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Abstract

For the past decades, an increase in the incidence of colorectal cancer in young patients has been reported in several countries, including Denmark, and efforts need to be taken in order to halt this tendency. This review characterises the clinical and pathological attributes of young patients with early-onset colorectal cancer (EOCRC). Risk factors such as smoking and sedentary lifestyle have been found to be associated with EOCRC. Further studies are needed to evaluate, if the age of patients entering the Danish screening programme for bowel cancer should be lowered.

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... While the Western society prefers to eat red and processed meat associated with an increased cancer incidence, the Mediterranean diet is correlated with a decreased cancer incidence [34]. Smoking and a sedentary lifestyle are major risk factors for early-onset CRC [35]. Smoking cigarettes generates more than 7000 toxic chemicals, with at least 70 known carcinogens that can affect the entire human body. ...
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Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a predominant malignancy worldwide, being the fourth most common cause of mortality and morbidity. The CRC incidence in adolescents, young adults, and adult populations is increasing every year. In the pathogenesis of CRC, various factors are involved including diet, sedentary life, smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, obesity, gut microbiota, diabetes, and genetic mutations. The CRC tumor microenvironment (TME) involves the complex cooperation between tumoral cells with stroma, immune, and endothelial cells. Cytokines and several growth factors (GFs) will sustain CRC cell proliferation, survival, motility, and invasion. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), Insulin-like growth factor -1 receptor (IGF-1R), and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor -A (VEGF-A) are overexpressed in various human cancers including CRC. The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (AKT)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and all the three major subfamilies of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways may be activated by GFs and will further play key roles in CRC development. The main aim of this review is to present the CRC incidence, risk factors, pathogenesis, and the impact of GFs during its development. Moreover, the article describes the relationship between EGF, IGF, VEGF, GFs inhibitors, PI3K/AKT/mTOR-MAPK signaling pathways, and CRC.
... Colon adenocarcinoma (COAD) is a common type of CRC (2). Even with the significant progress that has been attained in recent COAD research, the data show that the morbidity and mortality rates of COAD are increasing (3). Findings have demonstrated that COAD can be successfully treated when identified at an early stage (4). ...
Article
Background: RNA binding proteins (RBPs) play an important role in a variety of cancers. However, their mechanisms in cancer progression are still limited especially in colorectal adenocarcinoma (COAD). Integrated analysis of RBPs will provide a better understanding of disease genesis and new insights into COAD treatment. Methods: The gene expression data and corresponding clinical information for COAD were downloaded from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. Univariate Cox regression analysis was used to screen for RBPs associated with COAD recurrence, and multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were used to identify genes that were associated with COAD recurrence. A nomogram was constructed to predict the recurrence of COAD, and a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed to determine the accuracy of the prediction models. The Human Protein Atlas database was used in prediction models to confirm the expression of key genes in COAD patients. Results: A total of 177 differentially expressed RBPs was obtained, comprising 123 upregulated and 54 downregulated. GO and KEGG enrichment analysis showed that the differentially expressed RBPs were mainly related to mRNA metabolism, RNA processing and translation regulation. Seven RBP genes (TDRD6, POP1, TDRD7, PPARGC1A, LIN28B, LRRFIP2 and PNLDC1) were identified as prognosis-associated genes and were used to construct the prognostic model. Conclusions: We constructed a COAD prognostic model through bioinformatics analysis and the nomogram can effectively predict the 1-year, 2-year, and 3-year survival rate for COAD patients.
... Colon adenocarcinoma (COAD) is a common type of CRC (2). Recent research on COAD has made significant progress, but the data show that the morbidity and mortality rates of COAD are increasing (3). Findings have demonstrated that COAD can Original Article Discovered differentially expressed lncRNA AC010973.2 ...
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Background: The identification of prognostic genes that can distinguish the prognostic risks of cancer patients remains a significant challenge. Recent studies show that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) might act as prognostic biomarkers in a variety of cancers. This study aimed to identify and assess a prognostic lncRNA signature in patients with colon adenocarcinoma (COAD). Methods: We downloaded expression profiles and corresponding clinicopathological data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. We selected samples with lncRNA expression data and relevant clinical prognostic data for subsequent analysis. The association between lncRNA and prognostic function was analyzed by Cox regression analysis. The potential biofunctions of target lncRNA were investigated through bioinformatic analysis. Results: LncRNAs expression profiles and corresponding clinicopathological data of 480 COAD patients and 41 normal samples were obtained from TCGA database. A multivariate Cox analysis model was used to identify the lncRNA signature. AC010973.2 lncRNA was found to be significantly related to the survival of COAD patients. The area under the curve (0.758) and the C-index (0.753) further confirmed the prediction accuracy of our model. Through nucleic acid sequence comparison and literature search, we found that the homologous host gene SLC4A2 of AC010973.2 is significantly related to COAD. Conclusions: We provide here a new biomarker for COAD diagnosis and a new direction for further research on the pathogenesis of COAD.
... Even with the signi cant progress that has been attained in recent COAD research, the data show that the morbidity and mortality rates of COAD are increasing [3]. Findings have demonstrated that COAD can be successfully treated when identi ed at an early stage [4]. ...
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Background RNA binding proteins (RBPs) play an important role in a variety of cancers. However, the role of RBPs in colorectal adenocarcinoma (COAD) has not been studied. Integrated analysis of RBPs will provide a better understanding of disease genesis and new insights into COAD treatment. Methods The gene expression data and corresponding clinical information for COAD were downloaded from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. Univariate Cox regression analysis was used to screen for RBPs associated with COAD recurrence, and multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were used to identify genes that were associated with COAD recurrence. A nomogram was constructed to predict the recurrence of COAD, and a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed to determine the accuracy of the prediction models. The Human Protein Atlas database was used in prediction models to confirm the expression of key genes in COAD patients. Result A total of 177 differentially expressed RBPs was obtained, comprising 123 upregulated and 54 downregulated. GO and KEGG enrichment analysis showed that the differentially expressed RBPs were mainly related to mRNA metabolism, RNA processing and translation regulation. Seven RBP genes (TDRD6, POP1, TDRD7, PPARGC1A, LIN28B, LRRFIP2 and PNLDC1) were identified as prognosis-associated genes and were used to construct the prognostic model. Conclusion We constructed a COAD prognostic model through bioinformatics analysis, which indicated that prognostic model RBPs have a potential role in the diagnosis and prognosis of COAD. Moreover, the nomogram can effectively predict the 1-year, 3-year, and 5-year survival rate for COAD patients.
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