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Corporate Social Responsibility



The concept of corporate social responsibility has acquired significance, when the organizations are to integrate social and environmental concerns in their business operations. Furthermore, the communication of the individuals with the stakeholders takes place on voluntary basis. Every organization need to implement the policy, which is concerned with the corporate social responsibility to carry out their job duties in a well-organized manner and achieve the desired goals and objectives. Corporate social responsibility has rendered a significant contribution in bringing about community development. As community development is one of the important aims of all organizations.
Corporate Social Responsibility
Dr. Radhika Kapur
The main objective of this research paper is to acquire an understanding of Corporate
Social Responsibility. This concept has acquired significance when the organizations are to
integrate social and environmental concerns in business operations. Furthermore, their
communication with the stakeholders takes place on voluntary basis. Every organization is
required to put into operation the policy, which is concerned with Corporate Social
Responsibility. It produces a report on an annual basis, which is annually detailing all the
corporate activities. Another concept that has been taken into account is community
development. Community development is regarded as one of the indispensable areas that are
necessary in order to lead to effective growth and development of the individuals and nation
as a whole. It is necessary to identify the areas, which need to be improved and initiate
measures to bring about improvements. Corporate Social Responsibility has rendered a
significant contribution in bringing about community development. The main areas that have
been taken into account in this research paper include, the principles of CSR, theories of
CSR, meaning and significance of community development, and roles of CSR in community
Keywords: Corporate Social Responsibility, Community Development, Individuals,
Organization, Principles, Theories
Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is the concept that has gained prominence in
business reporting. Every corporation has the policy concerning CSR, which produces a
report, annually, detailing its activities. Every corporation is able to recognize the corporate
activity, which is socially responsible and the activities, which are not socially responsible.
There are two interesting points regarding this. Firstly, one do not necessarily agree with each
other in terms of what is socially responsible. Although one claims to recognise what it is or
is not, when one is asked to define it, then normally, it is difficult. The comprehensive
definition of social responsibility is concerned with what is or should be the relationship
between global corporations, governments of countries and individual citizens. More locally,
the definition is concerned with the relationship between the corporation and the local society
in which it resides or operates. Another definition is concerned with the relationship between
a corporation and its stakeholders (Crowther, & Aras, 2008).
CSR is a concept, whereby the organizations integrate social and environmental
concerns in their business operations and their interaction with the stakeholders on a
voluntary basis. An increasing number of researchers and writers have recognized that the
activities of the organization have an impact upon the external environmental conditions and
have suggested that one of the roles of accounting should report upon the influence of the
organization in this respect. There is not any reason to think that shareholders are willing to
tolerate an amount of corporate non-profit activity, which appreciably causes a reduction
either in the dividends or the market performance of the stock. Every large corporation should
be thought of as a social enterprise that is an entity, whose existence and decisions can be
justified as long as they serve public and social purposes (Crowther, & Aras, 2008).
The Principles of CSR
Due to the uncertainty surrounding the nature of CSR activity, it is difficult to define
CSR and to be certain in terms of any such activity. It is therefore, imperative to be able to
identify such activity. The view of three main principles of CSR are to be taken into
consideration to comprise all of the CSR activity (Crowther, & Aras, 2008).
Sustainability is concerned with the effect in terms of which action is taken into
consideration in the present, which has an impact upon the options that are available in the
future. If resources are utilized in the present, then they are no longer useful in future. This
point is of particular concern, if the resources are finite in quantity. Therefore, the raw
materials of an extractive nature, such as, coal, iron or oil are finite in quantity and once they
are used will not be available for future use. In the future, therefore, alternatives will be
needed to implement the functions that are provided by these resources. In production and
manufacturing organizations, these resources are made use of. This may be at some point in
the relatively distance future but of more immediate concern is the fact that as resources get
depleted, then the cost price of the remaining resources tend to increase. Therefore, in this
manner, the operational costs of the organizations tend to increase.
Viewing an organization as a part of the wider social and economic system implies
that these effects must be taken into account, not just for the measurement of the cost and
value created in the present, but also for the future of business itself. Measures of
sustainability would consider the rate at which resources can be regenerated. Unsustainable
operations can be accommodated either through the development and implementation of
sustainable operations or by planning for the future lacking in resources, which are required
at present. In practice, the organizations mostly tend to aim towards less unsustainability by
increasing the efficiency in the ways in which resources are utilized. An example would be an
energy efficiency program. The human resources need to be well-aware of the methods and
approaches required to make best use of resources and promote their sustainability.
Accountability is concerned with an organization recognising that its actions affect the
external environment and therefore assuming responsibility for the effects of its actions. This
concept therefore implies a quantification of the effects of actions taken, both internal and
external to the organization. More specifically, the concept implies a reporting of those
quantifications to all parties affected by those actions. This implies a reporting to external
stakeholders of the effects of actions that are put into operation by the organizations and how
they influence the functions of the stakeholders. This concept therefore, implies a recognition
that the organization is a part of the wider societal network and has responsibilities to all of
that network rather than just to the owners of the organization. Alongside this acceptance of
responsibility, there must be a recognition that those external stakeholders have the power
and authority to affect the ways in which those actions of the organization are taken and role
is played in making decisions.
Accountability therefore, necessitates the development of appropriate measures of the
environmental performance and reporting of the actions of the organizations. This
necessitates costs on the part of the organization in developing, recording and reporting such
performance. Benefits must be determined by the usefulness of the measures selected to the
decision-making processes and by the ways in which they facilitate the allocation of
resources. It takes place both within the organization and between it and other stakeholders.
Such reporting has to be based upon various characteristics. These are, understanding of all
parties concerned, relevance to the users of the information provided, reliability in terms of
accuracy of measurement, representation of impact and freedom from prejudice, and
comparability, which implies consistency, both over time and between different
organizations. However, such reporting will involve qualitative facts and judgements as well
as quantifications. This qualitative aspect will inhabit comparability over time and will tend
to mean that such impacts are assessed differently by various users of the information,
reflecting their identical values and priorities.
CSR is a comprehensive subject area, which leads to a variety of opinions and can be
considered in number of different ways. When the stakeholders within as well as outside the
organization are engaged in the decision making processes or they are formulating measures
and laws concerning goodwill and welfare of the organization and its members, they need to
ensure that these must be clear to the members. When these aspects will be clear to the
members, they will be able to adequately abide by them. Transparency needs to be depicted
in the implementation of tasks and activities as well. The reason being, when the members of
the organization will not be clear and feel perplexed, then they would be unable to carry out
their job duties in a well-organized manner and achieve the desired outcomes. Therefore, it is
vital to ensure that laws, measures, procedures, rules, tasks and activities all should be in
accordance to the goals and objectives of the organization and transparency should be their
main quality.
Transparency, as a principle, means that the external impact of the actions of the
organization can be ascertained from that organization’s reporting and pertinent facts are not
disguised within this reporting. Therefore, all the effects of the actions of the organization,
including external impacts, should be apparent to all from using the information provided by
the organization’s reporting mechanisms. Transparency is of particular importance to the
external users of such information, as these users are unaware in terms of the background
details and knowledge available to the internal users, such as, information. Transparency,
therefore, can be viewed to follow from the other two principles and equally can be seen to be
a part of the process of recognition of responsibility on the part of the organization for the
external affairs of the actions and equally part of the process of transferring power to the
external stakeholders.
Theories of CSR
The theories of CSR have been stated as follows: (Ismail, 2009).
The Utilitarian Theory
In the utilitarian theory, the corporation serves as part of the economic system in
which the function is mechanical. It is traditionally known in profit maximization. CSR ideas
emerge after the realization that there is a need for the economics of responsibility, embedded
in the business ethics of the corporation. The utilitarian theory could also be taken
synonymously with the instrumental theories. In the case of these theories, the organization is
viewed as an entity for the creation of wealth. The social activities are regarded as one of the
means for achieving appropriate economic outcomes. Utilitarian theories are also based upon
the idea in terms of the investment in the local community in which it has been stated that
investment will be in the long term make provision of adequate resources, amenities and
facilities that would enable the individuals to live their lives in an enhanced manner.
The utilitarian theories are related to the strategies for competitive advantages. The
proponents of these theories are the ones, who viewed these theories as the bases for the
formulation of strategies and approaches in the dynamic utilization of the natural resources of
the corporation for competitive advantages. The strategies also include the altruistic activities
that are recognized as the social instruments for marketing. Altruistic activities are the selfless
activities that are carried out for the welfare of the community. The utilitarian theory suggests
that the corporation needs to accept social duties and rights to participate in the activities of
social co-operation. Within it, the functionalist theory, specifically advocates that the
corporation is viewed as an integral part of the economic system of which one of the
important goals is profit-making. The organization is viewed as an investment and investment
should be productive and profitable to the investors and stakeholders. From the perspective of
the internal aspect of the organization, CSR was regarded as the defence strategy of the
industrial system against the external attacks. The reason being, there should be a balance
between profit making and social objectives of the economic system’s equilibrium.
The Managerial Theory
The managerial theory is primarily concerned with the management of the
organization. The managerial theory puts emphasis upon the corporate management in which
the CSR is approached by the corporation internally. This is regarded as the main point of
difference between the utilitarian and managerial perspective of CSR. This suggests that all
the factors that are external to the corporation are taken into account. The managerial theories
have been divided into three sub-groups, these are, corporate social performance, social
responsibility, auditing and reporting (SAAR) and social responsibility for multinationals.
CSR for multinationals grows as a result of global competitions and challenges they
experienced. This aspect of managerial theory comes into being as a result of the
responsibility that the managers have experienced. This is facilitated by defining useful tools
about the CSR for the multinational companies to survive in foreign countries. The members
of the organization are required to make moral and wise decisions, which are aimed at
maximization of profit.
Managerial theories are also strongly related to political theories based on
conceptualization. They put emphasis upon the social responsibilities of organizations that
arise from the power and authority that is vested among individuals, especially the ones, who
are in leadership positions. Organization is understood like being a citizen with certain
involvement in the community. The origin of the political power of the CSR is based on the
Davis (1960) idea, who proposed that business is the social institution and it should make use
of power and authority in a responsible manner. It is also noted that causes that generate the
social power are from inside and outside of the corporation. Managerial theories are also
covered under the integrative theories of Gargia and Mele (2004), namely, the entities of
public responsibility and corporate social performance. Public responsibility puts emphasis
upon law and public policy processes that are taken as a reference for social performance.
Whereas, corporate social performance conducts search in terms of social legitimacy
pertinent to social issues.
The Relational Theory
Relational theory has an origin from the complex firm environment relationships. As a
term, it implies that the interrelationships between the two are focused on the analysis of
CSR. Relational theory is divided into four sub-groups of theories. These include, business
and society, stakeholder approach, corporate citizenship and social contract. Business and
society is proposed to mean business in society in which CSR emerges as the matter of
interaction between two entities. One of the measures of CSR is the development of
economic values in a society. Another person is the obligation to consider the effects the
decisions and actions on the whole social system. Stated in the form of a general relationship,
social responsibilities of the businesses need to reflect upon the social power they have. The
stakeholder approach has been developed as one of the strategies in improving the
management of the organization. It is also stated as a way of acquiring an efficient
understanding of the reality in order to manage the socially responsible behaviour of the
The stakeholder approach has been developed as one of the strategies in making
improvements in the management of the organization. It is also stated as the way of
understanding reality in order to manage the socially responsible behaviour of the
organization. The stakeholder approach further considers an organization as the
interconnected web of different interests, where self-creation and community creation take
place independently. Corporate citizenship of the relational theory strongly depends on the
type of community to which it is referred. It is the approach that the organization has to adopt
to implement the tasks and activities in a responsible manner. Fundamentally, it is about the
relationship that an organization develops with its stakeholders, and therefore, the former has
to continuously implement the traits of commitment and dedication. In other words, it can be
stated that within the organization, it is vital for the members to form effective terms and
relationships with each other. In this manner, they will be able to incur profitability,
productivity and job satisfaction.
Meaning and Significance of Community Development
When understanding the role of CSR in community development, it is crucial to
understand the meaning of community. Community is generally defined as the group of
individuals sharing the common purpose. These individuals need to work in collaboration
with each other for the fulfilment of desired goals and objectives. The community members
are respectful and considerate in terms of other members. There are presence of community
leaders as well. The community leaders are vested with the authority to direct and supervise
the tasks and activities. The community leaders are the individuals, who strive to influence
others to take responsibility for the actions, achievements and community welfare (Ismail,
Community development (CD) refers to initiatives undertaken by the community with
partnership with external organizations or corporations to empower the individuals and
groups of individuals by making provision of competencies and abilities. Knowledge,
competencies and abilities are required to bring about changes in the organization. The
knowledge and competencies are often focused upon making use of local resources and
building political power through the formation of large social groups, and participating in
tasks and activities that are focused upon promoting community welfare. The individuals
working for the well-being of the community are required to understand both how to work
with others and how to affect the position of the communities within the framework of larger
social institutions (Ismail, 2009).
Community development is the process of developing active and sustainable
communities, based on mutual respect and social justice. It is primarily concerned with
influencing the power structures to remove the impediments that prevent the individuals from
participating in the issues that affect their lives. Community workers facilitate the
participation of the individuals in this process. They enable the connections to be made
between the communities and with the development of comprehensive rules, policies and
programs. CD expresses the value of fairness, equality, accountability, opportunity, choice,
participation, mutuality, reciprocity and continuous learning. Education and empowerment
opportunities are the key instruments in bringing about community development. CD is
referred to as the combined processes, programs, strategies and activities that make the
community sustainable as compared to economic development (Ismail, 2009).
The comprehensively used meaning of CD is the one given by the United Nations in
which the CD is regarded as an organized effort of the individuals in a community conducted
in such a manner to help provide solutions to the problems with the minimum help and
assistance from the external organizations. Another aspect that is related to CD is about the
active involvement of the individuals in the issues and concerns, which form their experience.
It is a developmental process that is both a collective and individual experience. It is based on
a commitment to equal participation between all those involved to facilitate the sharing of
skills, knowledge and experience. It takes place both in the neighbourhoods and communities
of interest. Whenever, individuals come together to identify the relevant factors and act in
terms of the issues of common concern. Therefore, it can be stated that it is vital for the
members of the community to identify the areas within the community, which need to be
improved on a regular basis (Ismail, 2009).
Roles of CSR in Community Development
The roles of CSR in CD have been identified in the following areas: (Ismail, 2009).
To Share the Negative Consequences as a result of Industrialization
Industrialization has had a profound effect upon not only India, but many nations throughout
the world (Negatives of the Industrial Revolution, 2019). With the advent of industrialization,
there have been number of transformations taking place in the marketplaces. Within these
marketplaces, there should be more ethical business processes. The negativities of
industrialization are pollution, increased greenhouse gas emission and global warming.
Industrialization also contributes to the decline in the health conditions among the factors.
The other negative consequences are increase in crime, stress and other societal problems.
These problems are not only regarded as impediments within the course of up-gradation of
individuals and communities but also industrialization. Therefore, it is vital to formulate
measures, which would lead to alleviation of these problems and promote well-being.
Closer Linkages between the Corporations and Communities – Through CSR the
existence of corporations in the social system is felt beyond the perception from merely
regarding corporation as the place, where the individuals are able to find employment
opportunities. In various types of organizations, the individuals are engaged in the production
of goods and services. When the corporations are focused upon bringing about improvements
in productivity and profitability, it is vital to conduct an analysis of the demands of the
consumers. Therefore, based on consumer demands, measures and approaches are formulated
based on pioneering methods. Therefore, it can be stated that there is need to create closer
linkages between the corporations and communities.
Helping to Acquire Talents – Organizations with the reputation for CSR can take
advantage of their status and reinforce their appeal as an attractive employer by making their
commitment part of their value proposition for potential candidates. It is also found that when
the organizations view their commitment towards the organization to socially responsible
behaviour in a more unfavourable manner. They also tend to have more positive attitudes in
terms of various areas that correlate with better performance. They have formed the
viewpoint that organizations are required to reward and recognise great customer service, act
in a rapid manner to address and resolve the concerns of the customers and are led by the
individuals in the case of senior management, who have the main objective of meeting the
needs and requirements of the customers.
Role in Transfer of Technology – Close linkages between the members of the
organization render a significant contribution in the transfer of technology. In multinational
companies, educational institutions and other organizations as well, the individuals are likely
to make use of technologies in the implementation of tasks and activities. In the training and
development programs, the trainers are required to impart knowledge and competencies to
the individuals in terms of usage of various types of technologies in the implementation of
tasks and functions. These include, clerical work, administrative work, technical work,
production and manufacturing, research and so forth. Paying adequate attention and getting
engaged in thorough practice are some of the ways to augment ones understanding in terms
of usage of various types of technologies.
CSR Contributes in the Protection of the Environment – Some of the world’s largest
organizations have made a visible commitment to the CSR. The initiatives and measures are
implemented that have the primary objective of causing a reduction in problems and barriers
that lead to destruction and exploitation of natural resources. It is of utmost significance to
keep the environment clean and green. It is vital to implement measures that would lead to
protection of the environment. The individuals, particularly belonging to rural and tribal
communities need to be aware of the ways that would need to be implemented to keep the
environment clean and green. Preservation of the environment would render a significant
contribution in leading to well-being of the individuals and communities.
CSR is for Human Right Corporate Sustainability – The United Nations have
launched the global compact. It is an initiative to convince international organizations to
commit themselves to universal principles in relation to the protection of human rights. Being
the world’s largest corporate responsibility initiative, the UN global compact is also seen as a
strategic policy for the businesses that are committed to through the alignment of their
operations and strategies within the areas of human rights, labour and the environment. The
organization is regarded as the primary agent stimulating modernization and globalization. It
can contribute effectively in ensuring that markets, commerce, technologies and financial
resources are indispensable ways that would contribute in promoting corporate sustainability.
The understanding of the global compact stands as the largest corporate citizenship and
sustainability initiative in the world with more than 4700 corporate participants and
stakeholders from more than 130 countries.
Interdependence between Corporation and Community – The corporations that
primarily focus upon implementing tasks and functions that are dedicated towards promoting
well-being of the community have to create an interdependence with the community. In order
to be successful in the implementation of tasks and activities, it is necessary to conduct an
analysis of the needs and requirements of the members of the community. When the members
of the corporation form the viewpoint that community members are in need of certain goods
or services, then they aim to carry out their tasks and activities in a well-organized manner.
When the corporations are able to effectively implement the tasks and activities to promote
community well-being, they are also able to render a significant contribution in alleviating
the societal problems of poverty, illiteracy, homelessness and unemployment. Therefore, it
can be stated that interdependence is regarded as an essential aspect in corporation and
A CSR Program is an Aid in the Alleviation of Poverty – Poverty is regarded as the
major barrier within the course of sustenance of living conditions in a well-organized manner.
In India, the individuals primarily belonging to rural communities and residing in urban
slums are the ones, who are struggling to make ends meet. The prevalence of the conditions
of poverty are regarded as major factors. In order to lead to effective growth and development
of the individuals, communities and nation as a whole, it is essential to alleviate the
conditions of poverty. In order to achieve this purpose, there are certain factors that need to
be taken into consideration. These include, implementing programs and schemes for
promoting health and well-being, diet and nutrition, skills development, employment
opportunities and so forth. These programs and schemes have primarily been beneficial to the
individuals, belonging to deprived, marginalized and socio-economically backward sections
of the society.
A CSR Program helps in Collection of Data – When a corporation has to carry out a
task or a function, or work on a research project, it is of utmost significance to collect data
and information. There are two ways of collecting data, i.e. qualitative and quantitative.
Qualitative data is the data that is collected through interviews of the respondents. Whereas,
quantitative data is the data that is collected through getting the survey questionnaires filled
out from the respondents. For the purpose of collection of data, it is vital to implement
measures and schemes appropriately. The first and foremost step is to identify the area of
research. On the basis of the research area, it is essential to identify the population of the
respondents to collect data. It is apparent that usage of technologies is regarded as
indispensable for the purpose of collection of data. Therefore, it can be stated that CSR
program renders a significant contribution in the collection of data.
For Achievement of Corporate Sustainability Goals – In order to achieve the
corporate sustainability goals, it is vital to put into operation the sustainable business
practices. The sustainable business practices covers five areas. These include, awareness and
perceived importance among employees, employee sustainable behaviours, social and
community performance, environmental performance and ethical and legal performance.
These five areas are to be paid adequate attention, as without awareness in terms of them, it is
not possible to implement the program in a successful manner. The employees need to
acquire adequate awareness in terms of various areas that are necessary for the successful
functioning of the organization. The employees need to conduct themselves and implement
the behaviours that would enable them to achieve the desired goals and objectives. Social and
community performance is essential to augment one’s competencies and understanding in
terms of various areas. The environmental conditions need to be pleasant and amiable, which
may encourage the employees to work satisfactorily. It is of utmost significance for the
members of the corporation to inculcate the traits of morality and ethics. Therefore, it can be
stated that in order to achieve the desired goals and objectives, it is vital to generate
awareness in terms of these factors.
Promoting Social Equity – Social equity is one of the essential areas, which enables
the individuals to socialize with each other in an operative manner. Inequalities are regarded
as major impediments to sustainable development. Therefore, to bring about effective growth
and development of the community and nation, it is essential to promote social equity.
Inclusive sustainable development requires dealing with the structural causes of inequalities
in accordance to the human rights principles of universality, indivisibility, equality, non-
discrimination, participation and accountability. Promoting social equity and dealing with
social exclusion and discrimination are vital aspects that need to be emphasised within the
corporation and the external environmental conditions. Incentives need to be provided to the
policymakers that are necessary to formulate programs and procedures to promote social
equity and well-being of the individuals and community. Furthermore, it is necessary to
prioritize the disadvantaged groups through setting of targets and disaggregating data on the
basis of factors such as, caste, race, gender, age, income, occupation, location, and socio-
economic background (Promoting Equality, 2014).
Promoting Gender Balance – Research has indicated that within the country, women
have experienced discriminatory treatment and are regarded as inferior as compared to males.
In some cases, they have not even been given equal pay for the same work performed as their
male counterparts. As a consequence they had to quit their jobs and source of income. Hence,
it can be stated that discriminatory treatment is regarded as one of the major impediments
within the course of attainment of empowerment opportunities and enhancing one’s
livelihoods. In promoting gender balance, it is vital for the individuals, particularly in
leadership positions to act as role models, particularly for women within the organizations
(Promoting Gender Balance Wisely, n.d.). Promoting gender balance within the corporations
is regarded as indispensable for the individuals in terms of number of factors. These include,
achieving the desire goals and objectives, retaining employees, promoting women
empowerment, providing them opportunities to achieve the desired goals, generating
promotional opportunities and leading to well-being and goodwill. Therefore, it can be stated
that focus has to be put on gender balance in the implementation of various tasks and
Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is the concept that has acquired eminence in
particularly business organizations. Every corporation has the policy that puts emphasis upon
CSR, which produces a report, annually, detailing its activities. Every corporation is able to
identify the corporate activity, which is publically accountable and the activities, which are
not publically accountable. The three main principles of CSR are to be taken into
consideration to comprise all of the CSR activities, these are, sustainability, accountability
and transparency. The theories of CSR are, utilitarian theory, managerial theory and relational
theory. In understanding the concept of CSR, it is vital to understand, how it renders a
significant contribution in promoting effective growth and development of the communities.
Within communities, there are number of aspects that need to be taken into consideration,
these are, changes, well-being, alleviation of societal problems and so forth. The individuals
need to make effective use of knowledge and competencies to promote well-being and
development of the community.
The roles of CSR in CD have been identified in the areas, which are, to share the
negative consequences as a result of industrialization, closer linkages between the
corporations and communities, helping to acquire talents, role in transfer of technology, CSR
contributes in the protection of the environment, CSR is for human right corporate
sustainability, interdependence between corporation and community, a CSR program is an aid
in the alleviation of poverty, a CSR program helps in collection of data, for achievement of
corporate sustainability goals, promoting social equity and promoting gender balance. The
CSR has been rendering a significant contribution in leading to well-being and progression,
taking into account the above stated areas. Finally, it can be stated that corporate social
responsibility is primarily concerned with the relationship between corporation and the local
society. The tasks and functions of the corporation have to be put into operation in such a
manner that would lead to well-being and progression of the individuals and society.
Crowther, D., & Aras, G. (2008). Corporate Social Responsibility. Retrieved January 12,
2020 from
Ismail, M. (2009). Corporate Social Responsibility and Its Role in Community Development:
An International Perspective. The Journal of International Social Research, 2(9), 199-
209. Retrieved January 12, 2020 from
Negatives of the Industrial Revolution. (2019). Retrieved January 13, 2020 from
Promoting Equality, including Social Equity, Gender Equality and Women’s Empowerment.
(2014). Retrieved January 12, 2020 from
Promoting Gender Balance Wisely. (n.d.). Retrieved January 13, 2020 from
... Kapur [14] defines CSR as a concept where an organization voluntarily incorporates social and environmental concerns in their business operations for a peaceful co-existence with stakeholders. CSR could also mean greater sensitivity to environmental and social concerns in areas where companies operate [15] . ...
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This study sets out to contribute to the lingering debate on the relationship between corporate social responsibility (CSR) and community development using the Nigerian oil industry as a case study. A better understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of the different CSR initiatives undertaken by the various oil multinational companies (MNCs) operating in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria was closely examined. The research also scrutinized why despite considerable increases in the oil MNC's CSR spending on community development, little or no growth has occurred. The role of the Nigerian Government in CSR was also examined, and the result was that the Nigerian government failed to create an enabling environment. To this effect, the research has categorically examined the problems and issues facing the host communities concerning the exploration of oil in the Niger Delta. Feasible solutions and recommendations were suggested to ensure sustainable development in the region and prevent further escalation of environmental crises, thus bringing about a peaceful co-existence among the various stakeholders. In appreciating the findings and recommendations of this research work, it is necessary for the oil industries, policymakers, and host communities to have a firm understanding of their commitment and their responsibilities to one another.
... Respect for political diversity and social morality as well as gender equality are considered important in African morality. To perform social service success in society and to increase social and economic status requires dedication to quality and professionalism in organizations as given by To provide prestige in organizational responsibility, it is vital to render a significant addition in promoting effective growth and development in communities (Kapur, 2020). Initiatives based on public-spiritedness should be taken into action such as curb painting, canal dredging, coastal waste management, etc. Main directors in organizations and project managers in business sectors must always initiate and implement universal strategy, by adapting best practices, existing initiatives and local related situations (Tharp & Chadhury, 2008). ...
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