the relationships of the research model. Findings – The results revealed that mobile convenience, service compatibility, security risk, and cognitive effort have a significant and indirect impact on the user acceptance of mobile SNSs through their respective paths on hedonic value and utility value. Practical implications – Mobile SNSs practitioners should focus on enhancing users’ mobile value through perceived benefits, lower perceived costs, and simultaneously developing social influence to further boost users’ intention to use for mobile social networking services. Originality/value – This study contributes to a theoretical understanding of factors that explain users’ intention to use the mobile SNSs.
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Theory suggests that coworkers may influence individuals' technology use behaviors, but there is limited research in the technology diffusion literature that explicates how such social influence processes operate after initial adoption. We investigate how two key social influence mechanisms (identification and internalization) may explain the growth over time in individuals' use of knowledge management systems (KMS)--a technology that because of its publicly visible use provides a rich context for investigating social influence. We test our hypotheses using longitudinal KMS usage data on over 80,000 employees of a management consulting firm. Our approach infers the presence of identification and internalization from associations between actual system use behaviors by a focal individual and prior system use by a range of reference groups. Evidence of these kinds of associations between system use behaviors helps construct a more complete picture of social influence mechanisms, and is to our knowledge novel to the technology diffusion literature. Our results confirm the utility of this approach for understanding social influence effects and reveal a fine-grained pattern of influence across different social groups: we found strong support for bottom-up social influence across hierarchical levels, limited support for peer-level influence within levels, and no support for top-down influence.