FOOD PACKAGING: GLASS AND PLASTIC

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RESEARCHES ON SCIENCE AND ART IN 21st CENTURY TURKEY 735
CHAPTER 81
FOOD PACKAGING: GLASS AND PLASTIC
Ahmet YARIS, Aybuke CEYHUN SEZGIN
INTRODUCTION
Packaging is an important material that protects the food put into it from external factors, keeps it fresh,
allows the food to reach the consumer in a healthy and reliable way, and enables proper transportation
and storage. Food packaging, which has widespread uses for reasons such as facilitation of everyday life,
is one of the more recent hot topics regarding food due to issues such as consumers’ health, food costs
and environmental factors. Glass and plastic are the most common packaging materials encountered by
consumers. All glass and plastic materials that come into contact with foods and beverages such as so
drinks bottles, baby bottles, foam containers, jars, and demijohns are under the scope of food packaging.
In recent years, sensitivities regarding food security, human health and the environment have increased in
food & beverage packaging. Glass packaging has advantages such as being healthier, being able to maintain
food for longer durations and having 100% recyclability, whereas plastic packaging has advantages such
as being less costly, being resistant to breaking and causing less air pollution. In this study; by providing
information regarding food packaging, packaging dates and packaging materials, details are presented on
the positive and negative aspects of glass and plastic packaging.
FOOD PACKAGING
Today, with issues such as climate change, decrease of cultivated agricultural land and food
shortage becoming topics of discussion, scientists have focused their eorts on food packaging that
can preserve foodstus from external inuences, keep them fresh for longer periods of time, not cause
any structural change to its contents, and be able to notify the consumer when the food content is / has
become defective (Doğan, 2009) Food packaging maintains the physical, chemical and microbiological
properties of foods, thus extending their shelf life. In the past, packaging, which only added an additional
burden to production costs, was considered as part of the production process. Today, packaging is an
inseparable part of the entire process as it is a part of every phase of the product, starting from the
rst stage of product development in adapting to the market requirements, and going on through
production, protection, storage, transportation, distribution, advertising, sales and nal consumption
(Yerlikaya et al., 2008). It is possible to dene packaging as a system coordinated to prepare the products
for protection, storage, transportation, distribution, storage, sales, communication, information, display
and use (Kocamanlar, 2009).
e history of the packaging dates far back in time. Keles (1998), people in the Stone Age have
consumed their food where they found it and put leovers in natural vessels such as hollow tree trunks
and ornamental zucchini, hollow stone pieces, shells of sea creatures, trees, leaves and shells. It is also
known that Egyptians, Phoenicians, Persians and Turks made bottles by inating liquid glass in the years
B.C. 3000. Kocamanlar (2009) states that packaging is an activity closely related to social development
and that its past extends to the beginning of mankind. According to the author, packaging has shown
improvements and changes in accordance with human necessities. According to Yiğit (1997), packaging
is one of the rst tools and equipment produced on earth. Because since the early ages of history,
people have used packaging to consume, preserve and transport food. According to Demircioğlu
(2003), amphoras made from clay to transport wine in prehistoric times constitute the rst examples of
industrial and shipment packaging. According to the author, the rst example of consumer packaging
were glass bottles used to carry perfumes in ancient Egypt. Additionally, another type of packaging
used apart from glass and clay during the same period was skin. With the industrial revolution, paper,
cardboard and metals were added to the packaging materials used in the old days. Following this, the
plastic packaging industry achieved remarkable growth, starting from the 1950’s till the 1970’s, leading
to the maturity period in terms of material variety, while the search for new materials ended in the
1980’s and researchers turned towards developing the existing materials. us, features such as usability,
appearance, hygiene, durability, aesthetics and eco-friendliness became more important in recent years.
Due to the use of glass and plastics in the packaging of food products; consumers’ health, food costs
and environmental eects are the most prevalent issues regarding food-related subjects in recent times.
e packaging industry has a very important place in the food industry. is is because packaging
facilitates the protection of food items from external eects, its transportation, storage, distribution,
promotion and marketing functions (Ministry of Eduction, 2011). According to Keleş (1998), packaging is
the placing food into its protective containner in accordance with specications in an economic way while
preserving, as best as possible, the quality of the food at the moment of its production till its arrival to the
consumer and its nal consumption. According to Bulduk (2010) the purpose of the food packaging is to
736
protect to the product, to keep it intact, and to prevent and limit it from becoming spoiled. According to
Dilber et al. (2012), the most important function of packaging is the multi-functional protection it provides
in the long path from the manufacturer till the nal customer. It has been determined that half, even two
thirds, of all basic foodstus go rotten when not protected by suitable and eective packaging. According
to a study made by the United Nations; it was reported that developing countries suered around 30% loss
in export revenues due to insucient and defective packaging (Keleş, 1998).
According to Kocamanlar (2009), it is possible to examine packaging in three dierent categories
according to their intended use. e rst category is packaging with the purpose of sales. e packaging
in this category includes packages that are in direct contact with the product and other packages that
are required to complete the sales unit. Examples for these types of packaging can be given as the bottles
and cans that zzy and still drinks are put into. e second category is packaging in the form of groups.
It is the material that protects the primary packaging which is discarded when the product will be
consumed. Setups with beverage bottles or cans of packs in four or six can be given as an example
for this type of packaging. e third and last category is shipping packaging. ey are used in order
prevent any physical damage that may occur during transportation or shipping, intended to facilitate the
transportation or shipping of a series of sales units or combinations of secondary packages.
Yiğit (1997) states that packaging is important in order to prevent the degradation mechanism of
foods. According to the author, the degradation mechanism occurs in 4 ways;
1. Damage caused by macro-organisms (insects, pests etc.),
2. Microbiological degradation that results from contamination with microorga-nisms such as
bacteria, fungus and yeast,
3. Chemical degradation such as darkening or bittering caused by enzymes through oxidation and
hydrolysis,
4. Degradation caused by physical changes such as moisture loss, tissue deformation, mass transfer
and wrinkling.
e functions of packaging undergo changes with the development of societies, emergence of
necessities and advancement in technology. It is possible to outline the functions of packaging as protection,
convenience, price adjustment, providing information and visual functions (Kocamanlar, 2009).
PACKAGING MATERIALS
Foodstus, based on their characteristics, can undergo microbiological, biological, chemical and
physical degradation due to factors such as oxygen, humidity, light, smell and heat. erefore, keeping
in consideration the sensitivity to factors of the product to be packaged, the permeability characteristics
of the material in terms of oxygen, carbon dioxide, moisture, light, odor and aroma must be very well
known for the selection of the packaging material (Taş and Ayhan, 2006) In packaged ready meals,
washed-cleaned and packed green vegetables, sandwiches wrapped in stretch lm, hot and cold
beverages in plastic cups etc., there is an interaction between the packaging and the foodstus. e
material used in food packaging should not undergo a chemical interaction with the food itself (Yiğit,
1997) because when a food item is packaged for protection, it interacts with the packaging material
aer a certain period of time and substance transitions may occur. According to Doğan (2009), these
transitions may occur alone as well as in combination with various chemical reactions. According to
Demirci-Süzgün (2012), one of the most important factors aecting food safety apart from the actual
production of the food is the packaging materials, which have functions to preserve the food and
prevent its deterioration during this process. e utilized packaging material should protect the food
for the duration of storage and transportation, while not disrupting or aecting it (Bulduk, 2010). For
this reason, various packaging materials should be used according to the characteristics of the food. It is
possible to separate the packaging materials into 5 main groups (Acar, 1997);
• Paper-based packaging materials (wrapping paper, box, cardboard box, cases, tape, etc.)
• Metal-based packaging materials (cans, aerosol containers, barrels, lids, rings),
• Glass packages (bottle, demijohn, jar, ampoule, vial),
• Plastic packaging materials (containers, bags, drums, barrels, lids, tapes, etc.) and
• Wood packaging materials (chest, cases, pallet).
Glass Packaging: Glass packaging is a type of packaging commonly used in many foods ranging
from heat treated or pressure-packed solid and powdered products to liquid products (Aday, 20147).
Glass, which is usually transparent, is an amorphous (non-crytsalline) solid material which has a wide
area of use for technological and decorative purposes (Borowska, 2014). Unlike metals, glass does not
have free and mobile electrons that absorb light energy. is is why it is transparent and translucent.
However, colored glasses that selectively pass the light can also be made. e glass used in packaging
industry is soda-lime glass (Keleş, 1998). Glass containers are produced by melting the mixture of silica
(sand), sodium carbonate (melting agent), calcium carbonate and alumina (hardener) substances at
high temperatures, casting them into the molds and cooling them (Marsh & Bugusu, 2007). Preventing
RESEARCHES ON SCIENCE AND ART IN 21st CENTURY TURKEY 737
the abrasion of the surface is achieved by surface coating the glass packaging and oiling it during its
production (Aday, 2014). Glasses can also be manufactured in color. Colorants are used in little or
suitable amounts within mixtures, such as chromium oxide for the production of green glasses; iron,
sulfur and carbon for brown glasses; and cobalt oxide (zare) for the production of blue colored glasses.
Decolorizers such as nickel and cobalt are added to the mix in order to mask the color emerging from
trace amounts of impurities such as iron and sulfur found in the raw materials, when producing colorless
(crystal) glass (Keleş, 1998).
Yiğit (1997) states that the rst use of glass was around 3000 B.C., but that glass workshops were
rst established in the 16th century and that their development continu-ed until the 19th century. It is
stated that the production of glass packaging at workshops began in 1870. Aday (2014) also states that
the air blowing rods, which facilitate the production of glass packaging, were invented by the Romans.
Glass packaging is generally in cylindrical shape. Among these cylindrical containers, those with
narrow rims used in food packaging are called bottles whereas those with wide mouths are called jars.
ere are also glasses and demijohns, as well as vials and ampoules that are generally used in the eld of
pharmacy. In terms of use, the cylindrical shape is close to the spherical shape that provides maximum
durability and is easily manufactured (Keleş, 1998).
e abundance in positive aspects of using glass as food packaging has made it widely preferred
by consumers. In a study to compare the interaction of packaging materials with foodstus; it was
determined that glass packaging had the highest value in terms of preservation of the quality of food and
was the only packaging material that could guarantee that there would be no toxic substance transfer from
the package to the food. Also when compared plastic packaging, it was concluded that glass packaging
had the least eect on the avor of the food while protecting it from external factors (Demircioğlu,
2003). In a study conducted by Da Cruz, Faria & Van Dender (2007) in which they examined the state of
the probiotics in yoghurt placed in glass and plastic containers, it is mentioned that the dissolved oxygen
inside the plastic container was higher in comparison to that of the glass container. In their study,
Jayamanne & Adams (2004) kept meekiri (yoghurt made from bualo milk), which is a fermented food,
in plastic, clay, and glass bottles. In their study, they determined that the probiotics in the food stayed
alive the most in the glass bottle. According to the Turkish Food Codex Regulation on the Substances
and Materials that come in contact with food, glass packaging must be used for beer bottles, beverage
bottles, soda bottles and natural mineral water and fruit juices (Ocial Gazette, 2013). Glass, which is
perceived as healthy and thus preferred by people, also has its negative sides. Especially the fact that it
lets light pass through results in the discoloration of the food. Additionally, energy resources such as
fossil fuels and electricity are used in higher quantities during the production of glass. It causes 3 times
more air pollution when compared to production of plastic (H2OM, 2008). e positive and negative
characteristics of glass packaging have been summarized in the chart below.
Table 1. Positive and negative features of glass packaging (Keleş, 1998; H2OM, 2008; MEB, 2011).
Positive Features Negative Features
It is a tough, durable and chemically inert material.
Has no interaction with food.
Glass allowing light to pass through can result in
discoloration of the food inside.
Does not react with chemicals and does not corrode.
It does not require additional special coating.
e fact that it breaks upon eects such as as impact,
heat, shock and excessive internal pressure, may lead to
problems in production, transportation, storage and sale.
It does not change form, it is resistant to internal and
external pressure forces, it is suitable for sterilization
and cleaning processes.
Jars may break as they are unable to overcome the excessive
internal pressure that is generated during sterilization.
ey can be made in dierent forms, sizes and colors. Generates 3 times more air pollution than plastic packaging.
It is transparent, thus the product placed inside can
be seen. It is costly in terms of shipping for long distances.
It has a shiny and smooth structure. ey are costly for manufacturers.
As its raw materials are abundant in nature, glass is
reusable and recyclable.
More energy consumption is required in glass production
when compared to other packaging materials.
It does not erode or degrade over time. Its heavy and may cause problems in transportation
It is suitable for the vacuum, lling and closing
method.
It has no permeability to gas, water vapor, odor and
liquids.
Glass cannot be decomposed or degraded by
microorganisms, and does not harbor any
microorganisms.
738
Plastic Packaging: It is used widespread all around the world and especially in the food industry
due to its many positive attributes such as low cost, availability of dierent production techniques,
lightweight and transparent, low gas and moisture permeability (Kızılırmak, 1997). Plastic is dened as
the material that is obtained when the bonds between carbon and hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and other
organic or inorganic elements, called monomers, are broken from their simple structured molecule
groups and formed into the long and chained structure called polymers. (Durusoy & Karababa, 2011;
MEB, 2011). As plastic technology allows for the production of many dierent packages with varying
colors, types and technical characteristics, almost all foods can be packaged with plastic (BPF, 2013).
In their study, Durusoy & Karababa (2011), state that Christopher Columbus saw the natives of Haiti
playing with balls made from materials obtained from a tree. e history of plastic production is based
100 years ago, but when compared with other materials, plastic is observed to be a relatively newer
packaging material. According to Yurdagel (1982), the use of plastic packaging material has rapidly
increased towards the end of the 20th century.
Plastic packaging that comes into contact with food are designed to protect the food and to prevent
chemical and microbiological degradation. us, it should not contaminate the food and not negatively
aect the food’s sensory characteristics (Knight & Creighton, 2004). Migration is an important issue
in plastic packaging. e transfer of matter to the food under certain conditions from the material in
contact with the food is expressed as “migration” (Özkaya, 2014). Plastic packaging, which is frequently
used in the food industry, has a higher permeability to low molecule compounds such as gas, water vapor
and organic vapors when compared to other packaging materials. us, knowledge of the permeability
characteristics while choosing the plastic material is very important in terms of food quality and shelf life
(Taş & Ayhan, 2006; Yerlikaya et al., 2008). A model consisting of food, plastic and the environment is
created when any food is packaged or wrapped with plastic materials. Migration occurs with when there
is continued contact between the components found in plastic substances and foodstus. Migration is
dened as a transfer of mass from plastic to food under certain conditions (Kızılırmak, 1997). It is stated
that the amount of component migration from plastic substances to the food should not exceed the
determined specic migration limits (SML) in the Turkish Food Codex Plastic Substances and Materials
in Contact with Food. Specic migration limits have been expressed as milligrams of substance for each
kilogram of (mg/kg). For foods that do not have a specic migration limit or restriction, this limit is
applied as 60 mg/kg (Ocial Gazette, 2013).
In general, plastics are compounds with dierent physical and chemical character-ristics and
are known as polymers with varying structures. It is possible to list the raw materials used in plastic
packaging as Polyethylene (PE), Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET), Polypropylene (PP), Polystyrene (PS)
and Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) (BPF, 2013). e most common type of plastic that enters households is
PE. It is used in many various elds such as bleach, detergent and shampoo bottles, motor oil bottles and
garbage bags. PET is generally used in the packaging of bottles of water, so drinks and oil. Its area of use
is continually increasing due to it being light and convenient. Waste pet bottles are utilized as synthetic
bres and lling material. e elds of use of PP’s include caps of detergent boxes and margarine
containers. In addition to these elds, it is extensively used in the automotive industry due to it being a
durable and recyclable material. PS, on the other hand, is the plastic packaging type that is used least in
domestic consumption. It is used only in yogurt and margarine containers. PVC is used in the packaging
of medical and cosmetic products as well as water and liquid laundry detergents. Waste water pipes,
vinyl ooring and various ller materials are produced from used PVC packaging (Demircioğlu, 2003).
Knowing which food product that the plastic raw materials should be used in the packaging of is
an important issue. e safety, shelf life and protection of foods dier according to the raw materials.
Kudelka (2005) analyzed the eects of pasteurization and packaging type on the acidity of probiotic
yoghurts made from goat and sheep milk during a storage of 21 days. e milk to be processed in
the yoghurt was subjected to two dierent pasteurization norms, one being 5 minutes at 95ºC and
the other being 10 minutes at 90ºC, and later on lled in to 3 dierent types of plastic packages of
polypropylene, polystyrene and polyethylene. Compared with other containers, it was stated that the
lowest level of acidity during storage was seen in the yogurt kept in polystyrene packages and that the
others showed similar values with each other (Yerlikaya et al., 2008). According to Durusoy & Karababa
(2011), the transition of chemicals from the package to the food can vary depending on the chemical
properties of plastics and the food, the packaging of the product, heat treatment applications and storage
temperatures, UV exposure and storage times. Contact with greasy and acidic foods, heating the food in
a plastic container or pouring hot beverage into a plastic cup, use of old and scratched plastic as well as
certain detergents increase the risk of migration. Another important issue to be taken into consideration
RESEARCHES ON SCIENCE AND ART IN 21st CENTURY TURKEY 739
in plastic food packaging is the consumption of food and beverages while they are hot. Tokalak (2010)
stated that polystyrene (PS) from plastics can pass on to the food due to heat, which is why they are
dangerous in terms of intake of toxic substances into the body. Another issue to note is the substance
Bisphenol A (BPA), which has recently been subject to claims that it has carcinogenic properties.
BPA, which is a necessary component for polycarbonate plastics, is found in the compounds of many
consumer products such as feeding bottles, water bottles, food containers, stretch lms and papers
(Vandenberg et al., 2012, p. 408). In a study conducted in America; 95% of 394 adults had BPA in their
urine (Calafat et al., 2005). e positive and negative features of plastic packaging are given in Table 2.
Table 2. e positive and negative features of plastic packaging (Keleş, 1998; H2OM, 2008; BPF, 2013).
Positive Features Negative Features
e package is not easily broken due to the long polymer
chain. ey are easily scratched.
ey do not undergo chemical reactions, they are of inert
characteristic. ey do not undergo rusting and corrosion.
ey have low resistance against heat and certain
substances and solvents.
ey can be transparent, allowing the product placed inside
to be seen.
ey do not provide sucient protection against
water, vapor and gas transmission.
eir distribution is easier and transportation less costly as
they are lightweight.
Not all of the plastic is recycled and the recycled
part of the plastic cannot be used for the same
purpose.
It is hygienic as it can be packaged without being touched. e non-recyclable plastic pollutes the
environment.
ey can be produced in any desired shape since they can be
easily processed. eir designs are unlimited.
Plastics may contain toxic soeners such as PVC
and phthalates.
Production is less costly and recycling is possible. Dangerous chemicals can leak from plastic into
food.
Due to its convenience, it can protect the food and prevent
waste. Plastic packages are not economically attractive.
Less energy is consumed during its production and thus less
air pollution is caused.
e plastic package does not break and does not fall into
broken pieces when it falls.
ey are water resistant.
ey are easily colored.
Glass, paper and metal are generally known as recyclable packaging materials. Good results are
obtained from the recycling of PET beverage bottles. It is known that plastic bags are converted into
black colored bags again. However, plastics obtained from recyc-ling are not suitable for food packaging.
ese packages need to be used in non-food areas (Keleş, 1998).
CONCLUSION
In order to respond to the rapidly increasing necessities, packaging, with its widespread use, has
become an indispensable part of life. As very few food items are directly consumable, packaging is
complementary to food. Packaging prevents food from degradation, contamination and being negatively
aected by external factors such as light, humidity, heat, air and impact. Plastic and glass are the most
common packaging materials that consumers encounter. Generally consumers think that glass materials
are healthier and more environmentally friendly in terms of food packaging. However, when the two
packaging materials are compared, it is seen that both materials have advantages against each other.
Glass packaging is preferred more by consumers because they are healthy. Additionally, glass has a
higher rate of recycling results in less environmental pollution. Although plastic packaging is safe in
food packaging, it can be risky for health if proper conditions are not met and appropriate materials
are not used. Today, plastic materials are more widely used in food packaging in comparison to glass
materials. e most important reason for this is that the cost of plastic packaging is more economical
for producers. In studies comparing the ecological eects of glass and plastic packaging, it has been
determined that plastic packaging is advantageous in terms of energy consumption, air pollution
and global warming. According to conducted studies, it was determined that the production of glass
packaging consumed more of each type of fuel and two times more energy in total when compared to
the production of plastic packaging. Additionally, production of glass packaging causes 3 times more
air pollution than production of plastic packaging. It has been determined that production of glass
740
packaging causes 7 times more global warming than production of plastic packaging.
As a result, it has been observed that sensitivities on food safety, human health and the environment
regarding food packaging have increased in recent years. erefore, con-sumers prefer glass packaging
because of its positive relationship with health. However, when evaluated from the point of view of
utilization intensity, it is seen that plastic packaging is preferred because of its low cost and lower energy
requirements from an environmental perspective.
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  • ... Mevsimlerin zamanla değişmesi, ekili tarım arazilerinin giderek azalması ve ileride gıda kıtlığı ile ilgili sorunların oluşabileceği düşüncesi, gıdaların raf ömrünü uzatacak, dış etkilerden koruyarak, bulaşmaları engelleyecek ve gıdalarda bozulmalar oluştuğunda tüketicileri bilgilendirebilecek ambalajların geliştirilmesine neden olmaktadır (Yarış ve Ceyhun-Sezgin, 2017). Önceden üretim maliyetlerine ek bir külfet olarak görülen ambalajlar günümüzde koruma, depolama, taşıma, pazarlama, reklam ve dağıtım ile nihai tüketime kadar ürünün her aşamasında aktif rol oynaması sebebiyle için üretim sürecinin bir parçası olarak ele alınmaktadır (Çakıcı, 1987;Yarış ve Ceyhun-Sezgin, 2017). ...
    Conference Paper
    Full-text available
    In food frameworks, besides the point of consuming adequate and balanced nutritions from various meal, it is aimed that foods should be presented in a secured hygienic and appropriate environment. Packaging is a subsidiary material for foods to be provided in a hygienic and appropriate environment to their consumers. Packaging is a systematical complement that allows consumers to receive their products fresh, clean and healthy. This systematical complement includes carrying, storing and transportation. All in all, packaging is one of the essential components of the food industry. Materials such as beverage bottles, feeding bottles, jars and wrapping papers are examined within the context of packaging. Especially in recent years, with the effect of mindfulness of individuals regarding to health matters, a huge awareness was built on subjects as food safety, hygiene and environmental factors.In this study, packing materials which are the ones used for food frameworks are detailed and presented with the subtopics of definition of packing, importance of packing, development of packing in turkey and main packing materials.
  • Ambalaj Materyalleri
    • M S Aday
    M.S. Aday, "Ambalaj Materyalleri", Türktarım, Gıda Tarım ve Hayvancılık Bakanlığı Dergisi, (220):16-21, 2014.
  • Glass in Green Buildings
    • S Borowska
    S. Borowska, "Glass in Green Buildings. " Retrieved 05/01/2016, from https://prezi.com/hxjrwe9odpkr/ glassin-green-buildings/, 2014.
  • Plastic Packaging The Progressive Packaging Medium
    BPF, 2013, British Plastic Federation "Plastic Packaging The Progressive Packaging Medium. " Retrieved 10/11/2016, from https://www.linpacpackaging.com/files/Plastics%20Packaging%20Booklet%202013 %20web.pdf. 5.S. Bulduk, "Gıda Teknolojisi", Detay Yayıncılık, Ankara, 2010.
  • Gıda Güvenliği ve Gıda Güvenliği Yönetim Sistemleri
    • M Demirci-Süzgün
    M. Demirci-Süzgün, "Gıda Güvenliği ve Gıda Güvenliği Yönetim Sistemleri", Ambalaj Bülteni, Kasım-Aralık, 36-45, 2012.
  • Plastik Ambalaj Malzemelerinin Gıda Sanayiinde Kullanımı ve Etkileri
    Ü. Yurdagel, "Plastik Ambalaj Malzemelerinin Gıda Sanayiinde Kullanımı ve Etkileri", Gıda Dergisi, 7(1):25-32, 1982.
  • Gıda Ambalajlama İlkeleri
    • F Keleş
    F. Keleş "Gıda Ambalajlama İlkeleri. " Atatürk Üniversitesi Ziraat Fakültesi Yayınları No: 189. 2. Baskı, Atatürk Üniversitesi Ziraat Fakültesi Ofset Tesisi, Erzurum, 1998.
  • Gıda Sanayiinde Kullanılan Plastik Ambalajlar ve Migrasyon
    • Ö Kızılırmak
    Ö. Kızılırmak, "Gıda Sanayiinde Kullanılan Plastik Ambalajlar ve Migrasyon", TMMOB Gıda Mühendisliği Dergisi, (4):19-21, 1997.
  • Article
    The objective of the study was to determine the effect of a milk pasteurisation process and the impact of the packaging type on the acidity of bio-yoghurts during their storage. There were two types of milk (goat and cow) to produce bioyoghurt and two variants of a pasteurization process of the milk. The acidity levels were determined 12 h after the production, then, on the 7th, 14th, and 21st day of storing. The type of raw material used to produce bio-yoghurts has a significant effect on the level of their general acidity. The general acidity of bio-yoghurts made from goat milk was considerably higher than that of the cow bio-yoghurts in the two cases examined, i.e. after their manufacturing and at the end of a 21-day storage. The selected variant of milk pasteurisation applied was of no significant influence on the acidity level. The type of the packaging used had an irrelevant impact on the acidity value.