Article

Trajectories of Online Racial Discrimination and Psychological Functioning Among African American and Latino Adolescents

Authors:
  • Rutgers School of Public Health
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

This study investigated trajectories of individual and vicarious online racial discrimination (ORD) and their associations with psychological outcomes for African American and Latinx adolescents in 6th–12th grade (N = 522; Mgrade = 9th) across three waves. Data were analyzed using growth mixture modeling to estimate trajectories for ORD and to determine the effects of each trajectory on Wave 3 depressive symptoms, anxiety, and self‐esteem. Results showed four individual and three vicarious ORD trajectories, with the majority of participants starting out with low experiences and increasing over time. Older African American adolescents and people who spend more time online are at greatest risk for poor psychological functioning.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... The power dynamics online are unique compared to offline encounters, as researchers have pointed out that individuals may feel more ready to disclose radical and discriminatory viewpoints given a sense of anonymity, invisibility, and a lack of social and physical cues (e.g., discomfort by others in presence; Keum and Miller, 2018). Therefore, adolescents may be more vulnerable to direct and vicarious online discrimination, especially among those who spend more time online (Tynes et al., 2016(Tynes et al., , 2020. On the other hand, adolescents may have more opportunities to select and enter online spaces with people with similar backgrounds or beliefs (Keum and Miller, 2018). ...
... Due to these unique features and an increase in cyber-bullying and identity-based violence online in recent years, adolescents may intentionally and unintentionally perceive online discrimination in various forms more frequently (Smith, 2005;Barker and Jurasz, 2019;Wang et al., 2022). There has been emerging evidence on the negative effects of online discrimination on adolescents' mental health outcomes (Tynes et al., 2016(Tynes et al., , 2020. However, our understanding of whether these impacts extend to adolescents' confidence to traverse online platforms and their beliefs in the abilities of African Americans male and female African Americans to engage in technology (i.e., internalized computing stereotypes) remains limited. ...
... Have they been provided opportunities to use online platforms to engage in resistance of and liberation from oppression, which may translate to offline actions? Perceived offline discrimination has been found to poise African American and Latinx adolescents to perceive more frequent online discrimination, but not vice versa (Tynes et al., 2020). How do adolescents traverse different online and offline spaces with different social structures and power dynamics (Keum and Miller, 2018)? ...
Article
Full-text available
African American adolescents have become more active users of digital media, which may increasingly expose them to direct online discrimination based on their racial and gender identities. Despite well-documented impacts of offline discrimination, our understanding of if and how direct online discrimination affects African American adolescents similarly remains limited. Guided by intersectional and ecological frameworks, we examined the association between direct online discrimination and internalized computing stereotypes in African American adolescents. Further, we explored the moderating effects of systemic and individual factors – vicarious online discrimination, parental technological attitudes, and racial identity centrality – on this association by adolescent gender. Utilizing data from 1041 African American parent-adolescent dyads, we found a positive association between adolescents’ direct online discrimination and internalized computing stereotypes. Surprisingly, greater vicarious online discrimination mitigated this association for both male and female adolescents. Further, parental technological attitudes and racial identity centrality mitigated this association only for female but not male adolescents. Our findings highlight the importance of understanding the impact of media on adolescents’ online experiences from intersectional and systemic perspectives. We discuss the implications for prospective research and educational programs focused on African American adolescents’ digital media use and online experiences.
... Exposure to such individual and vicarious social media racial discrimination places adolescents of color at higher risk of mental health symptoms and negative longterm developmental outcomes. Online Tynes et al., 2020) and offline (Benner et al., 2018;Yip, 2015) individual racial discrimination such as peer harassment and teasing are significant stressors faced by youth of color that cause both physical and psychological responses, which can trigger the onset of depression and anxiety disorders. Observing racial discrimination directed at peers, family members, and other racial group members is a common form of discrimination experienced by youth of color (Quintana & McKown, 2008), although it has been least studied (Priest et al., 2013). ...
... Past research indicates that 10%-25% of adolescents of color have experienced online racial discrimination directed toward them individually, and between 33% and 70% have experienced online racial discrimination vicariously (Duggan, 2017;Rideout et al., 2016). Research involving black and Latinx adolescents found individual online racial discrimination predicted higher levels of depressive and anxiety symptoms, the association between vicarious online discrimination and mental health inconclusive Tynes et al., 2020). ...
... The present study provided evidence on the extent to which youth of color are experiencing social media racial discrimination and online activities most associated with those experiences. Most (94%) adolescents in the sample have experienced vicarious social media racial discrimination, and 79% have experienced individual social media racial discrimination, that were higher than most previous reports (e.g., Tynes et al., 2020). Although all racial groups reported high levels of social media racial discrimination, reports were significantly higher among black youth. ...
Article
Full-text available
Offline and online racial discrimination has been associated with mental health problems among adolescents of color. Pandemic shelter-at-home policies and the reignited racial justice movement increased the use of social media among youth of color, potentially exposing them to social media racial discrimination. Yet, it is unclear which aspects of social media significantly contributed to youth exposure to racial discrimination and associated mental health issues during this period. This study assessed the relationships among social media use (hours, racial intergroup contact, and racial justice civic engagement), individual and vicarious social media discrimination (defined as personally directed versus observing discrimination directed at others), and mental health among 115 black, 112 East/Southeast Asian, 79 Indigenous, and 101 Latinx adolescents (N = 407, 82.31% female, aged 15–18 years, M = 16.47, SD = 0.93). Structural equation modeling (SEM) analyses indicate that hours of use and racial justice civic engagement were associated with increased social media racial discrimination, depressive symptoms, anxiety, alcohol use disorder, and drug use problems. Furthermore, individual social media racial discrimination fully mediated the relationship between racial justice civic publication and depressive and alcohol use disorder. Vicarious social media racial discrimination fully mediated the relationship between racial justice activity coordination with depressive symptoms, anxiety, and alcohol use disorder. Alternative SEM models indicate that exposure to individual and vicarious social media racial discrimination increased depressive symptoms and drug use problems among youth of color, further increasing their social media use frequency and racial justice civic publication. The findings call for strategies to mitigate the effects of social media racial discrimination in ways that support adolescents’ racial justice civic engagement and mental health.
... Another study focusing on a sample of Chinese American adolescents (from 7th to 8th grade) observed three trajectories: Increasing, Decreasing (i.e., experiencing decreases in discrimination), and Moderate-stable (i.e., experiencing consistently moderate levels of discrimination over time) patterns (Wei, 2021). Other studies focusing on African and Latinx American adolescents (from 6th to 12th grade; Tynes et al., 2020) and Hispanic American adolescents and young adults (aged from 14 to 23; Unger et al., 2016) identified four patterns of perceived discrimination trajectories (i.e., Highstable, Decreasing, Increasing, and Low-stable). ...
... Further, most studies examining discrimination trajectory have focused on middle or late adolescents (Constante et al., 2021;Park et al., 2021;Tynes et al., 2020;Unger et al., 2016); research examining early adolescents is limited (Del Toro et al., 2021). Early adolescence is the stage when youth begin to consider their own group identity and how others view their groups (Umaña-Taylor, 2016). ...
... Prior empirical studies consistently documented that adolescents who experienced Increasing and High-stable discrimination reported poorer psychological outcomes (e.g., higher levels of depressive symptoms) than their peers in the Decreasing group (e.g., Lee et al., 2020;Tynes et al., 2020). Research focusing on the associations between trajectories of perceived discrimination and behavioral outcomes is relatively limited and yields inconsistent findings, such that some studies uncovered that individuals who experienced Increasing and High-stable discrimination were at a higher risk of having problem behaviors (e.g., problematic alcohol use; see Lee et al., 2018;Troop-Gordon & Ladd, 2005), whereas other research documented that adolescents in the Increasing discrimination group did not report more problem behaviors (Hughes et al., 2016). ...
Article
Full-text available
Perceived discrimination is associated with poorer psychological adjustment and greater problem behaviors among rural-to-urban migrant adolescents. Yet, the predictors and the consequences of distinct changing patterns of perceived discrimination are less clear. The current study sought to identify distinct patterns of perceived discrimination trajectories and examine the developmental implications of these patterns among 385 Chinese rural-to-urban migrant early adolescents (Mage = 10.49, SDage = 0.69; 62% boys). Four distinct patterns of perceived discrimination trajectories, i.e., Low-stable (79.59%), Decreasing (9.08%), High-stable (6.11%), and Increasing (5.22%), were identified. Predictors including resilience, family support, peer support, and demographic characteristics (i.e., gender and school types) contributed to differences in pattern membership. Moreover, the Low-stable pattern exhibited more favorable distal outcomes (i.e., lower levels of social anxiety and loneliness and higher levels of self-esteem) than the other three patterns; the Decreasing group had lower levels of loneliness than the High-stable group. The findings extend the understanding of the predictors and consequences of perceived discrimination among rural-to-urban migrant early adolescents from a developmental perspective.
... A larger issue in the literature is the lack of longitudinal research addressing the consequences of online racial discrimination on mental health, as most extant studies have been cross-sectional. 14,18 Online spaces have become prominent developmental contexts for youths during the COVID-19 pandemic; yet, only a single study has documented the lasting effects of online racial discrimination on adolescents' mental health. 18 A pre-pandemic study followed a sample of Black and Latino adolescents over a 3year period and found that direct online racial discrimination was unrelated to self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and anxiety. ...
... 14,18 Online spaces have become prominent developmental contexts for youths during the COVID-19 pandemic; yet, only a single study has documented the lasting effects of online racial discrimination on adolescents' mental health. 18 A pre-pandemic study followed a sample of Black and Latino adolescents over a 3year period and found that direct online racial discrimination was unrelated to self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and anxiety. 18 These null findings are likely attributable to the study's timespan, as the negative effects of online racism may have deteriorated over a 3-year period. ...
... 18 A pre-pandemic study followed a sample of Black and Latino adolescents over a 3year period and found that direct online racial discrimination was unrelated to self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and anxiety. 18 These null findings are likely attributable to the study's timespan, as the negative effects of online racism may have deteriorated over a 3-year period. Considering that adverse events predict more immediate than distal outcomes, 19 we examined whether online racial discrimination predicted same-day and next-day mental health symptoms among Black youths. ...
Article
Objective To determine whether rates of online racial discrimination changed over the course of 2020 and their longitudinal effects on Black youth’s mental health. Method This longitudinal study collected 18,454 daily assessments from a nationally representative sample of 602 Black and White adolescents in the United States (58% Black, 42% White; Mage = 15.09, SDage = 1.56) across 58 days during the heightened racial tensions between March and November 2020. Results Black youth experienced increases in online racial discrimination, and these increases were not fully explained by time spent online nor general cybervictimization experiences. Online racial discrimination predicted poorer same- and next-day mental health among Black youth but not among White youth. Black youth’s mental health did not predict their online racial discrimination experiences. Conclusion Online racial discrimination has implications for shaping mental health disparities that disadvantage Black youth relative to their White peers. Programs can be implemented to decrease online hate crimes, and health providers (e.g., pediatricians, psychiatrists) should develop procedures that mitigate the negative mental health effects following online racial discrimination experiences.
... Studies have shown that various racial groups have experienced discrimination online due to their race or ethnicity [36][37][38][39][40], and this discrimination has continued throughout the COVID-19 pandemic [41][42][43]. During the COVID-19 pandemic, Asian Americans and people of Asian ethnic origin have become particularly vulnerable to racial discrimination. ...
... Prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, much research has examined the impact of racial discrimination on the mental health of ethnic minorities [38,[54][55][56][57][58][59][60][61][62][63][64]. For example, Tynes et al [37] found that Black students and other adolescents of color were subjected to both vicarious and individual forms of online racial discrimination, which impacted students' psychological functioning. ...
... Additionally, our finding of increased racial discrimination being correlated with worse negative mental health outcomes is also in line with previous work [31,[54][55][56][57][58][59][60][61][62][63]. Although our study did not distinguish between online racism and online discrimination, it aligns with recent studies, demonstrating that online discrimination, including online racism, during the pandemic could have a substantial negative impact on individuals' mental health [34,35,38,39]. Second, we were intrigued to find that White Americans in our study reported experiencing more individual discrimination than Asian Americans during the COVID-19 pandemic. ...
Article
Background During the COVID-19 pandemic, increased social media usage has led to worsened mental health outcomes for many people. Moreover, due to the sociopolitical climate during the pandemic, the prevalence of online racial discrimination has contributed to worsening psychological well-being. With increases in anti-Asian hate, Asian and Asian American social media users may experience the negative effects of online racial discrimination in addition to the reduced psychological well-being resulting from exposure to online COVID-19 content. Objective This study aims to investigate the impact of COVID-19–related social media use and exposure to online racial discrimination during the pandemic on the mental health outcomes (ie, anxiety, depression, and secondary traumatic stress [STS]) of Asian Americans compared with those of non-Asian Americans. In addition, this study explores the mediating role of negative affect and the moderating role of racial/ethnic identification. Methods An online survey was conducted through Amazon Mechanical Turk and a university-wide research portal from March 3 to March 15, 2021. A total of 1147 participants took the survey. Participants’ social media usage related to COVID-19 and exposure to 2 online forms of racial discrimination (individual and vicarious), mental health outcomes (anxiety, depression, and STS), racial/ethnic identification, negative affect, and demographics were assessed. Results Our results showed that COVID-19–related social media use, individual discrimination, and vicarious discrimination were predictors of negative mental health outcomes (anxiety, depression, and STS). Asian Americans reported higher vicarious discrimination than Latinx and White Americans, but Asian Americans’ mental health outcomes did not differ substantially from those of the other racial/ethnic groups. Racial/ethnic identification moderated the relationship between both types of discrimination and STS, and negative affect served as a mediator between both types of discrimination and all 3 mental health outcomes. Conclusions These results suggest that social media exposure continues to have a dire effect on mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study helps to contextualize the rise of anti-Asian American hate and its impact on mental health outcomes in the United States.
... These family-media intersections in our data demonstrate how representation in traditional media forms (e.g., movies, TV, books) and technological advances in online communication can provide a setting for conversations and interactions between adolescents and their extended family members, thus promoting adolescents' ERI exploration opportunities. Although the risks of ethnic-racial discrimination in online settings have been well documented, especially social media (Bravo et al., 2019;Tynes et al., 2020), ever-advancing online applications also serve as critical social contexts of youth identity exploration (Davis et al., 2020). ...
... (Latino Achieved ERI 15-year-old male student) As technology rapidly advances and adolescents increasingly navigate online learning environments, it is important for ERI research to examine how educators incorporate Internet use in their classrooms and scaffold youth's active efforts to engage in exploring their cultural heritage. Keeping in mind the potential for ethnic-racial-related online interactions to be detrimental for adolescent development (Tynes et al., 2020), the pace with which technological innovation continues in schools may also bring about transformative positive opportunities for adolescents' ERI exploration. In line with culturally sustaining pedagogy (Paris, 2012), educators' critically conscious use of online tools may provide one avenue to infuse curriculum with opportunities for promoting adolescent ERI development in ways that align with youth interest and facility with technology. ...
Article
Cultural‐ecological theories posit that ethnic‐racial identity (ERI) development is shaped by transactions between contexts of ethnic‐racial socialization, yet research considering intersections among multiple contexts is limited. In this study, Black, Latino, White, and Asian American adolescents (N = 98; Mage = 16.26, SD = 1.09; 55.1% female identifying) participated in surveys and focus group discussions (2013–2014) to share insights into ERI development in context. Using consensual qualitative research, results indicated: (a) family ethnic‐racial socialization intersects with community‐based, peer, media, and school socialization; (b) ethnic‐racial socialization occurs outside family through intersections between peer, school, community‐based, and media settings; and (c) ethnic‐racial socialization is embedded within systems of racial oppression across contexts. Discussion includes implications for future research and interventions supporting youth ERI.
... Peers can also engage in within-group discrimination, and studies have shown that U.S.-born Latinx adolescents discriminate against Latinx immigrant adolescents due to English-speaking ability, documentation status, and generational status (C ordova & Cervantes, 2010). Related to the peer setting, Latinx adolescents also experience interpersonal discrimination or vicarious discrimination in online settings (e.g., reading an offensive post), including text messages and social media (Tynes et al., 2020;Umaña-Taylor et al., 2015). Similar to other forms of individual discrimination, online racial discrimination was related to a host of negative psychological outcomes in Latinx adolescents (Tynes et al., 2020;Umaña-Taylor et al., 2015). ...
... Related to the peer setting, Latinx adolescents also experience interpersonal discrimination or vicarious discrimination in online settings (e.g., reading an offensive post), including text messages and social media (Tynes et al., 2020;Umaña-Taylor et al., 2015). Similar to other forms of individual discrimination, online racial discrimination was related to a host of negative psychological outcomes in Latinx adolescents (Tynes et al., 2020;Umaña-Taylor et al., 2015). Discrimination by teachers can also impact Latinx immigrant adolescents' well-being. ...
Article
Full-text available
With over 400 harmful immigration policy changes in the past 4 years, Latinx adolescents and families nationwide are developing within a context of extreme anti‐immigrant sentiment (Dismantling and reconstructing the U.S. immigration system: A catalog of changes under the Trump presidency, Migration Policy Institute, 2020). This paper introduces the Multitiered Model of Oppression and Discrimination (MMOD), a conceptual model for understanding the impacts of multiple levels of discrimination on the well‐being and development of Latinx immigrant adolescents. Interpersonal discrimination (Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 2010, 32, 259), community‐held stereotypes (Social Psychology of Education, 2001, 5, 201), institutional policies (Children and Youth Services Review, 2018, 87, 192), and structural practices (Journal of Criminal Justice, 2020, 66, 1) can negatively impact well‐being and development among these adolescents. Culturally sustaining interventions, civic engagement and mobilization, and policies targeting inequitable policies and practices will provide healing and an avenue for liberation.
... As Black girls begin to recognize the ways their lives are dually gendered and racialized, they often seek the guidance of additional socialization agents, such as their parents, to process these experiences and seek adaptive ways to cope and navigate school settings. This is particularly true during adolescence, which is a developmental period often marked by increasing awareness of bias and experiences of racism and discrimination (Seaton and Tyson, 2019;English et al., 2020;Tynes et al., 2020). Umaña-Taylor et al. (2014) explain that this greater awareness emerges as result of increased social-cognitive maturity which can (1) lead adolescents to merge their personal sense of self with their racial group and (2) explore different meanings of race beyond what their parents tell them. ...
... Girls in middle school emphasized cultural tradition (e.g., music, foods, and community), while high school girls often highlighted the disadvantages faced by the Black community and the need to prove negative stereotypes wrong. Research indicates that as Black youth transition into adolescence, they become increasingly aware of differential treatment due to their race and report personally experiencing discrimination (Seaton et al., 2008;Hope et al., 2015;English et al., 2020;Tynes et al., 2020). Also, previous literature has indicated that Black youth are not only aware of academic race stereotypes but begin to endorse stereotypes at increasing rates across adolescence . ...
Article
Full-text available
While educational settings may be envisioned as safe spaces that facilitate learning, foster creativity, and promote healthy development for youth, research has found that this is not always true for Black girls. Their negative experiences within educational settings are both gendered and racialized, often communicating broader societal perceptions of Black girls that ultimately shape their identity development. Utilizing semi-structured interviews with adolescent Black girls (n = 12), the current investigation explored Black girls' educational experiences, their meaning making of Black girlhood, and the role of parents in their positive development. By centering Black girls' voices, this study illuminated how Black girls negotiate their multiple marginalized identities and how their identities are shaped by their home and school environments. Findings revealed that Black girls are aware of the difficulties in navigating educational settings for Black girls, but this awareness was coupled with parental support that promoted positive gendered racial identities for Black girls in middle school and high school. This investigation advanced current knowledge of Black girls' identity development and highlighted the protective role of parental socialization. Future research directions and implications are also discussed.
... Furthermore, a rich body of theoretical and empirical studies has highlighted the deleterious impacts of racism on children's everyday experiences, health, and development (Benner et al., 2018;Causadias & Korous, 2019;Cooper et al., 2007;Garcia Coll et al., 1996;Hughes et al., 2017;Seaton, 2006;Trent et al., 2019). This foundational work also has identified critical processes through which racism operates to influence development across the lifespan, as well as protective factors that may offset its harmful effects (Jones et al., 2020;Ladson-Billings, 2014;Neblett et al., 2006;Seaton, 2020;Spencer, 2006;Tynes et al., 2020;Yip et al., 2019). ...
... Experiences of racism and racial discrimination are daily occurrences that have implications for the development and well-being of Black youth (Seaton, 2020;Tynes et al., 2020;Witherspoon et al., 2022). Despite findings from numerous investigations indicating adverse impacts of racism and discrimination on Black youths' outcomes, fewer studies have focused on how direct experiences with racial discrimination and the broader racial milieu may catalyze Black youths' sociopolitical development (Anyiwo et al., 2020). ...
Article
To date, theoretical and conceptual scholarship on anti‐racism has been advanced through leading contributions from several disciplines (e.g., sociology, education, psychology). Still, there remain fewer empirical studies on anti‐racism constructs, and we know little about the development of anti‐racism among diverse youth across key stages of development. In this special section of Child Development, we sought to address this gap by highlighting scholarship in developmental science that attends to the development of anti‐racism in children across contexts (e.g., families, schools) and developmental stages (e.g., early childhood through emerging adulthood). In our introduction to the special section, we review the collective contributions of included studies and outline recommendations for future research in the development of anti‐racism in youth.
... While racism functions in multiple systems and across multiple levels of human development and functioning (Clark et al., 1999;Harrell, 2000;Jones, 2000), protective factors may help offset negative impacts (Tynes et al., 2020;Yip et al., 2019). Negative impacts of racism, specifically on youth, have influenced overall development and well-being, mental health, and physical health (Shonkoff et al., 2021;Trent et al., 2019;Svetaz et al., 2018). ...
Article
This systematic review synthetizes studies using experimental designs and evaluating techniques theorized to foster the development of anti-racism among youth in school settings (19 published reports; 23 independent studies; participant ages 3 to 19 years old, primarily White). Our goal herein was to identify unique program components, design elements, outcome measures; and to critically evaluate the extant studies in terms of potential public health impact. A number of specific programing elements were distilled that may be included in future interventions. Overall, interventions that leveraged cognitive and educational components to help increase positive outgroup contact seemed most promising. However, most of the studies testing such programs lacked methodological robustness (e.g., probable gaps in internal validity from the absence of intervention manuals or equivalent, fidelity checks, reliance on outcome measures with unknown psychometric properties, follow-up designs). Future research would benefit from establishing adherence to implementation (fidelity to protocol), including pre, post and follow-up assessments, as well as using outcome measures appropriate for determining both short-term and long-term change. There is a clear need for the funding of technique development, manualized programing for delivery, rigorous evaluation of these with standardized outcome measures, and adequately powered studies testing outcomes across development.
... Studies have shown that as Black youth enter adolescence, they have a greater awareness of racism and discrimination and begin to report increased discrimination experiences in online and offline settings Seaton et al., 2008;Tynes et al., 2020). Although much of the existing literature has focused on interpersonal interactions, many of these experiences are rooted in broader systems of oppression, which undermines the development and well-being of Black youth. ...
Article
Employing an intersectionality-informed approach, this investigation examines how school discrimination and disciplinary inequities shape Black adolescent boys’ and girls’ adjustment. One hundred and twenty-six adolescents (M = 11.88 years; SD = 1.02) residing in the Southeastern United States comprised the study sample. Results indicated that school discrimination was associated with greater depressive symptoms, lower academic persistence, and lower school satisfaction (at 1-year follow-up). In a counterintuitive pattern, adolescents’ perceptions of disciplinary inequities were associated with greater persistence. This investigation provided partial support for gender variation. Perceptions of school disciplinary inequities were associated with lower educational aspirations for girls, whereas systemic school discrimination was more strongly associated with boys’ educational aspirations. Overall, our study suggests that school-specific systemic discrimination and disciplinary practices shape Black adolescents’ adjustment.
... Additionally, different scales were used to measure online and offline discrimination, thus limiting their ability to be directly compared with one another. Future research should utilize standardized scales to capture the same dimensions of racial discrimination across online and offline contexts (e.g., Tynes et al., 2020). Future investigations should also use experiential sampling methods to understand how Black youth transition between in-person and online spaces. ...
Article
Full-text available
The present study highlights the growing need to examine Black youths’ exposure to racial discrimination in online and offline contexts. Using a sample of 353 Black college students, findings indicate that high public regard moderates the positive association between online and offline racial discrimination and psychological consequences (i.e., depression, anxiety, and psychological well-being) among Black women. Additionally, racial centrality moderated the positive association between online and offline racial discrimination and mental health consequences regardless of gender. The findings highlight the importance of considering context, gender, and racial identity when examining the links between Black emerging adults’ experiences of discrimination and mental health.
... Law enforcement practices as a public health issue. Policing practices have profound implications for death and illness, including direct and indirect physical and mental harm, and violent practices that disproportionately target and harm Black, Indigenous, and Latinx residents (Feldman et al., 2016;DeVylder et al., 2020;Tynes et al., 2020). Police departments across the country also collaborate with immigration officials through agreements that deputize officers to act as immigration enforcement agents and increase the surveillance, arrests, and removals of those in communities of color (Pham, 2018). ...
Article
Full-text available
For decades, marginalized communities have been naming the harms of policing—and the systemic racism that undergirds it—for health and well-being. Only recently have policing practices and racism within policing gained more widespread attention in public health. Building on social justice and emancipatory traditions in health education, we argue that health educators are uniquely prepared to use the evidence base to reframe narratives that drive aggressive policing and their disproportionate impacts on communities of color, promote disinvestment in militarized policing, and build relationships with community-based organizations and community organizers developing community-centered approaches to safety. Using public health institutions and institutions of higher education as examples, we suggest specific strategic actions that health educators can take to address policing as a public health issue. Health educators are uniquely poised to work with diverse community and institutional partners to support social movements that create community-centered, equitable approaches to public safety and health.
... Expectedly, studies on online ethnic discrimination and mental health, have found that greater exposure to online ethnic discrimination is associated with higher symptoms of depression and anxiety among African American and Hispanic adolescents (Tynes et al., 2020;Tynes, Giang, Williams, & Thompson, 2008;Tynes et al., 2019;Umaña-Taylor, Tynes, Toomey, Williams, & Mitchell, 2015). Also, one study that included a multiethnic sample of adults found that higher online ethnic discrimination was correlated with higher psychological distress (Keum & Miller, 2017). ...
Article
Method: Two hundred Hispanic emerging adults from Arizona (n = 99) and Florida (n = 101) completed a cross-sectional survey, and data were analyzed using hierarchical multiple regression and moderation analyses. Results: Higher social media discrimination was associated with higher symptoms of depression and generalized anxiety. Moderation analyses indicated that higher social media discrimination was only associated with symptoms of depression and generalized anxiety among men, but not women. Conclusion: This is likely the first study on social media discrimination and mental health among emerging adults; thus, expanding this emerging field of research to a distinct developmental period.
Abstract In 2019, over 3.2 million adolescents in the U.S. reported depressive symptoms—a number that continues to increase annually. Not only can depression negatively impact an adolescent’s academic performance, social development, and cognitive function, but it is also the most common condition associated with suicide. Previous studies have reported prevalence rates and statistical trends by either gender or race. We conducted an in-depth analysis of the current racial and gender trend disparities in adolescent depressive symptoms by examining linear and quadratic trends from the Youth Behavior Risk Survey (N = 158,601) over two decades (1999–2019), stratified by gender and race subgroups, both separately and combined. This novel quantitative method allows for a more nuanced approach when exploring social and cultural influences on adolescent depressive symptoms. We found a significant difference in the prevalence of depressive symptoms between males and females among Black, Hispanic, and multiracial adolescents in each separate year of pooled data. However, an increased prevalence trend over the 20-year period was only seen among the females of these three racial categories. White and Asian female adolescents also exhibited a statistical increase in prevalence of depressive symptoms over time. The only group of males with a significant trend increase over time were White adolescents. Understanding the intersection of gender and race in adolescent depressive symptoms trends enhances evidence for nurses and other healthcare professionals when developing and implementing targeted, effective prevention and intervention measures.
Article
Objective: Online racial discrimination (ORD) is rampant; however, little is known about its associations with mental health among undergraduates. This study explored the relations between ORD and mental health among Black undergraduates. It also investigated gender differences in these relations. Participants: Two hundred seventy-eight Black, cisgender men and women enrolled in a minority-serving public university in the Northeast U.S. Methods: Participants completed measures of ORD, depression, generalized anxiety (GA), and social anxiety (SA) via a Web-based survey. Results: Eighty-five percent of participants experienced at least one ORD incident in the last year. Men and women reported comparable exposure. Gender moderated the relations between ORD and depression and SA, respectively; these associations were stronger for women. Conclusions: Exposure to ORD is prevalent among Black undergraduates and is associated with adverse mental health outcomes, especially for women. Campus mental health interventions should address online discrimination in the context of students' intersecting identities.
Article
Full-text available
Sexual and gender minority (SGM) youth of color—in particular Latinx SGM youth—experience higher incidents of bullying compared to heterosexual and cisgender White youth. These disparities oftentimes explain increased negative mental health outcomes, such as depression. Parental acceptance may be a particularly important buffer to the effects of bullying on negative mental health outcomes among Latinx SGM youth. In a sample of 1,005 Latinx SGM youth (ages 13-17), we assessed: a) the prevalence of parental acceptance and three different forms of bullying, b) the influence of bullying on depression, and c) whether the relationship between bullying and depression was moderated by parental acceptance. Results showed that, on average, Latinx SGM youth reported rarely experiencing parental acceptance, frequently experiencing symptoms of depression, and frequently being bullied. Findings revealed that parental acceptance and bullying were significantly related to depression. Furthermore, there was no interaction between parental acceptance and bullying on depression. Findings have implications for how different Latinx cultural values may be further considered to better understand Latinx SGM youth’s perception of their parental figure’s acceptance of their sexual and gender identity and its role on bullying and depression.
Article
Online` racial discrimination and race‐related traumatic events online have been linked to psychological distress in Black youth. The current study builds on extant literature by examining associations among online racial discrimination, traumatic events online, and trauma symptoms of discrimination, after controlling for gender identity and ethnic–racial setting of college in a sample of 245 Black youth. Additionally, this study examines the potential moderating effects of gender identity. This study is the first to examine the associations among online racial discrimination, traumatic events online, and trauma symptoms specific to racial discrimination. Path modeling revealed positive associations among online racial discrimination, traumatic events online, and trauma symptoms of discrimination. No significant differences in models were found by gender identity.
Article
Full-text available
While a growing number of studies have documented significant links between online racism (e.g., racist interactions, contents on racial violence) and comorbid factors (e.g., depression) associated with suicide risk, no studies have examined whether online racism predicts suicide ideation and if interpersonal factors can help explain this link. Thus, the current study examined the direct relationship between online racism and suicide ideation among racial minority emerging adults, and the indirect relationships via the interpersonal factors (perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness). Using data from a convenience sample of 338 racial minority emerging adults, we conducted a path analysis with online racism predicting suicide ideation through thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness. Online racism significantly predicted suicide ideation via perceived burdensomeness but not thwarted belongingness. Post hoc multi-group analysis found that this pathway was consistent across Black, Asian, and Latinx groups but was completely mediated for the Asian group. The findings suggest that online racism can increase feelings of being a burden to society, which can trigger thoughts of suicide. This process may be particularly salient among Asian individuals. Implications for future research are discussed.
Article
Full-text available
Racial socialization has been a mainstay within the psychological literature for the past four decades, touted primarily as a protective factor buffering the negative effects of racism. How effective this factor is in preventing behavioral and emotional trauma and promoting resilience for Black and Brown families remains to be studied. While the literature has focused on family communication between parent and child, little attention has been paid to familial dynamics inherent within racial socialization processes. This paper seeks to advance the conversation of racial socialization as The Talk toward one that holds more promise toward the goal of resilience in the face of systemic racism. To do so, we offer a reframe of The Dance, drawing upon key aspects from the family- and multisystem-focused literatures (e.g., synergy, homeostasis, feedback, metacommunication) to expand and justify the utility, complexity, and efficacy of racial socialization among Black and Brown families as a resilient response to historical and contemporary systemic racism in American society. We include methodological and applied recommendations to promote resilience, resistance, and ultimately healing in the face of racial adversity and trauma.
Article
Full-text available
Microaggression has been considered a form of stressor that negatively affects people with marginalized statuses. Research shows variability in how microaggression is measured, and the extent to which it is associated with adjustment outcomes. A new cube model was proposed to conceptualize microaggression across social groups, interpersonal and group-level interactions, and categories of incidents. Synthesizing findings from published and unpublished studies, this study was aimed to examine the relations between microaggression and adjustment outcomes. Meta-analyses quantified the study-level correlations between microaggression and various adjustment outcomes, and estimated the degree to which methodological and individual factors explained between-study variability. Using 72 independent study samples (N = 18,718), omnibus analysis with a random-effects model showed a statistically significant summary correlation between microaggression and adjustment outcomes (r = .20 (95% CI [.16–.23]), p < .001). Between-study variability (Q = 319.86, p < .001, τ2 = .01, I2 = 77.80%) was explained by gender, race, and publication status. Except for gender microaggression, racial, LGBTQ, and health status microaggressions were associated with adjustment outcomes. Microaggression was relatively more strongly associated with internalizing problems, stress/negative affect, and positive affect/adjustment than with externalizing problems and physical symptoms. Adjustment outcomes were more closely linked to interpersonal microaggression than group microaggression, and to microassault than microinsult and microinvalidation. Narrative reviews showed that very few studies tested whether microaggression predicted adjustment outcomes above and beyond overt discrimination and individual difference factors, and examined the indirect mechanisms that may link microaggression to adjustment outcomes. Limitations to the scope of this research synthesis and future research directions are discussed.
Article
Full-text available
Estimating models within the mixture model framework, like latent growth mixture modeling (LGMM) or latent class growth analysis (LCGA), involves making various decisions throughout the estimation process. This has led to a wide variety in how results of latent trajectory analysis are reported. To overcome this issue, using a 4-round Delphi study, we developed Guidelines for Reporting on Latent Trajectory Studies (GRoLTS). The purpose of GRoLTS is to present criteria that should be included when reporting the results of latent trajectory analysis across research fields. We have gone through a systematic process to identify key components that, according to a panel of experts, are necessary when reporting results for trajectory studies. We applied GRoLTS to 38 papers where LGMM or LCGA was used to study trajectories of posttraumatic stress after a traumatic event.
Article
Full-text available
For some time, there have been differing recommendations about how and when to include covariates in the mixture model building process. Some have advocated the inclusion of covariates after enumeration, whereas others recommend including them early on in the modeling process. These conflicting recommendations have led to inconsistent practices and unease in trusting modeling results. In an attempt to resolve this discord, we conducted a Monte Carlo simulation to examine the impact of covariate exclusion and misspecification of covariate effects on the enumeration process. We considered population and analysis models with both direct and indirect paths from the covariates to the latent class indicators. As expected, misspecified covariate effects most commonly led to the overextraction of classes. Findings suggest that the number of classes could be reliably determined using the unconditional latent class model, thus our recommendation is that class enumeration be done prior to the inclusion of covariates.
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: To examine changes in sleep problems over a 1.5-year period among Black or African American (AA) and White or European American (EA) college students and to consider the role of racial discrimination as a mediator of race differences in sleep problems over time. Method: Students attending a large, predominantly White university (N = 133, 41% AA, 57% female, mean age = 18.8, SD = .90) reported on habitual sleep characteristics and experiences of racial discrimination at baseline and follow-up assessments. A latent variable for sleep problems was assessed from reports of sleep latency, duration, efficiency, and quality. Longitudinal models were used to examine race differences in sleep problems over time and the mediating role of perceived discrimination. Covariates included age, gender, parent education, parent income, body mass index, self-rated physical health, and depressive symptoms. Each of the individual sleep measures was also examined separately, and sensitivity analyses were conducted using alternative formulations of the sleep problems measure. Results: AAs had greater increases in sleep problems than EAs. Perceived discrimination was also associated with increases in sleep problems over time and mediated racial disparities in sleep. This pattern of findings was similar when each of the sleep indicators was considered separately and held with alternative sleep problems measures. Conclusions: The findings highlight the importance of racial disparities in sleep across the college years and suggest that experiences of discrimination contribute to group disparities. (PsycINFO Database Record
Article
Full-text available
Despite a growing body of epidemiological evidence in recent years documenting the health impacts of racism, the cumulative evidence base has yet to be synthesized in a comprehensive meta-analysis focused specifically on racism as a determinant of health. This meta-analysis reviewed the literature focusing on the relationship between reported racism and mental and physical health outcomes. Data from 293 studies reported in 333 articles published between 1983 and 2013, and conducted predominately in the U.S., were analysed using random effects models and mean weighted effect sizes. Racism was associated with poorer mental health (negative mental health: r =-.23, 95% CI [-.24,-.21], k = 227; positive mental health: r =-.13, 95% CI [-.16,-.10], k = 113), including depression, anxiety, psychological stress and various other outcomes. Racism was also associated with poorer general health (r =-.13 (95% CI [-.18,-.09], k = 30), and poorer physical health (r =-.09, 95% CI [-.12,-.06], k = 50). Moderation effects were found for some outcomes with regard to study and exposure characteristics. Effect sizes of racism on mental health were stronger in cross-sectional compared with longitudinal data and in non-representative samples compared with representative samples. Age, sex, birthplace and education level did not moderate the effects of racism on health. Ethnicity significantly moderated the effect of racism on negative mental health and physical health: the association between racism and negative mental health was significantly stronger for Asian American and Latino(a) American participants compared with African American participants, and the association between racism and physical health was significantly stronger for Latino(a) American participants compared with African American participants. Protocol PROSPERO registration number: CRD42013005464.
Article
Full-text available
Researchers using latent class (LC) analysis often proceed using the following three steps: (1) an LC model is built for a set of response variables, (2) subjects are assigned to LCs based on their posterior class membership probabilities, and (3) the association between the assigned class membership and external variables is investigated using simple cross-tabulations or multinomial logistic regression analysis. Bolck, Croon, and Hagenaars (2004) demonstrated that such a three-step approach underestimates the associations between covariates and class membership. They proposed resolving this problem by means of a specific correction method that involves modifying the third step. In this article, I extend the correction method of Bolck, Croon, and Hagenaars by showing that it involves maximizing a weighted log-likelihood function for clustered data. This conceptualization makes it possible to apply the method not only with categorical but also with continuous explanatory variables, to obtain correct tests using complex sampling variance estimation methods, and to implement it in standard software for logistic regression analysis. In addition, a new maximum likelihood (ML)-based correction method is proposed, which is more direct in the sense that it does not require analyzing weighted data. This new three-step ML method can be easily implemented in software for LC analysis. The reported simulation study shows that both correction methods perform very well in the sense that their parameter estimates and their SEs can be trusted, except for situations with very poorly separated classes. The main advantage of the ML method compared with the Bolck, Croon, and Hagenaars approach is that it is much more efficient and almost as efficient as one-step ML estimation. © The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Political Methodology. All rights reserved.
Article
Full-text available
This study examines the role of perceived discrimination as a mediator of the relationship between ethnic minority-majority status and mental health in a sample of college students, of whom 246 were members of an ethnic minority (African American, Latino American, or Asian American) and 167 were European Americans. Ethnic minority students were significantly higher in perceived discrimination and significantly lower in mental health. African Americans were most likely to perceive racial discrimination, followed by Latino Americans, Asian Americans, and European Americans. Asian Americans reported the poorest mental health. Results of mediational analyses by ethnic status (minorities and majority) and across ethnic group pairings (Americans and European Americans, Latino Americans and European Americans, Asian Americans and European Americans) confirmed in every instance that perceived discrimination accounts for a modest part of the relationship between ethnic minority-majority status and mental health. W...
Research
Full-text available
Recently, several bias-adjusted stepwise approaches to latent class modeling with continuous distal outcomes have been proposed in the literature and implemented in generally available software for latent class analysis. In this article, we investigate the robustness of these methods to violations of underlying model assumptions by means of a simulation study. Although each of the 4 investigated methods yields unbiased estimates of the class-specific means of distal outcomes when the underlying assumptions hold, 3 of the methods could fail to different degrees when assumptions are violated. Based on our study, we provide recommendations on which method to use under what circumstances. The differences between the various stepwise latent class approaches are illustrated by means of a real data application on outcomes related to recidivism for clusters of juvenile offenders.
Article
Full-text available
The 3-step method for estimating the effects of auxiliary variables (i.e., covariates and distal outcome) in mixture modeling provides a useful way to specify complex mixture models. One of the benefits of this method is that the measurement parameters of the mixture model are not influenced by the auxiliary variable(s). In addition, it allows for models that involve multiplelatent class variables to be specified without each part of the model influencing the others. This article describes a unique latent transition analysis model where the measurement models are a latent class analysis model and a growth mixture model. We highlight the application of this model to study kindergarten readiness profiles and link it to elementary students’ reading trajectories. Mplus syntax for the 3-step specification is provided.
Article
Full-text available
Guided by a risk and resilience framework, the current study examined the associations between Latino adolescents' (n = 219; Mage = 14.35; SD = 1.75) perceptions of ethnic discrimination in multiple settings (e.g., online, school) and several domains of adjustment (e.g., mental health, academic), and tested whether developmentally salient cultural assets (i.e., ethnic identity) directly promoted youth adjustment or moderated the negative impact of discrimination on adjustment. Each of the 3 ethnic identity components (i.e., exploration, resolution, affirmation) demonstrated evidence of promoting positive outcomes among Latino youth; furthermore, there was some evidence that the promotive effects of affirmation and resolution were significantly stronger for older versus younger adolescents. In addition, with the exception of experiences with discrimination from adults outside of the school setting, there was evidence of ethnic identity interacting with each type of discrimination to predict Latino adolescents' self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and externalizing problems. Findings suggest directions for future research and identify potential targets for intervention that may prove fruitful in programming efforts with Latino adolescents. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
Article
This article discusses how Internet memes associated with racism can be analyzed and pedagogically utilized through the theoretical frame of Critical Race Theory. The assumption of the study is that Internet memes, as a site of ideological reproduction, can show one aspect of racial discourse. I consider Internet memes regarding race and racial issues as racial humor in this study. I gathered a total of 85 memes addressing or connected to racism primarily from the Memecenter website (www.memecenter.com). In this study, I analyzed their forms and content to consider how these memes deal with racism in different ways. Methodologically, this study implements critical discourse analysis in combination with multimodal discourse analysis. Through this study, I found that the majority of Internet memes about racism perpetuate colorblindness by mocking people of color and denying structural racism. I argue that challenging colorblindness through critical analysis of Internet memes and creating counter- memes will enhance students’ critical awareness of racial issues.
Article
This study examined frequencies and psychological effects of daily racial discrimination experienced individually , vicariously, online, offline, and through teasing. Participants were 101 Black U.S. American adolescents for this ecological momentary assessment study that measured daily racial discrimination and 14-day depressive symptoms slopes. Confirmatory factor analyses specified subscales, t-test analyses compared subscale means, and hierarchical linear analyses tested associations between subscales and depressive symptoms slopes. Results showed that six subscales fit the data well: individual general, vicarious general, individual online, vicarious online, individual teasing, and vicarious teasing. Participants reported 5606 experiences of racial discrimination during the study and averaged 5.21 experiences per day across the six subscales. The two online subscales were more frequent than the offline subscales. Aside from online vicarious experiences, all subscales were positively associated with depressive symptoms slopes. Findings underscore the multidimensional, quoti-dian, and impactful nature of racial discrimination in the lives of Black adolescents in the U.S.
Article
Drawing from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH; N = 611,880), a nationally representative survey of U.S. adolescents and adults, we assess age, period, and cohort trends in mood disorders and suicide-related outcomes since the mid-2000s. Rates of major depressive episode in the last year increased 52% 2005-2017 (from 8.7% to 13.2%) among adolescents aged 12 to 17 and 63% 2009-2017 (from 8.1% to 13.2%) among young adults 18-25. Serious psychological distress in the last month and suicide-related outcomes (suicidal ideation, plans, attempts, and deaths by suicide) in the last year also increased among young adults 18-25 from 2008-2017 (with a 71% increase in serious psychological distress), with less consistent and weaker increases among adults ages 26 and over. Hierarchical linear modeling analyses separating the effects of age, period, and birth cohort suggest the trends among adults are primarily due to cohort, with a steady rise in mood disorder and suicide-related outcomes between cohorts born from the early 1980s (Millennials) to the late 1990s (iGen). Cultural trends contributing to an increase in mood disorders and suicidal thoughts and behaviors since the mid-2000s, including the rise of electronic communication and digital media and declines in sleep duration, may have had a larger impact on younger people, creating a cohort effect. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).
Chapter
This chapter investigates the phenomenon of foreigner objectification, or the labeling (implicit or otherwise) of members of racial/ ethnic minority groups as foreigners regardless of citizenship, migration status, or length of residence. As the majority of research on foreigner objectification has emerged out of the United States, the chapter focuses on the foreigner objectification experiences of two rapidly growing US racial/ ethnic groups: Latinos/ as and Asian Americans. It first contextualizes foreigner objectification within the larger literature on attitudes toward racial/ ethnic minority groups. It then discusses how foreigner objectification has been measured in psychological research and examines the limited but growing literature on the association between foreigner objectification and mental and physical health.
Article
This meta-analytic study systematically investigates the relations between perceived racial/ethnic discrimination and socioemotional distress, academics, and risky health behaviors during adolescence, and potential variation in these relations. The study included 214 peer-reviewed articles, theses, and dissertations, with 489 unique effect sizes on 91,338 unique adolescents. Random-effects meta-analyses across 11 separate indicators of well-being identified significant detrimental effects. Greater perceptions of racial/ethnic discrimination were linked to more depressive and internalizing symptoms; greater psychological distress; poorer self-esteem; lower academic achievement and engagement; less academic motivation; greater engagement in externalizing behaviors, risky sexual behaviors, and substance use; and more associations with deviant peers. Metaregression and subgroup analyses indicated differences by race/ethnicity, Gender × Race/Ethnicity interactions, developmental stage, timing of retrospective measurement of discrimination, and country. Overall, this study highlights the pernicious effects of racial/ethnic discrimination for adolescents across developmental domains and suggests who is potentially at greater risk.
Article
The pay gap between college graduates and everyone else rose to a record high last year, suggesting there are too few graduates.
Article
Path analysis was used to assess direct and mediating relationships of an a priori mediation model. Data were collected from 210 black, Hispanic/Latino, and Asian undergraduate college students. Authors found that microaggression was positively associated with ethnic identity. Microaggression had a significant positive association with psychological distress but no other direct relationships with the outcome variables. Ethnic identity was negatively associated with psychological distress but positively associated with self-esteem and academic self-efficacy. A positive effect was found between ethnic identity and substance abuse. Ethnic identity mediated the effect of microaggression on psychological distress. Moreover, including ethnic identity in the equation revealed that microaggression has a positive effect on self-esteem and academic self-efficacy through participants’ reported degree of ethnic identity. The results suggest that racial microaggressions have damaging impacts on the emotional health of racial and ethnic minority young adults. However, microaggressive experiences may also elicit stronger ethnic identity, which appears to serve as a protective factor to the negative influence of microaggression on psychological well-being. Post hoc exploratory multigroup analysis revealed some differential findings for each group. The article concludes with a discussion of the implications for social work practice, education, and research.
Article
Rationale: Although the relation between stress and physiology is well documented, attempts at understanding the link between racial discrimination and cortisol output, specifically, have produced mixed results, likely due to study characteristics such as racial/ethnic composition of the samples (e.g., African American, Latino), measures of discrimination, and research design (e.g., cross-sectional, experimental). Objectives: To estimate the overall association between racial discrimination and cortisol output among racial/ethnic minority individuals and to determine if the association between racial discrimination and cortisol output is moderated by age, race/ethnicity, type of discrimination measure, sex, and research design. Results: Using a random effects model, the overall effect size based on k = 16 studies (19% unpublished) and N = 1506 participants was r¯ = 0.040, 95% CI = -0.038 to 0.117. Studies were conducted predominantly in the U.S. (81%). Notably, experimental studies (r¯ = 0.267) exhibited larger effect sizes compared to non-experimental studies (r¯ = -0.007). Age, race/ethnicity, type of discrimination measure, and sex did not moderate the effect sizes. Conclusion: This meta-analysis provides evidence that the measurement of the association between racial discrimination and cortisol is complex, and it offers valuable insight regarding methods and designs that can inform future research on this topic. Limitations and future directions are discussed.
Article
Ethnic minority students are underrepresented in science, technology, engineering and math (STEM). The current study utilizes social cognitive career theory (SCCT) to examine the associations between ethnic discrimination and friendship group diversity, and academic self-efficacy, as well as the intent to major in a STEM-related field in two cohorts (N = 1307 and 1701) of incoming ethnic minority college students (71% and 70% women; 59% and 54% Asian, 24% and 29% Latino/a, 3% and 3% African American, 13% and 14% Multiethnic for Cohorts 1 and 2, respectively). Discrimination was negatively associated with math/science self-efficacy while having more diverse friends was positively associated with both academic self-efficacy (math/science for Cohort 1 and general for Cohort 2) and intention to major in STEM for both cohorts. Additionally, friend group diversity served as a buffer (Cohort 1) such that discrimination was associated with a decreased intent to major in STEM only when students had few friends from different ethnic, racial, or cultural backgrounds. For those with diverse friends, there was no association between discrimination and intent to major in STEM. Ethnic group differences between Asian and a combined group of Latino/a, African American, and Multiethnic students were assessed. No ethnic group differences were found for any of the associations between discrimination or friendship group diversity and STEM outcomes. These findings suggest supporting interethnic friendships may promote STEM involvement among ethnic minority college students.
Article
Ethnic discrimination (ED) is both an unfortunate and uncontrollable phenomenon that uniquely impacts African Americans (AAs) and other individuals of ethnic minority status. Perceived ethnic discrimination (PED), defined as the degree to which an individual consciously perceives a negative event as discriminatory and threatening, largely determines the impact that ED can have on target individuals. However, research has not yet considered how individual differences in both emotion regulation abilities, as indexed by resting high-frequency heart rate variability (HF-HRV), and rumination, a maladaptive emotion regulation strategy, may predict PED in AAs. The following investigation examined this relationship in a sample of 101 college-aged students (45 AAs and 56 Caucasian Americans). Resting HF-HRV was assessed via electrocardiogram during a 5-minute-resting period. Rumination was assessed using the ruminative responses scale and everyday PED was assessed using the perceived ethnic discrimination questionnaire. Results showed a significant negative relationship between resting HF-HRV and PED in AAs only. Rumination significantly moderated this relationship, such that lower HF-HRV was related to higher PED only in AAs who reported moderate to higher, β = 0.417 (0.125), p <.01, levels of trait rumination. These results suggest that greater HF-HRV and lesser ruminative tendencies are key factors in reducing PED and therefore possibly, negative consequences associated with ED.
Article
The purpose of this study was to develop the Perceived Online Racism Scale (PORS) to assess perceived online racist interpersonal interactions and exposure to online racist content among people of color. Items were developed through a multistage process involving a comprehensive literature review, focus-groups, qualitative data collection, and survey of online racism experiences. Based on a sample of 1,023 racial minority participants, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses provided support for a 30-item bifactor model accounted by the general factor and the following 3 specific factors: (a) personal experience of racial cyber-aggression, (b) vicarious exposure to racial cyber-aggression, and (c) online-mediated exposure to racist reality. The PORS demonstrated measurement invariance across racial/ethnic groups in our sample. Internal reliability estimates for the total and subscale scores of the PORS were above .88 and the 4-week test–retest reliability was adequate. Limitations and future directions for research are discussed.
Chapter
This chapter focuses on two important mechanisms through which racial learning occurs: children's experiences of discrimination across multiple settings and messages that children receive from parents, termed racial socialization. Notably, these two mechanisms are dynamically interdependent and deeply intertwined. Youth's discrimination experiences reflect both objective and potentially verifiable racial dynamics as well as their pre-existing expectations about, or predispositions toward, intergroup relations, the latter being partly shaped by parents' racial socialization. Parents’ racial socialization likewise emanates from, and is embedded in, systems of racial stratification and as well as in their anticipation of, or reaction to, youth's experience with these systems, including their own children's experiences of discrimination. Discrimination disrupts the process of achieving positive, respectful, and caring relationships with others. Thus, it has been associated empirically with a range of social adjustment indicators, including the quality of relationships with peers, adults, and the school community.
Article
This study investigated whether impostor feelings would both moderate and mediate the relationship between perceived discrimination and mental health in a sample of diverse ethnic minority college students (106 African Americans, 102 Asian Americans, 108 Latino/a Americans) at an urban public university. African American students reported higher perceived discrimination than Asian American and Latino/a American students, while no racial/ethnic group differences were reported for impostor feelings. Analyses revealed that among African American students, high levels of impostor feelings moderated the perceived discrimination and depression relationship and mediated the perceived discrimination and anxiety relationship. Among Asian American students, impostor feelings mediated the relationship between perceived discrimination and both depression and anxiety. Among Latino/a American students low levels of impostor feelings moderated the relationship between perceived discrimination and both depression and anxiety, and partially mediated the relationship between perceived discrimination and anxiety. Multigroup path analyses revealed a significantly stronger impact of impostor feelings on depression among African American students and a stronger impact of perceived discrimination on impostor feelings among African American and Latino/a American students. Clinical implications and future research directions are discussed.
Article
Racial microaggressions are a contemporary form of subtle discrimination that occur in everyday exchanges, and are associated with a variety of negative mental health outcomes, including suicide ideation. Previous work (e.g., Torres-Harding, Andrade, & Romero Diaz, 2012) has identified 6 dimensions of racial microaggressions: invisibility, criminality, low-achieving/undesirable culture, sexualization, foreigner/not belonging, and environmental invalidations. The current study examined whether the 6 dimensions of racial microaggressions were associated with increased suicide ideation through perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness among 135 African American young adults. Results indicated that perceived burdensomeness, but not thwarted belongingness, mediated the relationship between 3 racial microaggression dimensions (i.e., invisibility, low-achievement/undesirable culture, and environmental invalidations) and suicide ideation. These results imply that for African American college students, experiencing certain dimensions of racial microaggressions was associated with higher levels of perceived burdensomeness, which in turn was related to increased levels of suicide ideation. Clinical and societal implications are discussed. This study found that specific types of racial microaggressions were associated with higher levels of perceptions of being a burden on others, which in turn was associated with higher levels of suicide ideation in a sample of African Americans. These findings are important as they demonstrate 1 possible avenue through which racial microaggressions can negatively impact mental health. (PsycINFO Database Record
Article
The authors explored trajectories of perceived discrimination over a 6-year period (five assessments in 6th-11th grade) in relation to academic, behavioral, and psychological adjustment in 8th and 11th grades. They distinguished discrimination from adults versus peers in addition to overt versus covert discrimination from peers. The sample included 226 African American, White, Dominican, Puerto Rican, and Chinese adolescents (ages 11-12 at Time 1) recruited in sixth grade from six public schools in New York City. All forms of discrimination increased during middle school and decreased during high school. The frequency with which adolescents reported different sources and types of discrimination varied across ethnicity/race, but not gender. Initial levels and rates of change in discrimination predicted academic, behavioral, and psychological adjustment in 8th and 11th grades, albeit in complex ways.
Article
This study examined familism, ethnic identity (search and commitment), and gender as moderators in the associations between two minority stressors (i.e., perceived discrimination, acculturative stress) and depressive symptoms in Mexican American college students (N = 207) in a Hispanic-Serving Institution. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were employed to examine main effects and interactions of minority stress variables with hypothesized moderators. Results indicated that familism buffered the positive association between acculturative stress and depressive symptoms. Ethnic identity search and commitment showed gender-specific moderation effects in that a strong ethnic identity search or commitment was only protective for women, but not men, when considerable amounts of acculturative stress were experienced. Ethnic identity search also showed gender-specific moderation effects on the association between perceived discrimination and depressive symptoms. The findings highlight the importance of examining cultural variables and gender to understand what may be helpful to Mexican American students as they manage minority stressors.
Article
Racism-related stress poses a significant risk to the mental health functioning of many African American youth during the transition to adulthood. In light of the suggestion that personal and social factors might influence the association between racism-related stress and mental health functioning, this study examined the moderating roles of gender and socioeconomic status (SES) in the association between racial discrimination experiences and depressive symptoms, anxiety, and interpersonal sensitivity. Participants were 171 African American young adults (69% female; mean age = 18.4) recruited from a predominately White southeastern university. Regression analyses revealed that young African American men from lower SES backgrounds and women from higher SES backgrounds were most vulnerable to racial discrimination. These findings suggest that racism-related stress interacts with gender and SES to influence mental health correlates of racism-related stress during the transition to adulthood. We discuss how this knowledge can be used to inform assessment and cognitive-behavioral interventions for African American and other racial and ethnic-minority young adults.
Book
Filling a critical void in the literature, Race, Racism, and the Developing Child provides an important source of information for researchers, psychologists, and students on the recent advances in the unique developmental and social features of race and racism in children's lives. Thorough and accessible, this timely reference draws on an international collection of experts and scholars representing the breadth of perspectives, theoretical traditions, and empirical approaches in this field.
Article
African Americans and Latinos earn lower grades and drop out of college more often than whites or Asians. Yet thirty years after deliberate minority recruitment efforts began, we still don't know why. InThe Shape of the River, William Bowen and Derek Bok documented the benefits of affirmative action for minority students, their communities, and the nation at large. But they also found that too many failed to achieve academic success. InThe Source of the River, Douglas Massey and his colleagues investigate the roots of minority underperformance in selective colleges and universities. They explain how such factors as neighborhood, family, peer group, and early schooling influence the academic performance of students from differing racial and ethnic origins and differing social classes.Drawing on a major new source of data--the National Longitudinal Survey of Freshmen--the authors undertake a comprehensive analysis of the diverse pathways by which whites, African Americans, Latinos, and Asians enter American higher education. Theirs is the first study to document the different characteristics that students bring to campus and to trace out the influence of these differences on later academic performance. They show that black and Latino students do not enter college disadvantaged by a lack of self-esteem. In fact, overconfidence is more common than low self-confidence among some minority students. Despite this, minority students are adversely affected by racist stereotypes of intellectual inferiority. Although academic preparation is the strongest predictor of college performance, shortfalls in academic preparation are themselves largely a matter of socioeconomic disadvantage and racial segregation.Presenting important new findings,The Source of the Riverdocuments the ongoing power of race to shape the life chances of America's young people, even among the most talented and able.
Article
Building on their important findings inThe Source of the River, the authors now probe even more deeply into minority underachievement at the college level.Taming the Riverexamines the academic and social dynamics of different ethnic groups during the first two years of college. Focusing on racial differences in academic performance, the book identifies the causes of students' divergent grades and levels of personal satisfaction with their institutions.Using survey data collected from twenty-eight selective colleges and universities,Taming the Riverconsiders all facets of student life, including who students date, what fields they major in, which sports they play, and how they perceive their own social and economic backgrounds. The book explores how black and Latino students experience pressures stemming from campus racial climate and "stereotype threat"--when students underperform because of anxieties tied to existing negative stereotypes. Describing the relationship between grade performance and stereotype threat, the book shows how this link is reinforced by institutional practices of affirmative action. The authors also indicate that when certain variables are controlled, minority students earn the same grades, express the same college satisfaction, and remain in school at the same rates as white students.A powerful look at how educational policies unfold in America's universities,Taming the Riversheds light on the social and racial factors influencing student success.
Article
Online racial discrimination experiences often reflect attacks on the humanity and intelligence of members of specific racial groups (e.g., African Americans and Latinos). Such experiences may have detrimental effects on academic outcomes over time. Changes in reports of online racial discrimination and academic motivation were examined among a sample of 418 African American (n = 257) and Latino (n = 161) youth in Grades 6-12. Latent growth models with parallel processes revealed that adolescents reported increases in online racial discrimination over time yet relative stability in academic motivation. Elevated rates of online racial discrimination were related to decreases in adolescents' academic motivation. This was the case even after adjusting for teacher discrimination and baseline grade point average. In addition, high initial levels of academic motivation were related to increases in adolescents' reports of online racial discrimination. Findings highlight the importance of understanding racial discrimination in online contexts when examining how race-related experiences affect the academic adjustment of adolescents of color.
Article
This study examines how Latina/o students perceive and frame experiences of prejudice against them in the classroom through narratives told in informal interviews in Spanish. This project started as an inquiry about these students’ general perceptions and experiences in their Advanced Spanish-language classes and how these compared to their experiences in other classes on campus. Narratives are essential to understanding how speakers perceive and evaluate the experiences narrated and how they position themselves in relation to their group as well as to outsiders. The results show that, in most cases, when recounting narratives of discrimination or situations that can be considered instances of prejudice, students were hesitant to recognize that they were the subjects of discrimination or to qualify the story as an occurrence of racism. Different strategies were used to avoid this recognition, including assigning others the role of recognizing the situation as discriminatory and also using narrative evaluations or introductions to justify or mitigate the reasons that motivated these incidents. Discourses of prejudice and racism denial have been broadly documented, yet most studies focus on those who deny being racist themselves or being part of a racist group. This study shows how the underrepresented group might incorporate these discourses of denial and also how their discourses support or, at least, do not challenge the ideologies of majority groups about race, language, and immigration.
Book
The acclaimed social psychologist offers an insider’s look at his research and groundbreaking findings on stereotypes and identity.Claude M. Steele, who has been called “one of the few great social psychologists,” offers a vivid first-person account of the research that supports his groundbreaking conclusions on stereotypes and identity. He sheds new light on American social phenomena from racial and gender gaps in test scores to the belief in the superior athletic prowess of black men, and lays out a plan for mitigating these “stereotype threats” and reshaping American identities.
Article
An emerging body of literature suggests that victims of bullying report detrimental mental health outcomes, such as depression and anxiety. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between cybervictimization, depression, and anxiety among school-aged youth over a 3-year time frame. Students in Grades 6 through 12 at the initial wave of the study responded to survey items designed to assess their online experiences, including cybervictimization and self-reported depression and anxiety at three separate time points, over a 3-year period. In total, 559 school-aged youth participated in the study. Results suggest a reciprocal relationship between cybervictimization and depression and cybervictimization and anxiety. More specifically, depression at Time 1 predicted cybervictimization at Time 2, depression at Time 2 predicted cybervictimization at Time 3, and cybervictimization at Time 1 predicted depression at Time 3. Additionally, cybervictimization at Time 1 predicted anxiety at Time 2, cybervictimization at Time 2 predicted anxiety at Time 3, and anxiety at Time 1 predicted cybervictimization at Time 2. Based on the findings from this study, cybervictimization, depression, and anxiety seem to have a reciprocal relationship. Therefore, educational and mental health professionals should consider interventions that address adolescents' online experiences, while supporting mental health and social and emotional learning. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Article
Methods for handling missing data in social science data sets are reviewed. Limitations of common practical approaches, including complete-case analysis, available-case analysis and imputation, are illustrated on a simple missing-data problem with one complete and one incomplete variable. Two more principled approaches, namely maximum likelihood under a model for the data and missing-data mechanism and multiple imputation, are applied to the bivariate problem. General properties of these methods are outlined, and applications to more complex missing-data problems are discussed. The EM algorithm, a convenient method for computing maximum likelihood estimates in missing-data problems, is described and applied to two common models, the multivariate normal model for continuous data and the multinomial model for discrete data. Multiple imputation under explicit or implicit models is recommended as a method that retains the advantages of imputation and overcomes its limitations.
Article
This pilot study from self-selected institutions of higher education provides an estimate of the causes and rates of mortality among college students between the ages of 18 and 24 years old. One hundred fifty-seven 4-year colleges participated in an online survey of student deaths during one academic year. A total of 254 deaths were reported. The mortality rates (per 100,000) were as follows: total accidental injuries, 10.80; suicide, 6.17; cancer, 1.94; and homicide, 0.53. Within the accident and injury category, alcohol-related vehicular deaths (per 100,000) were 3.37 and alcohol-related nontraffic injuries were 1.49. Men had significantly higher rates of suicide (10.46) than women (2.34). Suggestions for future research and implications of these findings are discussed.
Article
This article discusses alternatives to single-step mixture modeling. A 3-step method for latent class predictor variables is studied in several different settings, including latent class analysis, latent transition analysis, and growth mixture modeling. It is explored under violations of its assumptions such as with direct effects from predictors to latent class indicators. The 3-step method is also considered for distal variables. The Lanza, Tan, and Bray (2013) method for distal variables is studied under several conditions including violations of its assumptions. Standard errors are also developed for the Lanza method because these were not given in Lanza et al. (2013).
Article
Using longitudinal data, the authors assessed 585 Dominican, Chinese, and African American adolescents (Grades 6–8, Mage at W1 = 11.83) to determine patterns over time of perceived ethnic-racial discrimination from adults and peers; if these patterns varied by gender, ethnicity, and immigrant status; and whether they are associated with psychological (self-esteem, depressive symptoms) and social (friend and teacher relationship quality, school belonging) adjustment. Two longitudinal patterns for adult discrimination and three longitudinal patterns for peer discrimination were identified using a semiparametric mixture model. These trajectories were distinct with regard to the initial level, shape, and changes in discrimination. Trajectories varied by gender and ethnicity and were significantly linked to psychological and social adjustment. Directions for future research and practice are discussed.
Article
An effective technique for data analysis in the social sciences The recent explosion in longitudinal data in the social sciences highlights the need for this timely publication. Latent Curve Models: A Structural Equation Perspective provides an effective technique to analyze latent curve models (LCMs). This type of data features random intercepts and slopes that permit each case in a sample to have a different trajectory over time. Furthermore, researchers can include variables to predict the parameters governing these trajectories. The authors synthesize a vast amount of research and findings and, at the same time, provide original results. The book analyzes LCMs from the perspective of structural equation models (SEMs) with latent variables. While the authors discuss simple regression-based procedures that are useful in the early stages of LCMs, most of the presentation uses SEMs as a driving tool. This cutting-edge work includes some of the authors' recent work on the autoregressive latent trajectory model, suggests new models for method factors in multiple indicators, discusses repeated latent variable models, and establishes the identification of a variety of LCMs. This text has been thoroughly class-tested and makes extensive use of pedagogical tools to aid readers in mastering and applying LCMs quickly and easily to their own data sets. Key features include: • Chapter introductions and summaries that provide a quick overview of highlights • Empirical examples provided throughout that allow readers to test their newly found knowledge and discover practical applications • Conclusions at the end of each chapter that stress the essential points that readers need to understand for advancement to more sophisticated topics • Extensive footnoting that points the way to the primary literature for more information on particular topics With its emphasis on modeling and the use of numerous examples, this is an excellent book for graduate courses in latent trajectory models as well as a supplemental text for courses in structural modeling. This book is an excellent aid and reference for researchers in quantitative social and behavioral sciences who need to analyze longitudinal data.
Article
This cross-sectional study examined (a) the impact of in-group (own-group conformity pressure) and out-group (perceived discrimination, stereotype confirmation concern) race-related stressors; (b) the direct effect of 2 in-group- (private regard, centrality) and 1 out-group-oriented (public regard) racial identity factors; and (c) the potential protective role of these identity factors on the impact of stressors on the anxiety of Asian Pacific Islander American (API) college students attending a racially diverse university. As predicted, positive feelings toward one's own racial group (i.e., private regard) had a significant negative relationship with anxiety. Private regard protected APIs from own-group conformity pressures and stereotype confirmation concerns. Findings address the diverse university context that may create acculturative pressures or stereotype confirmation concern conditions.