Technical ReportPDF Available

EV Charging Definitions, Modes, Levels, Communication Protocols and Applied Standards

Authors:

Abstract and Figures

This technical report describes the most common terms and standards in EV charging domain. It represents an overview of EV charging types, EV charging levels, EV charging modes, charging plug types and communication protocols related with. This can be a useful document for all EV passionate persons as well as young engineers starting a new career in EV marker! The content of this document is just for general knowledge and promoting the trend toward e-mobility. It should not be considered as regulatory requirement neither a technical standard. The norms and standards in e-mobility field are prone to frequent modifications and update. Please refer to the latest related norms for your development. Names and brands of manufacturers shown in figures are neither for advertisement nor promotion purposes. All rights reserved. While the text, images and graphics, and their arrangement in this technical report are the intellectual property of the author, they are allowed to be used in other publications, and web pages as long as citing and referencing to this document have been respected accordingly. Note that this technical report may be updated without notice. Always try to use the latest version online here. #EV #EV_Charging #Electric #Emobility #Reference #Technical_Reference_Document
Content may be subject to copyright.
EV Charging Definitions, Modes, Levels, Communication Protocols
and Applied Standards
V1.2
Ali Bahrami
January 2020
Technical Report Ali Bahrami, www.linkedin.com/in/alibhrmi/
2
Version history
Date
Changes
V1
10.01.2020
First Release
V1.2
28.12.2021
Corrections,
OBC architectures added,
DCFC architectures added,
Resistance tolerances in CP and PP circuitries added
Technical Report Ali Bahrami, www.linkedin.com/in/alibhrmi/
3
Table of Contents
Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................ 5
Disclaimer ................................................................................................................................................................ 5
Overview - Types of EV Charging Solutions and Infrastructures ........................................................................... 5
Inductive charging solution (a.k.a. wireless power transfer or WPT): ................................................................. 7
On board battery charger (OBC): ......................................................................................................................... 7
Off board DC fast charging (DCFC) block diagram: ........................................................................................... 9
Sustainability approaches in e-mobility; ............................................................................................................ 11
Main International Standards Applied to EV Charging ...................................................................................... 12
Generic Standards .................................................................................................................................................. 12
Connector Standards; ............................................................................................................................................. 13
IEC 62196 Review ............................................................................................................................................. 13
SAE J1772 Review ............................................................................................................................................ 14
Supply Station Standards; ...................................................................................................................................... 15
Vehicle Standards; ................................................................................................................................................. 16
ISO 6469 Electrically propelled road vehicles Safety specifications ......................................................... 16
ISO 17409 - Electrically Propelled Road Vehicles Conductive Charging ......................................................... 16
ISO 18246 Electric Mopeds and Motorcycles Conductive Charging ............................................................. 16
Communication Standards; .................................................................................................................................... 19
ISO 15118 vs DIN SPEC 70121 Comparison .................................................................................................... 20
AC and DC charging - North America and Japan (Charging Levels): ............................................................... 22
Level 1 Charging - AC ........................................................................................................................................... 22
Level 2 Charging - AC ........................................................................................................................................... 22
Level 3 Charging- DC Fast Charging (DC level 1 and DC level 2) ...................................................................... 23
Level 3 CCS 1 ................................................................................................................................................. 24
Level 3 - CHAdeMO .......................................................................................................................................... 25
Level 3 - Tesla Supercharger ............................................................................................................................. 25
AC and DC Charging China and Europe ........................................................................................................... 27
AC Charging China and Europe ......................................................................................................................... 27
DC Fast Charging China and Europe .................................................................................................................. 27
SAE Combo-CCS2 ............................................................................................................................................ 27
GB/T 20234 DC Fast Charging.......................................................................................................................... 28
Charging Modes in IEC 61851 ................................................................................................................................ 30
Technical Report Ali Bahrami, www.linkedin.com/in/alibhrmi/
4
Mode 1 Slow charging from a regular electrical socket (single- or three-phase) .................................................. 30
Mode 2 Slow charging from a regular socket but with some EV specific protection arrangement ....................... 30
Mode 3 Slow or fast charging using a specific EV multi-pin socket with control and protection functions ......... 31
Mode 4 Fast charging using some special charger technology such as CHAdeMO .............................................. 32
Charging Cases in ISO 61851 ................................................................................................................................. 33
Case A .................................................................................................................................................................... 33
Case B .................................................................................................................................................................... 33
Case C .................................................................................................................................................................... 33
Plug types .................................................................................................................................................................. 35
Type 1 (AC Type 1) ............................................................................................................................................... 35
Type 2 (AC Type 2) ............................................................................................................................................... 35
Combined Charging System (CCS1 and CCS2) .................................................................................................... 35
Signaling and Communication Protocols According to IEC 61851 and SAE J1772 ......................................... 36
CCS DC Charging sequence and state transition ............................................................................................... 45
P1901 powerline communication (DC charging and smart AC charging) ........................................................ 47
High Level Communication (HLC) ................................................................................................................... 49
The Signal Level Attenuation Characterization (SLAC) ................................................................................... 49
CHAdeMO (DC) .................................................................................................................................................... 51
Signaling and Communication Protocols in CHAdeMO ................................................................................... 51
GB/T Plug (AC and DC) ........................................................................................................................................ 52
GB/T AC Charging Plug .................................................................................................................................... 52
GB/T DC Charging Plug .................................................................................................................................... 54
Tesla Charging Inlet and Plug ................................................................................................................................ 55
References ................................................................................................................................................................. 56
Technical Report Ali Bahrami, www.linkedin.com/in/alibhrmi/
5
Introduction
This technical report describes the most common terms and standards in EV charging domain. It represents a review
on EV charging types, levels/modes, plug types and communication protocols. This can be a useful document for all
EV passionate persons as well as young engineers starting a new career in EV marker!
Disclaimer
The content of this document is just for general knowledge and promoting the trend toward e-mobility. It should not
be considered as regulatory requirement neither a technical standard. The norms and standards in e-mobility field are
prone to frequent modifications and update. Please refer to the latest related norms for your development. Names and
brands of manufacturers shown in figures are neither for advertisement nor promotion purposes.
All rights reserved. While the text, images and graphics, and their arrangement in this technical report are the
intellectual property of the author, they are allowed to be used in other publications, and web pages as long as citing
and referencing to this document have been respected. Note that this technical report may be updated without notice.
Always try to use the latest version of this document online.
Overview - Types of EV Charging Solutions and Infrastructures
The following graph shows the main charging solutions for electric vehicles (EV) and plug-in hybrid vehicles
(PHEV) existing in the market these days. Note that EV and PHEV are oftentimes referred to as Battery Electric
Vehicles (BEV) too.
(a)
BEV Charging Scenarios
Inductive Charging (WPT)
Conductive Charging
On-board Charging AC Charging Spot
Off-board Charging DC Charging Station
Battery Swap
Commercial Vehicle Side Swapping
Passenger Car Rear-swapping
Bottom-swapping
Technical Report Ali Bahrami, www.linkedin.com/in/alibhrmi/
6
(b)
(c)
(d)
Figure 1 (a) Main conductive charging solutions for BEV
(b)Inductive charging solution (a.k.a. WPT) (c)Conductive charging solutions: AC Charging pole, DC fast charging stations
(d)Battery swap station
On-board charging solutions are supplied by the AC grid and the energy conversion is carried out through an on-
board battery charger device (which oftentimes is referred to as OBC), consequently charging rate depends on the
current capability of the AC plug/cable as well as the OBC power rating itself.
DC charging is considered as fast charging solutions. Conventional DC fast charging stations are also supplied by
the AC grid, however, thanks to the off-board nature of the installation (i.e. almost no limitation in size and weight
comparing to OBCs), the charging capability is much higher than OBCs which means less waiting time to get the
vehicle fully charged.
Technical Report Ali Bahrami, www.linkedin.com/in/alibhrmi/
7
Inductive charging solution (a.k.a. wireless power transfer or WPT):
The simple diagram of WPT concept has been shown below. WPT technology can transfer electrical energy from
a transmitter to a receiver wirelessly. In EV charging applications, transmitter coils are located underneath the
parking place (or charging station), and receiver coils are installed in the EV.
Figure 2 EV inductive charging solution block diagram
On board battery charger (OBC):
Common system architectures to realize OBCs are described in the following. Note that classification can be done
based on number of phases used, bidirectionality of power flow as well as number of stages involved in power
conversion from AC to DC.
1-phase and 3-phase architectures
(a) (b) (c)
Figure 3 OBC power architectures. (a) Single-phase input architecture. (b) Modular single-phase input architecture. (c) Direct three-
phase input architecture.
Unidirectional and bidirectional architectures
While the unidirectional OBC architecture can only provide the battery with DC charging power, the bidirectional
OBC can provide the grid or any off the grid load (a typical load or another vehicle) with AC power (controlled as
voltage source inverter). The bidirectional OBC architectures have gain many attentions lately thanks to progressing
vehicle to grid (V2G), vehicle to load (V2L), and smart charging concepts in e-mobility.
Technical Report Ali Bahrami, www.linkedin.com/in/alibhrmi/
8
(a) (b)
Figure 4 (a) Unidirectional OBC architecture (b) Bidirectional OBC architecture
Considering new electricity policy with different energy rates which can encourage the off-peak charging and to
avoid the on-peak charging, V2G communication technology has drawn interest from the government, power utilities
and EV owners due to its benefits. However instead of being an additional electrical load, EV battery can be utilized
as an energy storage. Therefore, V2G technology can extend to bidirectional power flow between the battery of
electric vehicle and the power grid rather than only communication.
V2G enhances interaction between the EV owners and the power utility to enable power injection into the power grid
according to the predefined schedule and power rates so EV owners can earn extra revenues by selling power to the
grid. Interaction of EV and power grid can introduce various benefits to both the power utility and EV owners. This
allows peak load shaving, load leveling, voltage regulation, reactive power support, and improvements of power
system stability.
Dual-stage and single-stage architectures
Another way to classify OBCs is based on stages involved to convert the power from AC to DC as depicted in the
following figure. While most EVs in the market use dual-stage OBC architecture, lately and due to lifetime limitation
of internal DC link capacitors, single stage OBC architecture receives many attentions and it is under evaluations by
many automotive Tier 1 suppliers. Besides single stage OBC architecture could cause cost-down and volume decrease
of the final product.
Figure 5 Dual stage vs single stage OBC
In a typical dual-stage OBC realization two power electronic converters are cascaded, an active front-end PFC
converter and an isolated DC/DC converter. The first stage actively rectifies the AC current (in a manner to meet the
grid codes on %THD and current harmonics) and control the internal DC link voltage. The second stage converter
provides the galvanic isolation and regulate the power delivered to the vehicle battery.
Nevertheless, a single-stage OBC architecture removes the need for internal DC-link bulk capacitor, so the power
conversion is done within a single stage isolated AC/DC converter. Consequently, it could provide a better power
density, higher lifetime, and reduce the BoM cost.
Technical Report Ali Bahrami, www.linkedin.com/in/alibhrmi/
9
Off board DC fast charging (DCFC) block diagram:
In off board DC fast chargers, the power electronic converter assemblies are several times more powerful their
onboard counterparts, and therefore they are bulky too. The diagram below shows typical sub-systems involved in
the DC charging cycle.
Figure 6 Off-board DC fast charger structure
DC fast charging stations can be modular (common practice), or unitary in power conversion stage. The galvanic
isolation could be achieved using a high frequency transformer (common practice), or via a grid frequency
transformer (50-60Hz) which could lead to a bulky and heavy solution but less complicated. In the following these
configurations are briefly described from power electronic implementation point of view.
Modular high frequency isolation-based architecture;
This architecture gives the flexibility of the final product power rating and its scalability. In addition, it facilitates the
serviceability of the device. In case of potential failure in either of power modules, yet the DC fast charger station
can provide the charging power but with limited capability.
Figure 7 Modular high frequency isolation -based DC fast charger solution
Technical Report Ali Bahrami, www.linkedin.com/in/alibhrmi/
10
Unitary high frequency isolation-based architecture;
In this architecture, the power electronics are sized and designed in such a way to provide the full power range of the
DC fast charger station within a single unit. Of course, this unit will be bulky and heavy, and in case of potential
failure the station will be out of service.
Figure 8 Unitary high frequency isolation-based DC fast charger solution
Low frequency isolation-based architecture
In this implementation, the low frequency type transformer (50-60Hz) is adopted to provide the galvanic isolation.
Oftentimes, the PFC stage is of the diode bridge type (passive rectification) in 12- or 24-pulse topologies. That’s why
the power electronic complexity of this architecture is minimum while it leads to quite heavy and bulky product. The
DC/DC stage simply could be a boost or buck-boost type converter to provide the charging current regulation needed.
Figure Low frequency isolation -based DC fast charger solution
Technical Report Ali Bahrami, www.linkedin.com/in/alibhrmi/
11
Sustainability approaches in e-mobility;
In the following figure a few different approaches to provide the electric energy to DC fast charging stations have
been depicted. As shown in Figure 9, in addition to the conventional way of AC grid being the only energy provider
to DC fast charging stations, a few other strategies have been proposed in literatures aiming sustainability, better
efficiency, and higher reliability with less carbon footprint.
(a)
(b)
(c)
Figure 9 (a) Conventional DC fast charging station being fed only by the AC grid
(b) DC fast charging stations based on DC microgrid formation (DC common bus) with the connection to sustainable energy resources
(c) DC fast charging stations in synergies of electric urban transport systems and distributed energy resources concept.
Technical Report Ali Bahrami, www.linkedin.com/in/alibhrmi/
12
Main International Standards Applied to EV Charging
While the main standards govern the EV charging are described in the following sections, first let’s shortly review
the generic standards involved in this field;
Generic Standards
In the following table, a list of general standards that are commonly referenced in other EV charging standards has
been presented;
Standard
Title
IEC 61439-7
Low voltage switchgear and control gear assemblies part7
IEC 60038
IEC standard voltages
IEC 61000-4-4
Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) Part4-4: Testing and measurement techniques- Electrical
fast/burst immunity test
IEC61000-4-5
Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) Part4-5: Testing and measurement techniques-Surge immunity
test
IEC 61000-4-6
Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) Part4-6: Testing and measurement techniques- Immunity to
conducted disturbances, induced by radio-frequency fields
IEC 61000-4-11
Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) - Part 4-11: Testing and measurement techniques - Voltage dips,
short interruptions and voltage variations immunity tests for equipment with input current up to 16 A
per phase
IEC 61557-8
Electrical safety in low voltage distribution systems up to 1 000 VAC. and 1 500 VDC - Equipment for
testing, measuring or monitoring of protective measures - Part 8: Insulation monitoring devices for IT
systems
Noise TA
Technical instructions for noise protection
IEC 61000-6-1
Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) - Part 6-1: Generic standards - Immunity standard for residential,
commercial and light-industrial environments
IEC 60529
Degrees of protection provided by enclosures (IP Code)
IEC 60364-7-722
Low-voltage electrical installations - Part 7-722: Requirements for special installations or locations -
Supplies for electric vehicles
North America and Germany
SAE J1766
Recommended Practice for Electric, Fuel Cell and Hybrid Electric Vehicle Crash Integrity Testing
DIN EN 50160
Voltage characteristics of electricity supplied by public distribution electricity networks;
Table 1 General Standards
Other generic norms and standards such as those in Table 2, provide regulatory guidelines for most of products
developed in automotive filed through defining insulation coordination rules, environmental conditions, electrical
testing as well as electromagnetic compatibility (EMC).
Standard
Title/Brief
IEC 60664-1
Insulation coordination for equipment within low-voltage supply systems;
Part 1: Principles, requirements and tests
Part 2: Application guide - Explanation of the application of the IEC 60664 series, dimensioning
examples and dielectric testing, Interface considerations - Application guide
Part 3: Use of coating, potting or molding for protection against pollution
Part 4: Consideration of high-frequency voltage stress
Part 5: Comprehensive method for determining clearances and creepage distances equal to or less than
2 mm
ISO 16750
Road vehiclesEnvironmental conditions and electrical testing for electrical and electronic equipment;
Part 1: General
Part 2: Electrical loads
Part 3: Mechanical loads
Part 4: Climatic loads
Part 5: Chemical loads
UNECE REG10
Vehicle Radiated Emissions & Immunity Testing
Technical Report Ali Bahrami, www.linkedin.com/in/alibhrmi/
13
CISPR 12
Vehicles, boats and internal combustion engines - Radio disturbance characteristics - Limits and methods
of measurement for the protection of off-board receivers. CISPR 12 is equivalent to the SAE J 551-2
standard. SAE J551/2 is the north American equivalent standard to CISPR 12.
CISPR 25
Vehicles, boats and internal combustion engines - Radio disturbance characteristics - Limits and methods
of measurement for the protection of on-board receivers. SAE J551/4 and SAE J1113/41 are the north
American equivalent standards to CISPR 25.
ISO 11451
Road vehicles Vehicle test methods for electrical disturbances from narrowband radiated
electromagnetic energy.
ISO 11452
Road vehicles Component test methods for electrical disturbances from narrowband radiated
electromagnetic energy.
ISO 7637
Road vehicles Electrical disturbances from conduction and coupling.
ISO 10605
Road vehicles Test methods for electrical disturbances from electrostatic discharge.
EN12895
Industrial trucks - Electromagnetic compatibility;
This European Standard is applicable to industrial trucks, regardless of the power source (called only
trucks). It specifies:
- the requirements and the limit values for electromagnetic emission and immunity to external
electromagnetic fields;
- the procedure and criteria for testing trucks and their electrical/electronic systems.
Table 2 Generic norms and standards for electric and electronic product developed for automotive market
Connector Standards;
Standard
Title
IEC 62196-1
Plugs, socket-outlets, vehicle connectors and vehicle inlets - Conductive charging of electric
vehicles - Part 1: General requirements
IEC 62196-2
Part 2: Dimensional compatibility and interchangeability requirements for AC pin and contact-tube
accessories
IEC 62196-3
Part 3: Part 3: Dimensional compatibility and interchangeability requirements for DC and AC/DC
pin and contact-tube vehicle couplers
North America
SAE J1772
SAE Electric Vehicle and Plug in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Conductive Charge Coupler
Table 3 Connector Standards
IEC 62196 Review
IEC 62196 is applicable to plugs, socket-outlets, vehicle connectors, vehicle inlets and cable assemblies for electric
vehicles, herein referred to as "accessories", intended for use in conductive charging systems which incorporate
control means, with a rated operating voltage not exceeding:
- 690 VAC 50 Hz to 60 Hz, at a rated current not exceeding 250 A;
- 1 500 VDC at a rated current not exceeding 400 A.
The standard is based on IEC 61851 which establishes general characteristics, including charging modes and
connection configurations, and requirements for specific implementations (including safety requirements) of both
electric vehicle (EV) and electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) in a charging system. For example, it specifies
mechanisms such that, first, power is not supplied unless a vehicle is connected and, second, the vehicle is
immobilized while still connected.
Part 1 gives general requirements for AC and DC charging with rated operating voltage not exceeding:
- 690V AC. 50-60 Hz. at a rated current not exceeding 250A;
- 600V DC., at a rated current not exceeding 400A;
The focus is for accessories and cable assemblies are meant to be used in an ambient temperature of -30 to +50 °C
In Part 2 AC plugs, socket-outlets, vehicle connectors, vehicle inlets and cable assemblies for electric vehicles have
a nominal rated operating voltage not exceeding 480 V AC, 50 Hz to 60 Hz, and a rated current not exceeding 63 A
three-phase or 70 A single phase, for use in conductive charging of electric vehicles.
Part 2 gives requirements contains categorizations on plug types to be used in the AC charging process:
Type 1-single phase vehicle couplers;
Technical Report Ali Bahrami, www.linkedin.com/in/alibhrmi/
14
Type 2-single and three phase vehicle couplers;
Type 3-single and three phase vehicle couplers with shutters;
Part 3 applies to high power DC interfaces and combined AC/DC interfaces of vehicle couplers specified in IEC
62196-1, and intended for use in conductive charging systems for circuits specified in IEC 61851-1, and IEC 61851-
23.
Part 3 also give specifications of high-power DC couplers (max. 1.000V DC/400A plugs):
Combo 1 and 2 (850V, 200A DC);
Japan CHAdeMO Type 1 (600V, 200A DC);
China DC Type 2 (750V, 250A DC);
The signaling from SAE J1772 is incorporated in the standard for control purposes.
SAE J1772 Review
SAE J1772 (IEC Type 1) is a North American standard for electrical connectors for electric vehicles maintained by
the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) and has the formal title "SAE Surface Vehicle Recommended Practice
J1772, SAE Electric Vehicle Conductive Charge Coupler". It covers the general physical, electrical, communication
protocol, and performance requirements for the electric vehicle conductive charge system and coupler. The intent is
to define a common electric vehicle conductive charging system architecture including operational requirements and
the functional and dimensional requirements for the vehicle inlet and mating connector.
In SAE terminology different charging solution defines in levels including level 1 charging , level 2 charging and Level
3 charging or DC fast charging which will be briefly reviewed in this document too.
1) In conjunction with ISO/IEC 15118 please note also DIN SPEC 70121
2) Note that IEC 61851-22 as part of IEC 61851 has been withdrawn in 2017.
Figure 10 General Standards for the fast charging stations
Technical Report Ali Bahrami, www.linkedin.com/in/alibhrmi/
15
Supply Station Standards;
Standard
Title
Brief
IEC 61851-1
Electric vehicle
conductive charging
system - Part 1:
General requirements
It applies to EV supply equipment for charging electric road vehicles, with a rated
supply voltage up to 1 000 V AC or up to 1 500 V DC and a rated output voltage up
to 1 000 V AC or up to 1 500 V DC. Electric road vehicles (EV) cover all road
vehicles, including plug-in hybrid road vehicles (PHEV), that derive all or part of
their energy from on-board rechargeable energy storage systems (RESS). The
aspects covered in this standard include:
- the characteristics and operating conditions of the EV supply equipment;
- the specification of the connection between the EV supply equipment and the EV;
- the requirements for electrical safety for the EV supply equipment.
IEC 61851-
21
Part 21-1 Electric
vehicle on-board
charger EMC
requirements for
conductive
connection to AC/DC
supply
Part 21-2: Electric
vehicle requirements
for conductive
connection to an
AC/DC supply - EMC
requirements for off
board electric vehicle
charging systems
This standard together with IEC 61851-1, gives requirements for conductive
connection of an electric vehicle (EV) to an AC or DC supply. It applies only to on-
board charging units either tested on the complete vehicle or tested on the charging
system component level (ESA - electronic sub assembly).
This document covers the electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) requirements for
electrically propelled vehicles in any charging mode while connected to the mains
supply. Part 21-2 defines the EMC requirements for any off-board components or
equipment of such systems used to supply or charge electric vehicles with electric
power by conductive power transfer (CPT), with a rated input voltage, according to
IEC 60038:2009, up to 1 000 V AC or 1 500 V DC and an output voltage up to 1
000 V AC or 1 500 V DC.
This document covers off-board charging equipment for mode 1, mode 2, mode 3
and mode 4 charging as defined in IEC 61851-1.
IEC 61851-
23
Part 23: DC electric
vehicle charging
station
It gives the requirements for DC electric vehicle (EV) charging stations, herein also
referred to as "DC charger", for conductive connection to the vehicle, with an AC
or DC input voltage up to 1 000 V AC and up to 1 500 V DC according to IEC
60038. It provides the general requirements for the control communication between
a DC EV charging station and an EV. The requirements for digital communication
between DC EV charging station and electric vehicle for control of DC charging are
defined in IEC 61851-24.
Due to further technical developments in the field of electric vehicles charging, the
requirements in IEC 61851-23 to fulfill the safety objective "protection against
electric shock" under single fault condition by limiting the capacitance energy, may
not cover all possible combinations of charging stations and vehicles. Since the
charging process links the charging infrastructure with the electric vehicle, the
requirements laid down in ISO 17409 are also relevant for the electrical safety of
the charging process. The approach of limiting the capacitance energy will not be
sufficient for the safety objective "protection against electric shock" under single
fault condition in all relevant cases. Therefore, this warning is issued for both
standards. It is as always strongly recommended that users of standards additionally
perform a risk assessment. Specifically, in this case, standards users shall select
proper means to fulfill safety requirements in the system of charging station and
electric vehicle.
Note that temperature monitoring is mandatory, and the connector ambient
temperature shall be -30C to +50C
Table 4 Supply Station Standards
Technical Report Ali Bahrami, www.linkedin.com/in/alibhrmi/
16
Vehicle Standards;
Standard
Title
ISO 6469-3
Electrically propelled road vehicles Safety specifications Part 3: Electrical safety
ISO 6469-4
Electrically propelled road vehicles Safety specifications Part 4: Post crash electrical safety
ISO 17409
Electrically propelled road vehicles Conductive power transfer Safety requirements
ISO 19363
Electrically propelled road vehicles Magnetic field wireless power transfer Safety and
interoperability requirements
ISO 18246
Electric Mopeds and Motorcycles Conductive Charging
Table 5 Vehicle Standards
ISO 6469 Electrically propelled road vehicles Safety specifications
This document specifies safety requirements for rechargeable energy storage systems (RESS) of electrically
propelled road vehicles for the protection of persons. It does not provide the comprehensive safety information for
the manufacturing, maintenance and repair personnel.
NOTE 1 Requirements for motorcycles and mopeds are specified in ISO 13063 and ISO 18243.
NOTE 2 Additional safety requirements can apply for rechargeable energy storage system (RESS) that can be
recharged by means different from supplying electric energy (e.g. redox flow battery).
ISO 17409 - Electrically Propelled Road Vehicles Conductive Charging
ISO 17409 specifies electric safety requirements for conductive connections of electrically propelled road vehicles
to an external electric power supply using a plug or vehicle inlet. It applies to electrically propelled road vehicles
with voltage class B electric circuits. In general, it may apply to motorcycles and mopeds if no dedicated standards
for these vehicles exist. It applies only to vehicle power supply circuits. It applies also to dedicated power supply
control functions used for the connection of the vehicle to an external electric power supply. It does not provide
requirements regarding the connection to a non-isolated DC charging station. It does not provide comprehensive
safety information for manufacturing, maintenance, and repair personnel. The requirements when the vehicle is not
connected to the external electric power supply are specified in ISO 6469‑3.
NOTE: Requirements for EV supply equipment are specified in IEC 61851.
ISO 18246 Electric Mopeds and Motorcycles Conductive Charging
ISO 18246 Electrically propelled mopeds and motorcycles Safety requirements for conductive connection to an
external electric power supply. This International Standard prescribes basic safety requirements for electrically
propelled mopeds and motorcycles, which are called electric vehicles, for simplicity, in this International Standard,
while connected to an external electric power supply. The safety requirements for off-board chargers are described
in IEC 60335-2-29 and will be described in the IEC 61851-3 series (under consideration). This International Standard
does not contain requirements for bidirectional power flow, so it does not consider discharging from vehicle to grid.
This International standard does not standardize specific charging method. It is not applicable to vehicles not in
normal conditions, such as damaged vehicles and vehicles which have mechanical and/or electrical failure. It applies
only to on-board charging systems between the plug or vehicle couplers and rechargeable energy storage system
(RESS) circuits. The safety requirements for vehicles not connected to external power supply are specified in ISO
13063. It does not provide comprehensive safety information for manufacturing, maintenance and repair personnel.
According to this standard the classification of charging type is defined as following;
Classification of charging type according to ISO 18246:
In the most fundamental sense of charging, there are three functional portions. The first is the supply network (mains).
The second is the charger assembly that consists of charger and cable assembly. The third is the RESS, which may
be incorporated onto the vehicle. The classification has been defined based upon acceptance of the connection and/or
disconnecting between those three portions for operational safety:
For charging type A, the charger and the RESS are not able to be removed from the vehicle and they are
electrically not able to be disconnected from the vehicle.
Technical Report Ali Bahrami, www.linkedin.com/in/alibhrmi/
17
For charging type B, the RESS is not able to be removed and the charger is able to be removed from the
vehicle. The RESS is electrically not able to be disconnected from the vehicle and the charger is electrically
able to be disconnected from the vehicle.
For charging type C, the charger and the RESS can be removed from the vehicle and they are electrically able
to be disconnected from the vehicle.
Any connections belong to conductive charging systems can be classified into the charging types of the following
figure.
Figure 11 Classification of charging types in the conductive charging in ISO 18246
The charging type which would be more interesting for EV application considering on-board battery charger is type
A as following figure.
Technical Report Ali Bahrami, www.linkedin.com/in/alibhrmi/
18
Figure 12 Charging Type A in ISO 18246
Technical Report Ali Bahrami, www.linkedin.com/in/alibhrmi/
19
Communication Standards;
Standard
Title
Brief
ISO/IEC 15118-1
Road vehicles Vehicle
to grid communication
interface Part 1:
General information and
use-case definition
It is basis for the other parts of the ISO 15118 series, specifies terms and
definitions, general requirements and use cases for conductive and wireless
High-Level Communication (HLC) between the EVCC and the SECC. It
is applicable to HLC involved in conductive and wireless power transfer
technologies in the context of manual or automatic connection devices. It
is also applicable to energy transfer either from EV supply equipment to
charge the EV battery or from EV battery to EV supply equipment in order
to supply energy to home, to loads or to the grid. It provides a general
overview and a common understanding of aspects influencing
identification, association, charge or discharge control and optimization,
payment, load levelling, cybersecurity and privacy. It offers an
interoperable EV-EV supply equipment interface to all e-mobility actors
beyond SECC.
ISO/IEC 15118-2
Road vehicles Vehicle
to grid communication
interface Part 2:
Network and application
protocol requirements
It specifies the communication between battery electric vehicles (BEV) or
plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) and the Electric Vehicle Supply
Equipment. The application layer message set defined in ISO 15118-
2:2014 is designed to support the energy transfer from an EVSE to an EV.
ISO 15118-1 contains additional use case elements describing the
bidirectional energy transfer. The implementation of these use cases
requires enhancements of the application layer message set defined herein.
The purpose of ISO 15118-2:2014 is to detail the communication between
an EV (BEV or a PHEV) and an EVSE. Aspects are specified to detect a
vehicle in a communication network and enable an Internet Protocol (IP)
based communication between EVCC and SECC. It defines messages, data
model, XML/EXI based data representation format, usage of V2GTP, TLS,
TCP and IPv6. In addition, it describes how data link layer services can be
accessed from a layer 3 perspective. The Data Link Layer and Physical
Layer functionality is described in ISO 15118-3.
ISO/IEC 15118-3
Road vehicles Vehicle
to grid communication
interface Part 3:
Physical and data link
layer requirements
It specifies the requirements of the physical and data link layer for a high-
level communication, directly between battery electric vehicles (BEV) or
plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV), termed as EV, based on a wired
communication technology and the fixed electrical charging installation
[Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE)] used in addition to the basic
signaling.
It covers the overall information exchange between all actors involved in
the electrical energy exchange. ISO 15118 (all parts) is applicable for
manually connected conductive charging.
(Only modes 3 and 4 EVSEs, with a high-level communication module,
are covered by this part of ISO 15118.)
ISO/IEC 15118-4
Road vehicles Vehicle
to grid communication
interface Part 4:
Network and application
protocol conformance
test
It specifies conformance tests in the form of an Abstract Test Suite (ATS)
for a System Under Test (SUT) implementing an EVCC or SECC
according to ISO 15118-2. These conformance tests specify the testing of
capabilities and behaviors of an SUT as well as checking what is observed
against the conformance requirements specified in ISO 15118-2 and
against what the supplier states the SUT implementation's capabilities are.
DIN SPEC 70121
Electromobility - Digital
communication between
a DC EV charging station
and an electric vehicle for
control of DC charging in
the Combined Charging
System;
It defines requirements for communication between EV and EVSE with
External Identification Means (EIM).
Technical Report Ali Bahrami, www.linkedin.com/in/alibhrmi/
20
IEC 61851-24
Electric vehicle
conductive charging
system - Part 24: Digital
communication between
a DC EV charging station
and an electric vehicle for
control of DC charging
IEC 61851-24, together with IEC 61851-23, applies to digital
communication between a DC EV charging station and an electric road
vehicle (EV) for control of DC charging, with an AC or DC input voltage
up to 1 000 V AC and up to 1 500 V DC for the conductive charging
procedure. The EV charging mode is mode 4, according to IEC 61851-23.
Annexes A, B, and C give descriptions of digital communications for
control of DC charging specific to DC EV charging systems A, B and C as
defined in Part 23.
IEC 61850
Communication
networks and systems for
power utility automation
This standard is for communication in substations. It enables integration of
all protection, control, measurement and monitoring functions and
additionally provides the means for high-speed substation protection
applications. It ensures interoperability between electrical devices from
different vendors and is able to replace all the typical protocols found in
the substation automation domain.
North America
SAE J2847
Communication Between
Plug-In Vehicles and Off-
Board DC Chargers
It establishes requirements and specifications for communication between
Plug-in Electric Vehicle (PEV) and the DC Off-board charger. Where
relevant, this document notes, but does not formally specify, interactions
between the vehicle and vehicle operator. It applies to the off-board DC
charger for conductive charging, which supplies DC current to the
Rechargeable Energy Storage System (RESS) of the electric vehicle
through a SAE J1772™ coupler. Communications will be on the SAE
J1772 Pilot line for PLC communication. The details of PowerLine
Communications (PLC) are found in SAE J2931/4.
SAE J2931
Digital Communications
for Plug-in Electric
Vehicles
It establishes the requirements for digital communication between Plug-In
Electric Vehicles (PEV), the Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE)
and the utility or service provider, Energy Services Interface (ESI),
Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) and Home Area Network
(HAN).
Table 6 Communication Standards
ISO 15118 vs DIN SPEC 70121 Comparison
The German technical specification DIN SPEC 70121 is based on a draft version of the ISO 15118 standard and
defines digital communication between an electric vehicle and a DC charging station. DIN SPEC 70121 was first
released in 2012 and updated in 2014, whereas the first version of ISO 15118 was released in 2014 and version 2 is
out since 2018. While DIN SPEC 70121 covers only the DC charging mode, ISO 15118 covers both AC and DC
charging modes. ISO 15118 series has evolved greatly, and this has led to technical differences between DIN SPEC
70121 and ISO 15118. In fact, it’s like a dialect of the same language. If you don’t understand that dialect, then it
doesn’t matter if it’s the same language or not, you can’t move forward with the conversation! This means that a
charging station that only supports ISO 15118 cannot charge an EV that only speaks DIN SPEC 70121. But if the
EV is able to speak both dialects, then they can successfully enter a charging session and vice versa.
Some key distinctions between ISO 15118 and DIN SPEC 70121 are;
- DIN SPEC 70121 does not support Plug & Charge (PnC). meaning: no secured communication via Transport
Layer Security (TLS), no digital certificates, and no XML-based digital signatures so authenticity and data
integrity can’t be ensured. The Plug & Charge feature that comes with ISO 15118 enables an electric vehicle
to automatically identify and authorize itself to a charging station on behalf of the driver, to receive energy
for recharging its battery. The only action required by the driver is to plug the charging cable into the EV
and/or charging station. The standard can be used for both wired (AC and DC charging) and wireless charging
for electric vehicles.
- DIN SPEC 70121 does not support smart charging and V2G, meaning that you can't send charging schedules
to the EV to make it charge in a smarter, more grid-friendly way!
Technical Report Ali Bahrami, www.linkedin.com/in/alibhrmi/
21
A detailed comparison of ISO 15118 and DIN SPEC 70121 is given in the following table;
DC
Charging
AC
charging
Security
Plug
and
Charge
Smart
Charging
Inductive
Charging
(WPT)
Bidirectional
Power
Transfer
(V2G)
Automated
Connection
Device
(ACD)
DIN SPEC 70121-
2012
Y
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
ISO 15118-2014
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
-
-
-
ISO 15118-2018
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Table 7 ISO 15118 vs SIN SPEC 70121
Technical Report Ali Bahrami, www.linkedin.com/in/alibhrmi/
22
AC and DC charging - North America and Japan (Charging Levels):
In north America and Japan electric vehicle charging equipment is commonly categorized into one of three levels
described below:
Level 1 Charging - AC
Level 1 equipment provides charging through a 120 volt (V), alternating-current (AC) plug and requires a dedicated
circuit. Generally speaking, Level 1 charging refers to the use of a standard household outlet. Level 1 charging
equipment is standard on vehicles and therefore is portable and does not require the installation of charging
equipment. On one end of the provided cord is a standard, three-prong household plug. On the other end is a
connector, which plugs into the vehicle. Depending on the battery technology used in the vehicle, Level 1 charging
generally takes 8 to 12 hours to completely charge a fully depleted battery. The most common place for Level 1
charging is at the vehicle owner's home and is typically conducted overnight.
Level 2 Charging - AC
Level 2 equipment offers charging through a 240V, AC plug and requires installation of home charging or public
charging equipment. These units require a dedicated 40 amp circuit. Level 2 charging equipment is compatible with
all electric vehicles and plug-in electric hybrid vehicles. Level 2 chargers have a cord that plugs directly into the
vehicle in the same connector location used for Level 1 equipment. Depending on the battery technology used in the
vehicle, Level 2 charging generally takes 4 to 6 hours to completely charge a fully depleted battery. Charging time
can increase in cold temperatures. Level 2 chargers are commonly found in residential settings, public parking areas,
places of employment and commercial settings.
Figure 13 AC level 2 charging station
Voltage
Phase
Peak Current
Power
AC Level 1
120V
Single Phase
16A
1.92kW
AC Level 2
208V
Leg to Leg of a 208T/120V 3-Phase
48A
9.98kW
AC Level 2
240V
Split Phase
30A
32A (2001)
80A (2009)
7.20kW
7.68kW
19.20kW
Table 8 AC Charging Levels
Technical Report Ali Bahrami, www.linkedin.com/in/alibhrmi/
23
Figure 14 AC level 1 (left) and AC level 2 (right) system configuration in SAE J1772
Level 3 Charging- DC Fast Charging (DC level 1 and DC level 2)
Using this charging solution implies bypassing the EV onboard battery charger (OBC) and the energy transfer is
accomplished via direct current (DC). Most Level 3 chargers provide an 80% charge in 30 minutes although cold
weather can lengthen the time required to charge.
J1772-2017 divides level 3 DC Charging into two sub-categories:
DC level 1
DC level 2
as described in the following table;
Charge Method
EVSE DC output voltage (V DC)
Max Current (Amps-continuous)
DC level 1
50-1000
80
DC level 2
50-1000
400
Table 9 DC levels 1 and 2 charging in J1772
System configuration block diagrams of DC levels 1 and 2 according to J1772 are shown in the following figures;
Technical Report Ali Bahrami, www.linkedin.com/in/alibhrmi/
24
Figure 15 DC Level 1 system configuration in SAE J1772
Figure 16 DC Level 2 system configuration in SAE J1772
Level 3 CCS 1
The Combined Charging System (CCS) is a standard for charging electric vehicles. It uses the Combo 1 (North
America and Japan) and Combo 2 (Europe) connectors to provide power at up to 350 kilowatts.
Technical Report Ali Bahrami, www.linkedin.com/in/alibhrmi/
25
Figure 17 CCS1 DC fast charging station in California
Level 3 - CHAdeMO
Level 3 equipment with CHAdeMO technology, also commonly known as DC fast charging has been introduced and
employed by Japanese automakers.
Figure 18 CHAdeMO DC Fast Charging Station , plug and pinout
Level 3 - Tesla Supercharger
A Tesla Supercharger is a 480-volt DC fast-charging technology built by American vehicle manufacturer Tesla, Inc.
for their all-electric cars. The Tesla Supercharger network of fast-charging stations was introduced beginning in 2012.
Technical Report Ali Bahrami, www.linkedin.com/in/alibhrmi/
26
Each Supercharger stall has a connector to supply electrical power at up to 250 kW via a direct current connection to
the 400-volt car battery pack.
Figure 19 Tesla Supercharger
The original V1 and V2 Tesla supercharging stations charge with up to 150 kW of power distributed between two
cars with a maximum of 150 kW per car, depending on version. They take about 20 minutes to charge to 50%, 40
minutes to charge to 80%, and 75 minutes to 100% on the original 85 kWh Model S.
Technical Report Ali Bahrami, www.linkedin.com/in/alibhrmi/
27
AC and DC Charging China and Europe
While CCS1, CHAdeMO and Tesla already explained in previous section, let’s have a look at AC and DC charging
types around the globe.
North America
Japan
China
Europe
AC
Type 1
Tesla
Type 1
GB/T
Tesla
Type 2
DC
CCS 1
Tesla
CHAdeMO
Tesla
Chaoji (from 2020)
GB/T
Tesla
Chaoji (from 2020)
CCS 2
Table 10 Existing AC and DC charging types around the globe
AC Charging China and Europe
For AC charging, European countries adopted IEC 62196 Type 2 connector (often referred to as Mennekes in
reference to the company that originated the design), and due to imposed restrictions by distribution system operators
(DSOs) and local grid codes, the drawable AC current per each consumer in low voltage AC distribution system is
limited to 32Arms, meaning that AC charging power in Europe is limited to 22kW. Electric power for AC charging
in Europe is provided through 1-phase or 3-phase connection. Note that in some European countries the 1-phase
operation is limited to 16Arms, meaning that the 1-phase AC charging being limited to 3.6kW power transfer.
As the AC charging is realized via the on-board battery charger (OBC) of the vehicle, the OBC shall be rated for the
European grid voltage accordingly (i.e. 230VLN, 400VLL).
The Guobiao standard GB/T 20234.2-2015 gives guidelines for AC-charging within the People's Republic of China.
It specifies the AC charging coupler with modified Type 2-style connector, and with different control signaling.
Similar to European countries, the AC charging in China is realized through 1-phase and 3-phase electric power
transfer.
DC Fast Charging China and Europe
In North America, Japan and Europe, a few standards battle over fast charging connectors and protocols is brewing
between the car makers. While the Japanese carmakers are pushing CHAdeMO, the European and North American
carmakers settled on the SAE Combined Charging System (a.k.a. CCS1 and CC2), and Tesla is going its own way
with the Supercharger, the Chinese carmaker have introduced and employed their own DC fast charging standard
referred to as GB/T 20234 or shortly GB/T DC fast charging.
SAE Combo-CCS2
CCS Combo 2/CCS 2 is based on the AC Type 2. Europe is the primary CCS2 market, joined by multiple other
market officially (Greenland, Australia, South America, South Africa, Saudi Arabia) and seen in multiple other
countries that not yet decided. Below the CCS2 EV charging station, CCS2 plug and pinout have been shown;
Technical Report Ali Bahrami, www.linkedin.com/in/alibhrmi/
28
Figure 20 CCS2 charging station
GB/T 20234 DC Fast Charging
It should be pointed out that this standard only exists in China, but once again it seems as though this nation is at the
forefront of electric vehicles, both in regard to sales and now for charging technology too. This forward-thinking approach
is sure to keep China in the #1 spot!
Table 11 Communication Protocol Comparison
IEC/ISO vs GB/T correspondence of the standards;
ISO/IEC
China
System
IEC 61851
GB/T 18487
GB/T 27930
Charging Interface and Coupler
IEC 62196
GB/T 20234
Communication
ISO 15118
GB/T 27930
Q/GDW 397
Q/GDW 398
Q/GDW 399
Battery Swap
IEC 62840
GB/T 29317
Q/GDW 486
Q/GDW 487
Q/GDW 488
Q/GDW 685
Q/GDW 686
Table 12 Chinese GB/T Equivalent Standards vs international ones
Cable charging standard GB/T 27930 is based on the SAE J1939 network protocol and uses the CAN bus with a
point-to-point connection between the charger and the battery management system (BMS).
Communication Protocol:
International
China
Physical Layer
PLC
CAN BUS
Link/Network Layer
IP Based
CAN
PWM Pilot Control
International
China
EVSE Side
Voltage Detection
Current Detection
Technical Report Ali Bahrami, www.linkedin.com/in/alibhrmi/
29
Figure 21 GB/T 27930: A cable charging standard based on SAE J1939
China and Japan are developing a new version of GB/T fast charging standard (Being referred to as Chaoji). The
envisioned spec indicates power output beyond anything we've seen thus far - 900 kW at 1,500 V and 600 A!
Currently, GB/T was offering only 237.5 kW at 950 V and 250 A, so this will be nearly four times more capable in
terms of output. Power will be more than twice as high as the new 400 kW CHAdeMO and 350 kW CCS Combo
specs too.
A comparison between GB/T and new GB/T (Chaoji) with other DC fast charging solutions has been presented in
the following table:
CHAdeMO
GB/T
CHAOJI
CCS1
CCS2
TESLA1
Connector
Inlet
Proposed
?
?
?
Protocol
CAN
PLC
CAN
V2X function
YES
YES
?
Max
Power
400kW
185kW
900kW
200kW
350kW
?
Market Power
150kW
125kW
50-900kW
150kW
350kW
120kW
Start @
2009
2013
2020
2014
2013
2012
Table 13 Summary of DC Fast Charging Available Solutions
1
For new Tesla charging couplers and inlets, refer to end of this document; “
Tesla Charging Inlet and Plug
Technical Report Ali Bahrami, www.linkedin.com/in/alibhrmi/
30
It has been expressed that Chaoji will be compatible with Tesla, and with external purchasable adaptors will be
compatible with all others existing protocols too.
Charging Modes in IEC 61851
The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) defines charging in 4 modes in IEC 61851-1;
Mode 1 Slow charging from a regular electrical socket (single- or three-phase)
The vehicle is connected to the power grid through standard socket-outlets present in residences, which depending
on the country are usually rated at around 10 A. To use mode 1, the electrical installation must comply with the safety
regulations and must have an earthing system, a circuit breaker to protect against overload and an earth leakage
protection. The sockets have blanking devices to prevent accidental contacts.
The first limitation is the available power, to avoid risks of:
Heating of the socket and cables following intensive use for several hours at or near the maximum power (which
varies from 8 to 16 A depending on the country).
Fire or electric injury risks if the electrical installation is obsolete or if certain protective devices are absent.
The second limitation is related to the installation's power management.
As the charging socket shares a feeder from the switchboard with other sockets (no dedicated circuit) if the sum
of consumptions exceeds the protection limit (in general 16 A), the circuit-breaker will trip, stopping the
charging.
Figure 22 EV Charging Mode 1 and its cable
All these factors impose a limit on the power in mode 1, for safety and service quality reasons. This limit is currently
being defined, and the value of 10 A appears to be the best compromise.
This is a direct, passive connection of the EV to the AC mains, either 250 V 1-phase or 480 V 3-phase including
earth, at a maximum current of 16 A. The connection does not have extra control pins. For electrical protection, the
EVSE is required to provide earth to the EV (as above) and to have ground fault protection.
In some countries including the USA, mode 1 charging is prohibited. One problem is that the required earthing is not
present in all domestic installations. mode 2 was developed as a workaround for this.
Mode 2 Slow charging from a regular socket but with some EV specific protection
arrangement
The vehicle is connected to the main power grid via household socket-outlets. Charging is done via a single-phase or
three-phase network and installation of an earthing cable. A protection device is built into the cable. This solution is
more expensive than Mode 1 due to the specificity of the cable.
Technical Report Ali Bahrami, www.linkedin.com/in/alibhrmi/
31
Figure 23 EV Charing Mode 2 and Cable Associated with
This is a direct, semi-active connection of the EV to the AC mains, either 250 V 1-phase or 480 V 3-phase including
earth at a maximum current of 32 A. There is a direct, passive connection from the AC mains to the EV supply
equipment (EVSE), which must be part of, or situated within 0.3 meters (1.0 ft) of, the AC mains plug; from the
EVSE to the EV, there is an active connection, with the addition of the control pilot to the passive components. The
EVSE provides protective earth presence detection and monitoring; ground fault, over-current, and over-temperature
protection; and functional switching, depending on vehicle presence and charging power demand. Some protections
must be provided by an SPR-PRCD
conforming to IEC 62335 Circuit breakers - Switched protective earth portable residual current devices for class I
and battery powered vehicle applications. A possible example uses an IEC 60309 connector on the supply end, which
is rated at 32 A. The EVSE, situated incable, interacts with the EV to indicate that 32 A can be drawn.
Mode 3 Slow or fast charging using a specific EV multi-pin socket with control and
protection functions
The vehicle is connected directly to the electrical network via specific socket and plug and a dedicated circuit. A
control and protection function are also installed permanently in the installation (on the wall). This is the only
charging mode that meets the applicable standards regulating electrical installations. It also allows load shedding so
that electrical household appliances can be operated during vehicle charging or on the contrary optimize the electric
vehicle charging time.
Figure 24 EV Charging Mode 3
This is an active connection of the EV to a fixed EVSE, either 250 V 1-phase or 480 V 3-phase including earth and
control pilot; Either, with a compulsorily captive cable with extra conductors, at a maximum current of 250 A or, in
a manner compatible with mode 2 with an optionally captive cable, at a maximum current of 32 A. The charging
supply is not active by default, and requires proper communication over the control pilot to enable. The
communication wire between car electronics and charging station allows for an integration into smart grids.
Figure 25 Charging Mode 3 Cable
Technical Report Ali Bahrami, www.linkedin.com/in/alibhrmi/
32
Mode 4 Fast charging using some special charger technology such as CHAdeMO
The electric vehicle is connected to the main power grid through an external charger. Control and protection functions
and the vehicle charging cable are installed permanently in the installation.
This is an active connection of the EV to a fixed EVSE, 600 V DC including earth and control pilot, at a maximum
current of 400 A. The DC charging power is rectified from AC mains power in the EVSE, which is consequently
more expensive than a mode 3 EVSE.
Figure 26 Charging Mode 4, Fast Charging
A brief comparison of charging modes is given in table below;
Mode
Limits
Supply
Applications
Notes
Phases
Current
Voltage
1
1-Ph
16A
250V
AC
electric
bikes &
scooters
Direct connection of vehicle to conventional
electrical outlets is not allowed in the US, Israel,
and England; prohibited for public charging by
Italy; restricted in Switzerland, Denmark,
Norway, and Germany.
3-Ph
16A
480V
2
1-Ph
32A
250V
AC
Slow AC
Requires control box between vehicle and
electrical outlet. Prohibited for public charging
by Italy; restricted in US, Canada, Switzerland,
Denmark, France, and Norway.
3-Ph
32A
480V
3
1-Ph
ND
250V
AC
Slow and
Quick AC
EVSE permanently connected to electrical grid.
Typical public charger installation
3-Ph
ND
480V
4
-
ND
ND
DC
Fast
Charging
Current conversion handled by EVSE, not EV.
Table 14 Charging modes in IEC 61851-1
Technical Report Ali Bahrami, www.linkedin.com/in/alibhrmi/
33
Charging Cases in ISO 61851
In ISO 61851-1 and based on the nature of charging cable assembly, there could be 3 cases of charging
connections;
Case A
The cable assembly is part of the vehicle;
Figure 27 Case A connection
Case B
The connection of an EV to a supply network with a cable assembly detachable at both ends;
Figure 28 Case B connection
Case C
The connection of an EV to a supply network utilizing a cable and vehicle connector permanently attached to the
EV charging station;
Figure 29 Case C connection
Key for Figure 27 to Figure 29;
Technical Report Ali Bahrami, www.linkedin.com/in/alibhrmi/
34
A brief comparison of common charging cases vs modes and plugs around the globe is give in the figure below;
Charging Mode Case
Type1 / CCS1
Type1/CHAdeMO
Type2/CCS2
GB/T
AC Charging
Mode 2 Case B
Mode 3 Case B
Mode 3 Case C
DC Charging
Mode 4 Case C
Figure 30 Summary of Employed Charging Plugs in Different Locations (Modes and Cases)
Technical Report Ali Bahrami, www.linkedin.com/in/alibhrmi/
35
Plug types
Type 1 (AC Type 1)
SAE J1772 (IEC 62196 Type 1), also known as a J plug, is a North American standard for electrical connectors
for electric vehicles maintained by the SAE International.
Figure 31 Type 1 plug, Single Phase
Type 2 (AC Type 2)
The IEC 62196 Type 2 connector, often referred to as mennekes in reference to the company that originated the
design, is used for charging electric cars, mainly within Europe. (Note that configuration type 2 differs from the
first proposal by Mennekes that was presented in the German standard VDE-AR-E 2623-2-2 that was published
in 2009 and withdrawn in 2012, when the German version of IEC 62196-2:2011 became available. Pins and
sleeves were swapped between the inlet and the connector and the dimensions were slightly changed.)
Additionally, the IEC 62196-2 standard specifies a "Type 3" connector providing a single and three phase coupler
with shutters.
In January 2013, the IEC 62196 Type 2 connector was selected by the European Commission as official charging
plug within the European Union.It has since been adopted as the recommended connector in some countries
outside of Europe, including New Zealand.
Also released under the name SAE J3068 is three-phase AC connector for North Americawith Local
Interconnect Network (LIN) for control signaling based on IEC 61851-1.
Figure 32 Type 2 Plug and Pinout, Three Phase
While the connector type 2 is for charging battery electric vehicles at 350 kilowatts, with a plug modified by Tesla
capable of outputting 150 kilowatts.
Combined Charging System (CCS1 and CCS2)
The target of only having one charging connector is currently unlikely to occur. This is because there are different
electrical grid systems around the world; with Japan and North America choosing a 1-phase connector on their
120/240 V grid (type 1), while China, Europe, and the rest of the world are opting for a connector with 1-phase 230
V and 3-phase 400 V grid access (type 2).
With an effort to avoid more complexity and diversity for DC charging, the SAE in the US and European Automobile
Manufacturers' Association (ACEA) came up with the plan to add DC wires to the existing AC connector types such
that there is only one "global envelope" that fits all DC charging stations, named Combined Charging System or
shortly CCS.
Technical Report Ali Bahrami, www.linkedin.com/in/alibhrmi/
36
For Combined Charging System (CCS) DC charging, two extra connectors are added at the bottom of Type 1 or Type
2 vehicle inlets and charging plugs to connect high voltage DC charging stations to the battery of the vehicle. These
are commonly known as Combo 1 or Combo 2 connectors too. The choice of Combo 1 or Combo 2 style inlets is
normally standardized based on a country of interest, so that public charging providers do not need to fit cables with
both variants. Generally, North America uses Combo 1 style vehicle inlets, most of the rest of the world uses Combo
2 style vehicle inlets for CCS.
Figure 33 CCS Types 1 and 2 Plugs and Inlets
Signaling and Communication Protocols According to IEC 61851 and SAE J1772
Originating with the type 1 connector, SAE J1772 signaling is used in IEC norms too. The signal pins and their
function were defined in SAE J1772-2001, is included in IEC 61851-1. All plug types of IEC 62196-2 have the two
additional signals: the control pilot (CP in short form) and proximity pilot (PP in short form) in addition to normal
charging power pins (L1, L2, L3), neutral (N), and protective earth (PE). The comparison between pin numbers in
SAE 1772 and IEC 61851 is given in the table below;
L1
L2
L3
N
PE
CP
PP
SAE J1772 pin number Type 1
1
--
--
2
3
4
5
IEC61851 pin number Type 2
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Table 15 pin names and numbers in SAE J1772 vs IEC 61851
This signaling protocol (which oftentimes referred to as low level communication or LLC) doesn't require integrated
circuits, which would be required for other charging protocols, making it robust and operable through a temperature
range of 40 °C to +85 °C. The signaling protocol has been designed so that:
1. Electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) signals presence of AC charging plug (via proximity pilot), then
vehicle detects plug via its proximity detection circuit (thus the vehicle can prevent driving away while
connected).
2. Control pilot functions include;
Plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) detects the status of EVSE (refer to Figure 36)
EVSE detects mated plug with PEV
EVSE indicates to PEV its readiness to supply power
PEV indicates its readiness to accept charging power
PEV indicates ventilation requirements (only if it is needed depending on the chemistry of PEV
battery)
EVSE indicates its current capacity available to PEV (via duty in PWM)
3. Upon EVSE being in state C2 (refer to Figure 36) PEV can kick-off its charging cycle.
4. PEV and EVSE continuously monitor continuity of safety ground
Technical Report Ali Bahrami, www.linkedin.com/in/alibhrmi/
37
5. Charging cycle continues as determined by PEV
6. Charge cycle may be interrupted by either of following ways;
disconnecting the plug from the vehicle (by user or other ways),
decided by EVSE diagnostic system
decided by vehicle charging control unit (CCU) or VCU
By user (via charging smart platform or simply pressing a button on EVSE side or on PEV side)
In the figures below the wiring diagram of low-level communication (LLC) circuitries in the both EVSE and PEV
are shown.
(a)
(b)
Figure 34 (a)J1772 signaling circuit (only AC charging) (b) CCS1 signaling circuit with PLC over CP (AC and DC charging)
Proximity pilot (PP) pin
The proximity pilot (or, plug presence signal) allows the PEV to detect when it is plugged in. PP could provide PEV
with only presence of the plug or also the cable current rating in charging assembly.
Technical Report Ali Bahrami, www.linkedin.com/in/alibhrmi/
38
Proximity pilot (PP) without cable current coding;
It should be taken into account that, according to IEC 61851-1, the vehicle couplers using the proximity contact with
an auxiliary switch and without current capability coding of the cable assembly shall use the circuit diagram as
indicated in Figure 34. The switch, S3, as being mechanically linked to the connector latch release actuator. The
values of resistors are given in Table 16(a) for PP circuit without current coding. The voltage of proximity pilot pin
in different status of plug have been given in Table 17Error! Reference source not found. too.
During charging, the EVSE side connects the PP-PE loop via S3 and a 150 Ω R6, when opening the release actuator
a 330 Ω R7 is added in the PP-PE loop on the EVSE side which gives a voltage shift on the line to allow the electric
vehicle to initiate a controlled shut off prior to actual disconnection of the charge power pins. Some low power
adapter cables do not offer that locking actuator state detection on the PP pin.
So, a plug with a closed retention clip is indicated by 150 Ω, and a plug with an open retention clip is indicated by
480 Ω. This allows the EV to inhibit movement while a charging cable is attached, and to cease charging as the plug
is disconnected, so there is no load and associated arcing. PP also allows the EVSE to detect when a cable is plugged
in. Again, inside the plug itself, a passive resistance is connected across PP and PE.
Resistor
Rated
SAE J1772 & IEC 61851
Range (10%)
R4
330
297-363
R5
2700
2430-2970
R6
150
135-165
R7
330
297-363
Table 16 proximity resistance circuitry tolerances in SAE J1772 and IEC 61851-1
RPP-RE
Rated voltage on
PP pin
Plug Status
2700
4.46V
Plug Not
Connected
142.1
1.5V
Plug Connected
407.5
2.76V
Button is pressed
Table 17 proximity pin voltage in different status
Note that the +5V supply in EV side should have maximum of ±5% tolerance but not more.
Proximity pilot (PP) with cable current coding;
In addition, the cable can further indicate its current rating to the EV and EVSE with different resistances on PP. The
EVSE can then communicate this to the EV via the control pilot.
Vehicle connectors and plugs using the proximity contact for simultaneous proximity detection and current capability
coding of the cable assembly shall have a resistor electrically connected between the proximity contact and the
earthing contact according to Figure 35. The values of resistors are given in Table 18 for PP circuit with current
coding capability.
Inside the plug itself, a passive resistance is connected across PP and PE, which the EV then detects. PP does not
connect between EV and EVSE.
Technical Report Ali Bahrami, www.linkedin.com/in/alibhrmi/
39
IEC 61851 describes the PP detection circuit with cable current coding capability with resistors Rc and Ra as shown
in Figure 35 (a) and without the 2.7k grounding resistor shown of Figure 34 , however, it is a common practice by
OEMs to ground the PP circuit in vehicle side with a 4700Ω resistor. The reason behind is the fact that IEC standard
considers PP resister being >4500 as unmated plug (refer to Table 18), and to have a robust PP detection circuit
align with IEC standard, the suppliers and OEMs, place the 4700 resistor as shown in Figure 35 (b).This results in
different voltage values with respect to original circuit of IEC 61851 on PP pin.
For voltages in Table 18 Figure 35 (b) is referenced (i.e. with 4700 resistor)
(a)
(b)
Figure 35 (a) IEC61851 equivalent circuit diagram for simultaneous proximity detection and current coding (b)CCS2 OEMs commeon
practice, using a 4700 resistor (R7) on PP pin
Note: This circuit in Figure 35 does not use the auxiliary switch S3 to latch and unlatch.
Technical Report Ali Bahrami, www.linkedin.com/in/alibhrmi/
40
Resistance, PP-PE
(R6 in Figure 35)
Tolerance
range IEC
61851-1
Max. Current
Conductor
Size
Rated voltage on
PP pin
>4500 Ω
--
Error condition
or disconnected plug
--
>*4.37V
1500Ω
1100-2460
13A
1.5 mm2
*3.87V
680Ω
400-936
20A
2.5 mm2
*3.21V
220Ω
164-308
32A
6 mm2
*1.94V
100Ω
80-140
63A (3-phase)
16 mm2
*1.14V
<60Ω
--
Error condition
--
<*0.76V
Table 18 EVSE PP Resistance in IEC 61851-1 with cable current coding
*if the circuit of Figure 35 (b) is used and PP is grounded via 4700Ω in EV side.
Control Pilot (CP) Principle of Operation
The control pilot signal is designed to be easily processed by analog electronics, eliding the use of digital electronics,
which can be unreliable in automotive settings. The EVSE starts in state A and applies +12 V to the control pilot.
Once detecting 2.74 kΩ across CP and PE, the EVSE moves to state B, and applies a 1 kHz ±12 V peak-to-peak
square wave pilot signal. The EV can then request charging by changing the resistance across CP and PE to 246 Ω
or 882 Ω (with and without ventilation, respectively); if the EV requests ventilation, the EVSE will only enable
charging if it is in a ventilated area.
The pilot line circuitry example shows that the current loop CP-PE is connected permanently via a 2.74 kΩ resistor
making for a voltage drop to from +12 V to +9 V when a cable is hooked up to the charging station which activates
the wave generator. The charging is activated by the car by adding parallel 1.3 kΩ resistor resulting in a voltage drop
to +6 V or by adding a parallel 270 Ω resistor for a required ventilation resulting in a voltage drop to +3 V. Hence
the charging station can react by only checking the voltage range present on the CP-PE loop. Note that the diode will
only make for a voltage drop in the positive range; any negative voltage on the CP-PE loop will shut off the current
as being considered a fatal error (like touching the pins).
Technical Report Ali Bahrami, www.linkedin.com/in/alibhrmi/
41
*EVSE state
Charging Status
Equivalent Resistance
CP-PE [Ω]
R2 [Ω]
Voltage,
CP-PE
MIN
Typical
MAX
MIN
Typical
MAX
State A
Standby
--
Open
circuit
--
--
--
--
+12V
State B
Vehicle Detected
2658
2740
2822
--
--
--
+9±1V
State
C
C1
Vehicle Ready-EVSE
Not Ready
856
882
908
1261
1300
1339
+6±1V
C2
Vehicle Ready-EVSE
Ready
State
D
D1
Vehicle Ready-EVSE
Not Ready with
Ventilation
239
246
253
261.9
270
278.1
+3±1V
D2
Vehicle Ready-EVSE
Ready without
Ventilation
State E
No Power (Shut-off)
--
--
--
--
--
--
0V
State F
Error
--
--
--
--
--
--
-12V
Table 19 Chargeing states vs CP-PE resistance tolerances according to IEC-16851-1
*please refer to Figure 36 on states flow of EVSE
1% resistor is recommended for this application.
Note that, the diode D1 voltage drop in Figure 35, shall be 0.55V, 0.7V and 0.85V respectively for min,
typical and maximum values.
Figure 36 State diagram for typical control pilot (from IEC 61851-1 Figure A.3), numbers in brackets refer to the sequence reference in
Table A.6. in IEC 61851-1.
a: Can be state D1 (3V).
b: Can be state D2 (3V PWM).
Note: Not all state changes and sequences described in Table A.6 of IEC 61851-1 are shown in this figure, e.g. a change from any state to
state Ax, state E or state F may take place at any time.
The line wires are not made live until an EV is present, and has requested charging; i.e., state C or D. The EVSE
feeds the control pilot with 12 V through a series 1 kΩ sense resistor, after which it senses the voltage; the CP is
then connected, in the EV, through a diode and relevant resistance to PE. The resistance in the EV can be
manipulated by switching in a resistor in parallel with always connected 2.74 kΩ detection resistor.
Technical Report Ali Bahrami, www.linkedin.com/in/alibhrmi/
42
Figure 37 Equivalent CP circuit according to IEC 61851-1
Table 20 Control pilot circuit parameters and values for the EV supply equipment (Table A.2 from IEC 61851-1)
In the following tables, duty cycle information of CP signal in different is are given.
Technical Report Ali Bahrami, www.linkedin.com/in/alibhrmi/
43
Table 21 PWM duty cycle provided by EV supply equipment according to IEC 61851-1
The way to interpret CP duty cycle in order calculate the maximum drawable current from EVSE is given in the
table below;
Table 22 Maximum current to be drawn by vehicle according to IEC 61851-1
Technical Report Ali Bahrami, www.linkedin.com/in/alibhrmi/
44
Control pilot in SAE J1772-1;
As already discussed, using a PWM duty cycle of the 1 kHz CP signal, EVSE indicates the maximum allowed mains
current. According to the SAE it includes socket outlet, cable and vehicle inlet. In the US, the definition of the
ampacity (ampere capacity, or current capacity) is split for continuous and short-term operation. The SAE defines
the ampacity value to be derived by a formula based on the 1 ms full cycle (of the 1 kHz signal) with the maximum
continuous ampere rating being 0.6 A per 10 µs up to 850µs (with the lowest 100 µs x .6 A = 6 A). Above 850µs,
the formula requires subtraction of 640µs and multiplying the remainder by 2.5. For example (960 µs - 640 µs) x
2.5A = 80 A.
Table 23 CP PWM duty cycle interpretation based on J1772-1
Figure 38 Supply current rating vs. pilot circuit duty cycle according to J1772-1
Technical Report Ali Bahrami, www.linkedin.com/in/alibhrmi/
45
CCS DC Charging sequence and state transition
The charging sequence, state transition and the related system activities are specified in a detailed but highly
compressed manner in IEC 61851-23. Below the state transition of DC EVSE has been shown.
Figure 39 DC charging state transition diagram of charging process (Figure EE1 from IEC 61851-23-2)
Technical Report Ali Bahrami, www.linkedin.com/in/alibhrmi/
46
DC charging sequence diagram according to IEC 61851-23-2 has been depicted in Figure 40.
Figure 40 DC Charging sequence diagram (Figure EE2 from IEC 61851-23-2)
Technical Report Ali Bahrami, www.linkedin.com/in/alibhrmi/
47
P1901 powerline communication (DC charging and smart AC charging)
In an updated standard due in 2012, SAE proposes to use power line communication, specifically IEEE 1901, between
the vehicle, off-board charging station, and the smart grid, without requiring an additional pin; SAE and the IEEE
Standards Association are sharing their draft standards related to the smart grid and vehicle electrification.
P1901 communication is compatible with other 802.x standards via the IEEE 1905 standard, allowing arbitrary IP-
based communications with the vehicle, meter or distributor, and the building where chargers are located. P1905
includes wireless communications. In at least one implementation, communication between the off-board DC EVSE
and PEV occurs on the pilot wire of the SAE J1772 connector via HomePlug Green PHY power line communication
(PLC).
Common terms used;
Plug and Charge (PnC); identification mode where the customer just has to plug their vehicle into the
EVSE and all aspects of charging are automatically taken care of with no further intervention from the driver
The aspects of charging may include load control, authorization and billing.
External Identification Means (EIM); any external means that enable the user to identify his contract or
the car. e.g. NFC, RFID, SMS.
Electric Vehicle Communication Controller (EVCC): embedded system, within the vehicle, that
implements the communication between the vehicle and the SECC in order to support specific functions.
Such specific functions could be e.g. controlling input and output channels, encryption, or data transfer
between vehicle and SECC.
Supply Equipment Communication Controller (SECC) entity which implements the communication to
one or multiple EVCCs according to ISO 15118-2 and which may be able to interact with secondary actors
(SA). Further details regarding possible architectures are given in Annex A of ISO 15118-1. Functions of a
supply equipment communication controller may control input and output channels, data encryption, or data
transfer between vehicle and SECC.
Figure 41 PLC system architecture example for AC smart charging
Technical Report Ali Bahrami, www.linkedin.com/in/alibhrmi/
48
Figure 42 PLC protocol in a typical DC Fast charging station
OCPP stands for Open Charge Point Protocol. It is an open-source communication standard for EV charging stations
and network software companies.
In fact, OCPP is an application protocol for communication between Electric vehicle charging stations and a central
management system, also known as a charging station network, similar to cell phones and cell phone networks. In
the figure below a simple OCPP communication diagram has been shown.
Figure 43 OCPP communications diagram
Technical Report Ali Bahrami, www.linkedin.com/in/alibhrmi/
49
High Level Communication (HLC)
Based on the Open System Interconnection-Layer-Model (OSI) the different stages of the communication between
EV and DC EVSE might be investigated to fully grasp the concept of HLC, which is beyond the scope of this
document; however, a few important topics will be discussed briefly here in this respect.
ISO 15118 specifies the communication between Electric Vehicles (EV), including Battery Electric Vehicles and
Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles, and the Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE). As the communication parts
of this generic equipment are the Electric Vehicle Communication Controller (EVCC) and the Supply Equipment
Communication Controller (SECC), ISO 15118 describes the communication between these components.
ISO 15118-1 defines HLC as follows;
“Bi-directional digital communication using protocol and messages and physical and data link layers
specified in ISO 15118 series
High Level Communication in ISO 15118 is compliant with the term digital communication in SAE
J1772/2836/2847/2931.
OSI model vs V2G communication protocol stack;
The OSI Model (Open Systems Interconnection Model) is a conceptual framework used to describe the
functions of a networking and telecommunication system. In a 7-layer concept the OSI model characterizes
computing functions into a universal set of rules and requirements in order to support interoperability between
different products and software.
In the figure below a comparison between OSI model layers and V2G communication implementation has
been depicted.
Figure 44 Vehicle to Grid (V2G) communication vs OSI model
The Signal Level Attenuation Characterization (SLAC)
The Signal Level Attenuation Characterization (SLAC) is a protocol to ensure EV and EVSE are physically
connected to each other. SLAC as part of layer 2 (data link) is defined in HomePlug Green PHY v1.1.1 specification.
Technical Report Ali Bahrami, www.linkedin.com/in/alibhrmi/
50
SLAC is a protocol to measure the attenuation between two Power Line Communication (PLC) modules SLAC is a
protocol to measure the attenuation between two Power Line Communication (PLC) modules. If there are several
EV’s that are connected to charging stations nearby, there can occur crosstalk in between. SLAC requests shall be
responded by an EVSE only, if the EVSE is connected to an EV (state B) and the PLC module of the EVSE is not
EVSE is not already linked to another PLC module (unmatched state)
Figure 45 Signal Level Attenuation Characterization and SLAC sequence
Technical Report Ali Bahrami, www.linkedin.com/in/alibhrmi/
51
CHAdeMO (DC)
While EV AC charging plug in Japan is the same as north America, J1772 type 1, for DC fast charging CHAdeMO
standard has been adopted as the national standard for EV charging.
Fast charge coupler (JEVS G105-1993), CHAdeMO. CHAdeMO is the trade name of a quick charging method for
battery electric vehicles delivering up to 62.5 kW by 500 V, 125 A direct current via a special electrical connector.
A revised CHAdeMO 2.0 specification allows for up to 400 kW by 1000 V, 400 A direct current.
Figure 46 CHAdeMO fast charge coupler pinout used in Japan
Signaling and Communication Protocols in CHAdeMO
In CHAdeMO standard the communication between EVSE and EV is realized on CAN bus. The signaling
sequence has been shown in the following figure.
(a) (b)
Figure 47 CHAdeMO fast charge signaling (a)connector interface (b)charging sequence flowchart
CHAdeMO is an abbreviation of "CHArge de MOve", equivalent to "move using charge" or "move by charge" or
"charge 'n' go", a reference to the fact that it's a fast charger. It was proposed in 2010 as a global industry standard
by an association of the same name formed by five major Japanese automakers and included in the IEC61851-23, -
24 (charging system and communication) and the IEC 62196 standard as configuration AA.
1
Ground
2
Charger start/stop1
3
--
4
Charging enable/disable
5
DC power (-)
6
DC power (+)
7
Connection check
8
CAN - H
9
CAN - L
10
Charger start/stop2
Technical Report Ali Bahrami, www.linkedin.com/in/alibhrmi/
52
On 24 April 2020, CHAdeMO Association has released the latest CHAdeMO protocol (CHAdeMO 3.0) to its Regular
members, specifying the requirements for designing the next-generation CHAdeMO chargers, using the brand-new,
identical plug with China’s GB/T protocol, allowing for maximum current of 600A.
This latest version of CHAdeMO protocol enables DC charging with the power over 500kW (maximum current
600A), while ensuring the connector to be light and compact with a smaller diameter cable, thanks to the liquid-
cooling technology as well as to the removal of locking mechanism from the connector to the vehicle side. Backward
compatibility of the CHAdeMO 3.0-compliant vehicles with the existing DC fast charging standards (CHAdeMO,
GB/T, and possibly CCS) is ensured; in other words, today’s CHAdeMO chargers can feed power to both the current
EVs as well as the future EVs via an adapter or with a multi-standard charger. Started as a bi-lateral project, ChaoJi
has developed into an international collaboration forum, mobilising expertise and market experience of key players
from Europe, Asia, North America, and Oceania. India is expected to join the team sometime soon, and governments
and companies form South Korea and South-eastern Asian countries have also expressed their strong interests. Japan
and China have agreed to continue working together on the technical development and to promote this next-
generation charging technology through further technical demonstration events and the trial deployment of the new
chargers.
The testing requirements for CHAdeMO 3.0 specification are expected to be issued within a year. The first Chaoji
EVs will be likely commercial vehicles and expected to be launched in the market within 2021, followed by other
types of vehicles including passenger EVs.
GB/T Plug (AC and DC)
As already mentioned the GB/T 18487, GB/T20234, and GB/T 27930 EV charging standards define the systems
requirements, plug and couple types as well as communications and signaling for conductive charging developed in
China. According to GB/T 20234 we have;
GB/T AC Charging Plug
Figure 48 GB/T AC charging plug
Technical Report Ali Bahrami, www.linkedin.com/in/alibhrmi/
53
Signaling and Communication;
Figure 49 Schematic Diagram of Control Pilot Circuit in Charging Mode 3 and Case A Connection in GB/T 18487
Figure 50 Schematic Diagram of Control Pilot Circuit in Charging Mode 3 and Case B Connection in GB/T 18487
Figure 51 Schematic Diagram of Control Pilot Circuit in Charging Mode 3 and Case C Connection in GB/T 18487
Technical Report Ali Bahrami, www.linkedin.com/in/alibhrmi/
54
GB/T DC Charging Plug
Figure 52 GB/T plug and its pinout used in China
Signaling and Communication;
Figure 53 Schematic Diagram of DC Charging Control Pilot Circuit in GB/T 18487
Technical Report Ali Bahrami, www.linkedin.com/in/alibhrmi/
55
Tesla Charging Inlet and Plug
Figure 54 Tesla Supercharger outlets in Europe/Worldwide (left) and North America only (right).
Images from Tesla confirm that the automaker has developed a redesigned charge port specifically for the Chinese
market! The new charge port location, along with new connectors, meet Chinese charging standards. Without these
changes, Tesla would likely be prohibited from selling in China in the future.
Figure 55 Tesla's New Charge Port Design Accommodates Chinese Chargers
Tesla company has confirmed that Model 3 vehicles sold in the European market will come with a CCS Combo 2
charge port. An adapter for Models S and X is in the works. Fast charging stations are cropping up all over
Europe. And now Tesla drivers can use such third-party networks in addition to Tesla’s own Supercharger network
without the need for expensive adaptors!
Figure 56 New Tesla Model 3 with CCS2 inlet for European market
Technical Report Ali Bahrami, www.linkedin.com/in/alibhrmi/
56
References
[1] ISO 18246: Electrically propelled mopeds and motorcycles Safety requirements for conductive connection to
an external electric power supply
[2] SAE J1772-2017: SAE Electric Vehicle Conductive Charge Coupler
[3] IEC 62196: Plugs, socket-outlets, vehicle connectors and vehicle inlets - Conductive charging of electric vehicles
[4] IEC 61851: Electric vehicle conductive charging system
[5] IEC 61850: Communication Protocols for Intelligent Electronic Devices at Electrical Substations
[6] ISO 6469: Electrically propelled road vehicles Safety specifications
[7] ISO 15118: Road vehicles - Vehicle to grid communication interface
[8] ISO 17409: Electrically propelled road vehicles Connection to an external electric power supply Safety
requirements
[9] A. Bahrami, R. Faranda, H. Hafezi, Integration of fault current limiting function into a single-phase series
compensator”, 2018 18th International Conference on Harmonics and Quality of Power (ICHQP)
[10] Roberto Faranda, Ali Bahrami, Hossein Hafezi, “Fault Current Limiting Investigation for a Single-Phase
Dynamic Voltage Conditioner”, 2019 IEEE Milan PowerTech.
[11] A. Bahrami, “An integrated control scheme for dynamic voltage restorer to limit downstream fault currents”,
M.Sc. dissertation, Dept. of Energy, Politecnico di Milano, 2017.
[12] Guowei Cai, Duolun Liu, Chuang Liu, Wei Li, and Jiajun Sun, A High-Frequency Isolation (HFI) Charging
DC Port Combining a Front-End Three-Level Converter with a Back-End LLC Resonant Converter”, Energies 2017
[13] C.F. Calvillo, Alvaro Sanchez-Miralles, JoseVillar “Synergies of Electric Urban Transport Systems and
Distributed Energy Resources in Smart Cities”, IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems, Oct. 2017
[14] CHAdeMO Association, www.chademo.com
[15] Matthias Kübel on behalf of Initiative Charging Interface, Design Guide for Combined Charging System”,2015
[16] GB/T 20234: Electric vehicle conductive charging plugs and sockets, vehicle couplers and vehicle jack General
requirements
[17] GB/T 18487: Electric vehicle conductive charging system
[18] GB/T 27930: Communication protocols between off-board conductive charger and battery management system
for electric vehicle
[19] Cover photo credit: https://www.omazaki.co.id/
[20] J. Yuan, L. Dorn-gomba, A. D. Callegaro, J. Reimers, A, Emadi “A Review of Bidirectional On-Board Chargers
for Electric Vehicles” IEEE Open Access Journal, March 25, 2021
[21] A. Khaligh, S. Dusmez “Comprehensive Topological Analysis of Conductive and Inductive Charging Solutions
for Plug-In Electric Vehicles”, IEEE transactions on vehicular technology, vol. 61, no. 8, October 2012.
Technical Report Ali Bahrami, www.linkedin.com/in/alibhrmi/
57
[22] A. Bahrami, “Vehicle to Grid Technology” LinkedIn article, https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/vehicle-grid-
technology-ali-bahrami/
[23] D. Ronanki, A. Kelkar, S. S. Williamson, “Extreme Fast Charging Technology—Prospects to Enhance
Sustainable Electric Transportation” Energies Journal, 2019.
[24] https://www.incibe-cert.es
... The standard socket provides protection to the EVs against high temperature, high current, and ground earth rise. For example, the IEC60309 charging standard operates at the current level of 32 A with the AC moderate charging in mode 2 [56]. • Mode 3: AC fast charging Mode 3 can be used for EVs charging at households or commercial CSs, which provides a higher current and a greater power passage to the EVs battery than other charging modes. ...
... However, DC charging enables direct interfacing with the battery of the EVs through the use of an off-board charger without the need for a converter. Off-boarding charging facilitates high power charging and yields high charging costs, which can discourage users from charging [56]. For example, Wang et al. [59] addressed the efficiency and cost issues by introducing a dual-inverter drive in three-phase DC fast charging for EVs. ...
Full-text available
Article
The deployment of charging infrastructure is one of the main challenges that need to be tackled due to the increasing demand for electric vehicles (EVs). Moreover, EVs associated with the different charging standards can face compatibility issues while charging via public or private infrastructure. Many solutions were surveyed by the researchers on EVs, but not focused on addressing the issue of charging infrastructure standardization. Motivated by this, we present a comprehensive survey on standardizing EV charging infrastructure. We also present a taxonomy on various aspects such as charging levels, charging modes, charging standards, charging technologies (based on the different charging types such as conductive charging and wireless charging), and types of vehicle (i.e., 2-wheeler (2W), 3-wheeler (3W), and 4-wheeler (4W)). Furthermore, we target the benefits associated with the community EV charging operated by the community charging service operator. Furthermore, we propose an architecture for standardized EV community charging infrastructure to provide adaptability for EVs with different charging standards. Finally, the research challenges and opportunities of the proposed survey have been discussed for efficient EV charging.
... Los tipos de conectores varían su diseño de acuerdo a la marca del vehículo y al modo de carga del EVSE, es así que los estándares internacionales IEC 62196-2 e IEC 62196-3 proporcionan información de los conectores en AC y en DC, respectivamente. Se describen cada uno de los conectores presentados en la figura 2.16[49],[47],[50].El conector Schuko corresponde al enchufe convencional de uso doméstico europeo, definido por el estándar CEE 7/4 Tipo F 2 . Su límite de corriente es 16 A, por lo que solo permite la carga lenta (modo 1 y 2). ...
... Los modos de carga permiten categorizar las formas de suministro de potencia, establecer el nivel de comunicación/control entre el vehículo eléctrico y la estación de carga, y definir la instalación de protección. A continuación, se describen los cuatro diferentes modos de carga, descritos por la Comisión Electrotécnica Internacional (International Electrotechnical Comission, IEC) en el estándar IEC 61851-1[47],[48],[41].Modo 1En el modo 1 de carga no existe comunicación entre el EV y la red eléctrica. El EV se conecta de manera directa a la red a través de un enchufe doméstico estándar (conector convencional Schuko), sin ningún dispositivo de protección, ni la intervención de funciones de control. ...
Full-text available
Thesis
Energy generation systems from the use of solar resources constitute an alternative to help mitigate the problem of climate change, but their integration into the distribution networks causes problems in the energy quality and the stability of the network, as a consequence of its intermittent nature, which causes rapid variations in the output power of the photovoltaic modules to occur. The fluctuations produced cannot be controlled from their generation, so it is necessary to combine these systems with energy storage technologies, which help to reduce them. For this reason, the present work was oriented to the development of a simulation model of an energy management system, which controls the charging process of the electric vehicle, based on the dynamics of photovoltaic generation. At the meteorological station of the Micro Networks laboratory of the University of Cuenca, located on the Balsay campus, the dynamic behavior of PV power generation was studied in 1s intervals, for an analysis period from 6:00 a.m. to 6:00 p.m., for 30 days. ; Based on the results obtained, the power ramp control strategy was applied, for a day with high variations and another with average variations; then the load management models for electric vehicles were designed in two scenarios: a single vehicle and more than one vehicle connected in the Common Connection Point (PCC). The results showed that the dynamic behavior of the photovoltaic generation in the study area presents rapid power fluctuations in very short moments, reaching an average variation of 7,20 𝑘𝑊 𝑚𝑖𝑛 ⁄ and a coefficient of variability of 32.09%, in the month of September 2020; The application of the power ramp control algorithm, for the two conditions, showed that the integration of a single electric vehicle in the PCC is not enough to reduce all the photovoltaic fluctuations, while by increasing the number of vehicles the level of variations is mostly reduced. It is concluded that it is possible to integrate electric vehicle charging stations into photovoltaic solar energy generation systems, to reduce the impacts of this technology on the electric power supply network.
... [76]. A unique characteristic of the CCS standard is that it is capable of facilitating AC charging, as well as DCQC, with the same connector [77] . This negates the need for multiple connector ports in EVs. ...
Article
Medium-duty/heavy-duty trucks (MD/HDTs) are yet to be included in India's electric mobility plans. With the improvement of electric vehicle (EV) technologies, there is a growing interest in battery-electric trucks (BETs) from original equipment manufacturers (OEMs). The time is opportune to consider electrification as a future direction for road freight in India. Accordingly, this article presents the results of an energy consumption simulation study of a BET under Indian conditions. This study specifically considered an MDBET over a domestic drive cycle. These energy consumption figures can facilitate future studies that analyze the technical and practical feasibility of BETs in the country. In addition, the article provides the requisite groundwork for BET modeling for a simulation study by reviewing available EV powertrain systems and components. Appropriate powertrain considerations are thereby obtained for a typical medium-duty/heavy-duty battery-electric truck (MD/HDBET) in the Indian context.
... The charging topologies (onboard/off-board), type of charging (conductive/inductive), safety, charging connections, communication, and cybersecurity criteria are all provided by the front-end protocols. They explain the relationship between EVs and EVSEs as well [7]. For instance, front-end protocols include communication standards such as IEC 61851, ISO 15118, SAE J2847, and CHAdeMO [8,9]. ...
Full-text available
Article
Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) technology is viewed as a viable solution to offer auxiliary power system services. Currently, V2G operation is only possible through DC chargers using the CHAdeMO connector with the necessary communication protocol. However, in Europe, for high-power DC charging (>50 kW), the Combined Charging Service (CCS) Type 2 is preferred over CHAdeMO. Therefore, this work presents the development of a V2G testing system with a Combo CCSType 2 charger including communication via the ISO 15118-2 protocol. The BOSCH passenger car with a 400 V battery pack is used to test and validate the technical feasibility of V2G charging via a Combo CCS Type 2 connector standard. The V2G feature is characterized in terms of efficiency, signal delay, response proportionality, magnitude accuracy and noise precision. A data driven V2G charger simulation model based on the real-time data is also developed in MATLAB/Simulink. The performance under various operating settings is presented in the outcomes, emphasizing the need for appropriate hardware calibration, and understanding while delivering standard-compliant grid control services using V2G technology. Finally, the results of the simulation model are compared with the real hardware results in terms of error, noise level and data magnitude accuracy.
Article
This paper examines the charging system of electric vehicles and tries to explain the process involved in the operation of an electric vehicle supply equipment and the electric vehicle onboard charging module. The simulation carried out in this paper were done using the power electronics simulation software PSIM. It presents the electric schematic of the proximity pilot connection and the control pilot connection. It also presents the voltage waveforms for both connector pins.
Full-text available
Article
This review paper examines the types of electric vehicle charging station (EVCS), its charging methods, connector guns, modes of charging, and testing and certification standards, and the current status of Indian standards with respect to international standards. The paper also discusses key challenges in the standardization of EVCS worldwide and provides recommendations. It is recommended to use the combined charging system (CCS) charging methodology which will cater to the electric vehicle (EV) market in the country as well as abroad and help promote faster adoption of EVs. With many advantages with CCS charging methodology such as single connector, both AC and DC charging, high power capacity, promoted by a large number of EV manufacturers across the globe, etc., it is recommended to use CCS charging methodology. CHArge de MOve (CHAdeMO) is the only charging methodology having a vehicle to grid (V2G) functionality that can be made compatible with local grid codes which can support the grid during peak load demand using the combination of bidirectional EVCS and EV batteries acting as energy storage equipment. Finally, a comparative analysis is provided between the Indian standards and international standards from Europe, China, Japan, Germany, North America, and international organization for standardization (ISO). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Full-text available
Article
The high-frequency isolation (HFI) charging DC port can serve as the interface between unipolar/bipolar DC buses and electric vehicles (EVs) through the two-power-stage system structure that combines the front-end three-level converter with the back-end logical link control (LLC) resonant converter. The DC output voltage can be maintained within the desired voltage range by the front-end converter. The electrical isolation can be realized by the back-end LLC converter, which has the bus converter function. According to the three-level topology, the low-voltage rating power devices can be adapted for half-voltage stress of the total DC grid, and the PWM phase-shift control can double the equivalent switching frequency to greatly reduce the filter volume. LLC resonant converters have advance characteristics of inverter-side zero-voltage-switching (ZVS) and rectifier-side zero-current switching (ZCS). In particular, it can achieve better performance under quasi-resonant frequency mode. Additionally, the magnetizing current can be modified following different DC output voltages, which have the self-adaptation ZVS condition for decreasing the circulating current. Here, the principles of the proposed topology are analyzed in detail, and the design conditions of the three-level output filter and high-frequency isolation transformer are explored. Finally, a 20 kW prototype with the 760 V input and 200–500 V output are designed and tested. The experimental results are demonstrated to verify the validity and performance of this charging DC port system structure.
Full-text available
Article
The fast development of electric vehicles (EVs) provides significant opportunities to further utilize clean energies in the automotive. On-board chargers (OBCs) are widely used in EVs because of their simple installation and low cost. Limited space in the vehicle and short charging time require an OBC to be power-dense and highly efficient. Moreover, the possibility for EVs to deliver power back to the grid has increased the interest in bidirectional power flow solutions in the automotive market. This paper presents a comprehensive overview and investigation on the state-of-the-art solutions of bidirectional OBCs. It reviews the current status, including architectures and configurations, smart operation modes, industry standards, major components, and commercially available products. A detailed overview of the promising topologies for bidirectional OBCs, including two-stage and single-stage structures, is provided. Future trends and challenges for topologies, wide bandgap technologies, thermal management, system integration, and wireless charging systems are also discussed in this paper.
Full-text available
Article
With the growing fleet of a new generation electric vehicles (EVs), it is essential to develop an adequate high power charging infrastructure that can mimic conventional gasoline fuel stations. Therefore, much research attention must be focused on the development of off-board DC fast chargers which can quickly replenish the charge in an EV battery. However, use of the service transformer in the existing fast charging architecture adds to the system cost, size and complicates the installation process while directly connected to medium-voltage (MV) line. With continual improvements in power electronics and magnetics, solid state transformer (SST) technology can be adopted to enhance power density and efficiency of the system. This paper aims to review the current state of the art architectures and challenges of fast charging infrastructure using SST technology while directly connected to the MV line. Finally, this paper discusses technical considerations, challenges and introduces future research possibilities.
Full-text available
Article
Transport systems and buildings are among the bigger energy users inside cities. Abundant research has been developed about these systems (facilities and transport). However, synergies among them are commonly overlooked, not taking advantage of the possible benefits of their joint coordination and management. This paper presents a linear programming model to find the optimal operation and planning of distributed energy resources (DER) in a residential district, while considering electric private and public transport systems, in particular electric vehicles and metro. Hence, the main contribution of this paper is the analysis of synergies of such an interconnected scheme. It has been assumed that part of the metro regenerative braking energy can be stored into electric vehicles' (EVs') batteries, so that it can be used later for other trains or for the EV itself. Several case studies have been proposed using data from a residential district and a metro line in Madrid. The obtained results show important cost savings in the overall system, especially a significant power cost reduction for the metro system. IEEE
Full-text available
Article
The impending global energy crisis has opened up new opportunities for the automotive industry to meet the ever-increasing demand for cleaner and fuel-efficient vehicles. This has necessitated the development of drivetrains that are either fully or partially electrified in the form of electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (EVs and HEVs), respectively, which are collectively addressed as plug-in EVs (PEVs). PEVs in general are equipped with larger on-board storage and power electronics for charging or discharging the battery, in comparison with HEVs. The extent to which PEVs are adopted significantly depends on the nature of the charging solution utilized. In this paper, a comprehensive topological survey of the currently available PEV charging solutions is presented. PEV chargers based on the nature of charging (conductive or inductive), stages of conversion (integrated single stage or two stages), power level (level 1, 2, or 3), and type of semiconductor devices utilized (silicon, silicon carbide, or gallium nitride) are thoroughly reviewed in this paper.
Vehicle to Grid Technology
  • A Bahrami
A. Bahrami, "Vehicle to Grid Technology" LinkedIn article, https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/vehicle-gridtechnology-ali-bahrami/