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A Historical Appraisal and Present Significance of Chandela’s Tanks of Bundelkand

Authors:
  • Maharaj Balwant Singh College Gangapur Varanasi
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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I have great pleasure in expressing my deepest sense of
gratitude to my father Dr. Rajendra Singh Head, Department of
Geography,Bundelkhand College Jhansi for his instantaneous guidance
and stimulating discussions during the course of this investigation. I am
grateful to my Ph.D. supervisor Dr. R.K. Bhatiya,Ex-Head,Department
of History, Bundelkhand College Jhansi for his expert guidance .I wish
to express my sincere thanks to Dr. Hemlata Singh Head ,Department of
History, V.S.S.D.College Kanpur and Dr. Anil K. Misra , my senior
colleague for the help and words of encouragement in the hour of need. I
am very much obliged to Dr. Adesh gupta ,Department of
History,Pt.J.L.Nehru college Banda for his valuable suggestions.I also
offer my thanks to my senior colleagues Dr. R.C.S. Chandel , Dr. Ranjan
kumar ,Dr. Vijai Pal, Department of Political Science; Dr.Prashant
Tripathi Head,department of Sociology ,Dr. Anand S. Shukla,
Department of Hindi ,Dr. Govind Singh department of Military Science.
I would like to express my thanks to my friends Mr. Dhiren
Tamuli,Department of Political Science, D.K.D. College Golaghat
(Assam), Mr. Chandrakant Jamadar ,Department of Psychology
,Maharani College Mysore and Mr. Mohammad Chenadan ,Department
of Arabic, Mallapuram (Kerla) for their valuable help.
I am extremely grateful to Mr. Virendrajit Singh ,
managing Secretary ,V.S.S.D. College for constant inspiration to do this
project work. I am also thankful to Dr. K.K.Tewari ,Ex Principal
,V.S.S.D. college & Dr. D.V. Sardesai present Principal , who
encouraged me and helped me in various ways . I cannot forget the help
rendered by Mr. Rajesh Singh(Hamirpur) for the field work .I am
thankful to my students Shashi Shekhar Mishra ,Dr. Krishna Pal , Pawan
K. Tripathi and Ram Naresh for their valuable assistance during the
survey work .
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I am highly indebted of Grand Parents and
parents without whose blessings; this work would have not been
completed. I do record my thanks to my uncles Dr. Rajesh Singh , Joint
Director (Administration) J.T.R.I. Lucknow, Dr.Rajio Singh ,Dy
Director (R & D),D.R.D.O. Head Quarter New Delhi and my younger
brother Mr. Vasudev Singh , petroleum Engineer, Houston (USA) who
have always been helpful in many ways . I would like to remember the
co-operation of my wife Mrs. Neha Singh who encouraged me for the
completion of this work. Space does not permit me to express my deep
sense of gratitude for co-operation from prominent persons in study area.
Kanpur (Purushottam Singh)
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CONTENTS
Chapter / Particulars Page no.
INTRODUCTION …. 05
CHAPTER ONE ….. 12
BRIEF GEOGRAPHICAL & HISTORICAL BACKGROUND
CHAPTER TWO ….. 24
HISTORICAL TRADITION OF TANK CONSTRUCTION IN
BUNDELKHAND
CHAPTER THREE ….. 29
MULTIPLE & MULTILATERAL USES OF HISTORICAL TANKS
CHAPTER FOUR …..37
PRESENT DAY PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED TO HISTORICAL
TANKS IN BUNDELKHAND
CHAPTER FIVE … 39
ROLE OF HISTORICAL TANKS IN DAILY LIFE &SOCIETY
CHAPTER SIX …42
MODEL PLAN AND CONCLUSION
List of appendix …….
CHRONOLOGICAL ORDER OF CHANDELA KINGS-p.52
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List of photograph
PLATE DESCRIPTION
Plate one page no. 47 A. Mangalgarh fort site of Charkhari with
one of the seven tanks
Dhubela taal from the Samadhi of
Maharaja chhatrsal Bundela
Plate two page no.48 A. Madan Sagar tank at Mahoba with
Karka dev temple in centre
B. Huge tank of Jagat Sagar near Mau-
Sahaniya (Chhatarpur)
Plate three page no.49 A. Royal tank of charkhari with Royal
palace
B. Huge tank of Kirat Sagar at mahoba
constructed by Kirti Verman
Plate four page no.50 A. Large lake of Barua Sagar (Jhansi)
B. Reservoir at betwa riverside At
Orchha(Tikamgarh)
Plate five page no.51 A. Historical water body with sediment
rocks at Sihunda (Datiya)
B. Koti-Tirth tank at Kalinjar Fort (Banda-
Panna Vindhyachal range)
List of Maps/ Illustrations
Figure no. Title page no.
1. Sites of historical tanks of Bundelkhand 53
2. Bundelkhand Relief pattern 54
3. Districts of Budelkhand with limitations as prescribed
By Rajendra Singh 55
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INTRODUCTION
Bundelkhand located in heart place of India is well known for its ancient
geological structure , mixed relief pattern, semi-arid climate and rough
stoney soils on one hand and on other to its remarkable historical
background, culture and language. At present the extension of area is
contradicted but generally seven districts of U.P. art(Jhansi, Jalaun,
Lalitpur, Hamirpur, Mahoba, Banda, Chhatrapati Shahuji nagar) are
clearly part of it with six districts of M.P.(Datia ,Tikamgarh,
Chhatarpur, Panna, Damoh, Chhatarpur).In this way the location of
Bundelkhand is in between 2308' to 260 30' N lattitude and 780 11' to
810 30' E longitude with 71618 square kms. total geographical area.
Bundelkhand which was known as Chedi in Mahajanpada age was rulled
by Chedi rulers earlier and afterwards Guptas, kalchuris, Chandelas,
Sultans, Mughals, Bundelas, Marathas and British Rulers; But only
Chandelas and Bundelas were the founder of the particular culture of
this land paying their devotion to the local population. The Chandela
rulers of Bundelkhand constructed the great temples of Khajuraho on
one hand as well as huge tanks for public welfare on another. Though
these tanks were constructed for water supply only but it was not
imagined at that time that these tanks will be great factor in future for
ecological balance in the area. These huge tanks are the certificate of
historical contribution of rulers of Bundelkhand in field of ecological
balance in India.
Bundelkhand was facing caracity of rain’s water (75 mm in NW to
125 mm NE) which is not only insufficient but also irreliable. These
circumstances encouraged the nature of water collection according to
availability of favourable sites for tank construction. The middle
transitional belt (see map) between the northern plane and southern
highlands, which is roughly in between 24033’to 25030’N latitude,
presented the ideal conditions for the tank construction. Therefore 15
tehsils of 6 districts in Jhansi (tehsils Jhansi, Mauranipur), Mahoba
(Mahoba, Charkhari), Tikamgarh (Tikamgarh, Jatara), Chhatarpur
(Laundi, Chhatarpur, Vijawar Tehsils) and Panna (Panna, Ajai Garh
Tehsils) are in the particular zone. The presence of hard rocks like
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gneiss, granite sand stone and time stone surrounded by patches of
agricultural lands are the favourable geographical condition for water
collection. The large heartedness of Chandela rulers converted the dream
in to truth of the people of this thirsty land. These were Chandelas who
have taken keen interest in tank construction. Names of many tanks
constructed by chandelas have suffix Sagar (Sea) e.g., Keerat Sagar,
Madan Sagar, Rahil Sagar, Barua Sagar in U.P. part of Bundelkhand
with Radha Sagar, Gwal Sagar in M.P. part as they are huge and cover
large area. The number of these historical tanks scattered in 15 tehsils of
Bundelkhand is about 100. History of construction of many tanks is not
avilable now but it is very clear that tough granite base , surroundings
of hills, presence of water supply source and residence of rulers were
important factors for selection of construction site. Madan Verman,
Keerat Verman, Rahil, Parmardi Deva, Dhanga (950 – 1008 A.D.),
Ganda, Vidhyadhar was the prominent rulers taking interest in tank
construction. Most of these tanks are constructed along the human
settlements, which is remarkable point. At present the historical tanks
are surrounded by natural scenes, picnic spots , religious locations as
well as many of them are symbol of ancient cultural activities and
festivals. If these historical tanks may be maintained properly, they have
capacity to change scenario of water ecology in Bundelkhand. It is
strongly needed that there must be a multilateral planning for
multipurpose use of the tanks . Small scale and regional plannings are
more useful than broad scale planning. Only this view is fruitful in water
conservation and government should also accept it . If tanks are used for
irrigation in limited areas then these historical tanks become more
useful. Hence government do not prefer expend money over
infrastructure of these tanks but important factor is forgotten that role of
these tanks in environmental protection is of high level. Birds of
different breeds migrate towards these tanks in various seasons. The list
of these birds is lengthy. Many hydro plants (e.g.- trapa,kaseru,lotus etc.
) which are preserved in these tanks are struggling for their existence .
Various regional breeds of fishes (e.g.- rohu,nain, kalkodha, mahasher,
tinger, lonchie, kissa, dega, bhokhara, gangie, suja, malote, billa, qatala,
moya, papta etc. ) are found in water of only these tanks . Among birds
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parrots,pigons,swans,sikes, etc. are permanent reside of these tanks . It
is proper to say that bio-sphere resides at these historical tanks is the
identity of Bundelkhand , therefore study and preservation of these tanks
is strongly needed. Except these ecological factors many indirect aspects
like recharge of underground water and soil conservation are waiting for
for further research. These historical tanks can be changed in tourism
destinations by proper management. Many huge tanks can be used in
water sporting and boating. By minor change and planning, these tanks
will become destination for domestic and regional tourism. These huge
tanks are waiting for promotion of water sports at minimized cost in
central India. Mahoba district administration has got a good position in
this regard. It is a well established fact that present condition of there
tanks is very poor due to government negligence as well as pubic
unawareness. There tanks are misused by local population. The tanks
who were the symbol of aristocracy and source of water supply for most
of the population, now are centre of illegal jobs and polluted water. Silt
setting and illegal capturing are main problems of the tanks, therefore
water carrying capacity of almost all the tanks is decreased to less than
half of its actual. Bands of dams are weak and most of the water of tanks
is captured by fungai, grasses etc.
The water of there tanks is useless for purpose of drinking because
polluted water of human settlements is drained into there tanks.
Neighboring land of tanks is under unauthorized possession and
construction. Illegal use is another problem except illegal possession and
construction. People feel success in doing illegal jobs. The proposed
project is an effort of investigation about several points classified as
under-
OBJECTIVES OF PROJECT were as under
1. To the situation and site of the Chandela tanks with their proper
technique of historical Construction.
2. To investigate the objectives of tank construction by Chandelas in
a particular zone. Although most of the objective are well known
but it is very important to investigate minutely, all the objectives.
3. To search out the specific environment created by these tanks
because these tanks are source of ecology of the zone.
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4. To determine the actual shape and water carrying capacity of
these tanks because most of the tanks have losed their original
shape due to encroachment .
5. To chalk out a future planning for these historical tanks and water
bodies, by which the thirsty people of Bundelkhand get water from
the tanks for next 100 years.
6. And lastly to point out the charactarsties of chandela tanks because
the tanks are historically primary source to determine the history of
science and technology in chandela period after famous in
Chandela period. After famous temples of Chandelas these tanks
are only remaining construction of welfare.
HYPOTHESIS
Chandela culture is super individual as well as super organic. The
architecture. of Chandela temple of Khujraho and Kalinzer is living
evidence of development of specific culture in a particular zone.
Similarly the historical tanks of Chandelas are strong proof of Chandela
view of welfare state. Copper plate inscriptions of Chandelas (Total no.
plates 26) also poove the same view. These tanks are continuity used by
local population for purpose of drinking water and agriculture since
thousand years. Due to global climatic changes and monsoon
uncertainty of India, the Bundelkhand zone is facing drought since last
05 years. It is matter of fact that Bundekhand zone is always facing
caracity of rain water due to semi-arid climatic zone. Therefore these
tanks will pay a strong role in water conservation and water use, if the
two governments of two state (U.P. & M.P.) are ready to do collective
effort . The historical investigation of Chandela’s tanks is a strong need
of society because the investigation can throw light not only over the
maximum utility of conservated water but also tricks of maximum
conservation of rain water.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY :
Research design and methodology of the project is absolutely
based on field survey. It is difficult to determine the water carrying
capacity of tank as well as the historical constriction technique. The
field survey of tanks will produce the situation and site of the tank. After
finding the situation of tank the determination of possible utility was
9
done exactly. The author have surveyed thirty two tanks of the zone
(named – Madan Sagar and Keerat Sagar of Mahoba, Bela taal of jaitpur
jiron taal of Tikamgarh) to search out the practical problem related to
survey of tanks. The practical problems related to tanks are as following.
1. Source of rain water drain are blocked by illegal possessions,
therefore it is difficult to design the ancient water collection
technique.
2. The flow of polluted water of human settlements is creating
problems.
3. Due to Silt setting the capacity of almost all tanks is remained to
less than of half of its actual. Therefore it is very difficult to
determine the actual capacity of tanks.
4. The bands of dams are almost weak and most of the water is
captured by fungi. Therefore it is difficult to determine the flora
and fauna of the tanks.
The research was designed in a manner that all indicators
related to research of a particular tank should be collect at a time
to minimize the cost of survey. The indicators of depth of tank,
recharge of water of tank, flora and fauna of tank, amount of silt
and fungi of a tank, present management of tank by A.S.I. and
irrigation deportment are important. It is very important to
determine the technique of overflow and irrigational use and safely
from silting and other pollution “at spot”. For this purpose the
study of historical account of the tanks is done.
TOOLS USED IN COLLECTION OF DATA :
As per according to need of data following tools are used to
collect the data.
Traker :
Traker is the device to detect the tough granite base of the tank
which is necessary for water collection. Tracker of low capacity
was purchased from United states, but it was less fruitful for
detection of tough base under water.
SEXTANT : is device to determine the situation of tank.
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Meter – Tape : for measurement of length.
Lap-top Computer : for storage of data.
Shadow – light : for horizontal and vertical measurement.
Prismatic Compass : for only horizontal measurement of length.
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY :
The study is most significant in many ways nowadays because the
study area is facing drought situation. Apex leaders of all political
parties are trying to be highlight by this issue. It is a matter of historical
fact that these tanks were constructed for public welfare since thousands
years ago. We have to maintain these tanks so that the drinking and
irrigational water is obtained maximum. Besides the above aspects the
students of geology and geography can do further research on recharge
of underground water and soil conservation. These historical tanks are
identity of Bundelkhand , therefore study and preservation of these tanks
is strongly needed. Project carried out was a study related to drinking
water problem of the people of study area as well as to least agro
production due to lack of irrigational water. Due to miss-use and illegal
jobs, the historical tanks of Bundelkhand are losing its original size and
importance. In few areas there is new trend of high level boring to
explore the ground water. This tendency is harmful for people because
they are continuously decreasing the level of underground water. The
protection and conservation of historical tanks in study area is only way
of safe guard. The study is quite related to present day problem of water
collection .A specific environment was developed due to historical tanks
of Chandelas. These tanks are also responsible for development of
specific Bundeli culture. For example, Madan Sagar tank of Mahoba
become destination for thousands of people at the time of local fair of
‘Kajalia’. This fair is based on the historical tradition of brave warriors
named Allha and Udal. Therefore their tanks are creator of cultural traits
in the area. Author has strong buliet that this project will contribute to
knowledge of historical tank construction technique as well as the wider
importance of historical tanks. The project will enrich the knowledge of
selection of site for tank construction. The project will disciphere the
historical technique of overflow and irrigational use of water. The study
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of Nalas or small streams of the with study of narrow strips will produce
the the catchment area of particular tank. The scholar have firm belief
that the study will surely fulfill the objectives of the work to produce a
new platform for further research. The study will be prove to be a mile –
stone in study of historical tanks of Chandelas in Bundelkhand region
producing a master plan of welfare of local Bundeli people.
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CHAPTER ONE
BRIEF GEOGRAPHICAL & HISTORICAL BACKGROUND
History and culture of Bundelkhand region were designed by
geographical features. Far away from Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea,
Bundelkhand is situated in ranges of Vindhyachal with river Yamuna as
northern border. It is mandatory to know about geographical features of
the region because historical water bodies are deeply associated with
surface, topography, soil and drainage pattern of the region.
BRIEF GEOGRAPHICAL BACKGROUND :
There are four prominent systems related to structure of the region. The
Archien system is the oldest one which can be recognized by the
presence of granite and gneiss . Bundelkhand granite is of many types as
per composition and colour . pink and gray colored granite is important
.The second system is known as Gwalior Series or transitional system.
This system is composed of sand stone, lime stone and quartzite
commonly found in Datiya district. Third structure is known as rocks of
Vindhychal range spread in middle part of Bundelkhand featuring layers
of sand stone .According to Professor R.L. Singh tectonic activities in
southern Bundelkhand region has greatly influenced this system. The
fourth structure is made of river deposits in northern belt of region due
to presence of Yamuna, Pahuj, Betwa , Dhasan, Ken, Bagain rivers.
Therefore geomorphology of Bundelkhand region is consist of oldest to
modern structures which decides the topography, soil and underground
water of the region.
TOPOGRAPHY : Topography is always important in Historical studies
because it gives surface to human settlement and cultural evolution.
Bundelkhand is subject of interest among Historians due to presence of
all three major forms i.e., hill , plateau and plane. The southern part of
Bundelkhand is hilly area of Vindhyachal range with hillocks and
scattered hills while northern part is plane attracting human settlement.
Basically slope is towards south to north resulting in to plane . Thus the
study area consists of the following three while discussing topography-
1. Southern high land
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2. Middle Transitional Belt
3. Northern deposited plane
The southern high land has slope towards north. It can be separated
from middle transitional plateaus belt by contour of 250 meters having
average height from sea level 300 to 500 meters. It contains hillocks of
Bhander and Kaimur .
The middle transitional belt is most important regarding tank
construction. This fact is one of the major conclusions found during the
survey. In this transitional belt , Hard rocks are hided by river deposits
showing ideal condition for water collection .This part has slope towards
north & north-east. Generally this belt is decided between contours of
150 m and 250 m. This belt has small rivers like Shahzad, Sanjana,
Jaimini, Bagain & Payaswini. The average height from sea level varies
between 100 meters to 280 meters as 280m in Babina, 255.15m in
Jhansi, 174.6m in Garutha, 149.4m in Gohand, 210.3m in Mahoba,
121.8m in Akauna,129.9m in Chitrakoot and 102.6m in Rajapur,the
eastern point. This transitional belt has scattered hills and small plane
which converts in to big plane tending towards northern belt.
The northern deposited plane is formed by great river Yamuna and its
tributaries . This part is spread over datiya, jalaun, Hamirpur, Banda &
Karvi districts. This belt is most fertile land of the zone because Yamuna
and other rivers form DO-AAB(catchment area between two rivers) like
between Pahuj & Betwa ; Betwa & Dhasan ; Ken & Baghain etc.
While discussing drainage system of the region , we must
discuss tributaries of river Yamuna like Kali Sindh, Pahuj, Betwa,
Dhasan, Ken, Bagain & Mandakini etc. because these rivers are life line
Bundeli people . Kali Sindh is the river flowing in western part of
Bundelkhand originating from Sironj.Kali Sindh meets Yamuna after a
distance of 300km from origination at Jagammanpur in Jalaun district.
Pahuj is the main tributary of Kali Sindh. Betwa is most important river
of the Bundelkhand region. Dr. Rajendra Singh proceed his Thesis that
personality of Bundelkhand is the resultant of river Betwa (Singh,
Rajendra, “Water resource and its management :A case study of river
Betwa”, Indian journal of Landscape systems and ecological studies,
Vol.13 No.1,june 1990, pp80-85). Betwa originates from village
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Barkhera (district- Raisin, M.P.) and travels 564 km up to its confluence
with Yamuna at Hamirpur. Betwa flows 184 km in M.P., 225 km in U.P.
and 145 km at common border of U.P. & M.P. Dams of Rajghat,
Maatatila and Parichha are associated with Betwa. Dhasan is the biggest
tributary of Betwa. Besides Dhasan, Ajnar, Halali, Burman, Sagar,
Kaliyasoat, Bina , Nian , Narayani, Gunchi, Arjun, Parwaha, Jaimini &
Birma are tributaries of river Betwa. The ancient name of Betwa was
Betrawati (i.e. flowing through Bamboos). The catchment area of Betwa
between Kali Sindh and Dhasan is almost 43542 square kms, which is
biggest among all rivers of Bundelkhand. Ken is important river in
middle east zone of Bundelkhand having ancient name Karnawati (B.C.
Law & Rajendra Singh have supported this fact). Ken originates from
district Damoh of M.P. and ends at Chilla in Banda district with river
Yamuna. Urmil , Chadrawal & Sunar are main tributaries of Ken.
Bagain and Mandakini are the rivers in eastern Chitrakoot zone of
Bundelkhand . water in both rivers comes from natural souces of
Vindhychal range as well as small flows of Ranj, Madrar, Barar,
Kareyhali, ban-ganga, barua and Payaswini. Flow of water in above
mentioned rivers became maximum in rainy season in zone of religious
importance . In above mentioned scenario of drainage pattern of
Bundelkhand , Yamuna is a river of national importance which decides
the northern boundary of Bundelkhand region. The matter of strange
while discussing drainage of Bundelkhand is that flow of all rivers
except Yamuna is from south to north. Yamuna separates this zone to
Kanpur zone and proved as important means of travel since ancient
times.
BRIEF HISTORICAL ABCKGROUND
The early history of the region may be tracked back to the
Paleolithic age as evidenced by the discovery of choppers , hand axes
and the pebble cores made by clipping hard stones of convenient size at
Lahchura in the region. Polished stone Celts of Neolithic age have also
been excavated ( Ghosh, A., “Indian Archaeology-1963-64-A
review”,New Delhi 1967,p45).In primitive times the major part of the
region was covered with forests and would have been inhabitated by
Gonds, Kols, Bhils etc.(Atkinson,E.T., “statistical, Descriptive and
15
Historical account of the north western provinces of India
,Vol.I,Bundelkhand division, Allahabad,1874,p.524). The cultural zone
of Bundelkhand was known through different names since ancient times.
According to Puranic tradition the earliest known Aryan people who
settled in this region, lying between Yamuna and Vindhyachal were
known as Chedis( Raychaudhury,H.C., “Political History of ancient
India”, Calcutta,1953,p.126). The Mahabharat describes the Chedis as
being blessed with knowledge of the eternal law of righteousness. The
Chedi kingdom was one of the principal janapadas flourished about
600B.C. Very little is known of the subsequent period about the history
of this region till the fourth century B.C. when Mahapadma Nanda who
is described as exterminator of the entire Kshatriya race uprooted the
Vitihotra dynasty and extended his own rule over the region(
Sastri,K.A.N., The age of Nandas and Mauryas”,Banaras,1952,p.17).
After the Nandas were overthrown , the region became the part of
Mauryan empire. A minor rock edict of Ashoka was found at
Gurjara(district Datiya) in the region( Majumdar,R.C., “Ancient
India”,Delhi,1964,p.106). The Sungas succeeded the Muaryas confined
central portion of old Mauryan empime including Bundelkhand. During
the rule of Pushyamittra Sunga (184-148B.C.). Greek invasion took
place probably under Menander , whose coins have been found in
abundance at Pachkhura in Hamirpur district by Cunningham in 1878.
Towards the end of first century A.D. the region came under the
domination of Kanishka(78A.D.)(Majumdar & Pusalkar, “The history
and culture of the Indian People”,Vol.II, Bombay,1962,p.99). After him
, History of the zone was shrouded in obscurity till about the middle of
the third century A.D. when Vindhyashakti(255-275A.D.) rose to power
near about eastern Malwa and occupied large tracts of northern M.P.
Vindhyashakti is probably not the personal name but the title of the
founder of Vakataka dynasty( Majumdar & Altekar, “The vakataka
Gupta age, Delhi,1960,pp.96-97). Vidhyashakti’s son and successor
Pravarsena I (275-335A.D.) is the only ruler of the dynasty, who
assumed the title of Samrata or emperor. He succeeded in extending the
Vakataka hegemony and performed ashwamedha Yajna. It seems that
the zone partly came under the vakataka sway and partly under the
16
Bharsivas , a branch of Nagas, whose sphere of influence extended at the
time from Gwalior and Mathura in the west and probably Varanasi &
Mirzapur in the east(Majumdar & Altekar,op.cit.,pp.25-28).About the
middle of the fourth century A.D. ,the zone under the political
domination of Samudra Gupta (321-375A.D.) and continued to be part
of Gupta Empire still the beginning of sixth century(Majumdar &
Pusalkar, “History and culture of Indian People”,Vol.III,3rd
ed.,Bombay,1960,p.64). In Budhagupta’s reign(477-500A.D.) the
feudatory family of the Parivrajaka Maharaja in Bundelkhand rose to
prominence under Hastin, whose record mention a general reference to
Gupta sovereignty. During the middle of sixth century this region appers
to have come under the sway of Tivara(563-580A.D.), a Punduva king
of south Kosala(Majumdar & Altekar,op.cit.,p.90).The next reference
about the History of Bundelkhand is gathered from the description of
Huien Tsang, who visited the region in 641-642A.D. He mentions the
tract of which this zone formed as “Chi Chi To” (Cunningham,A.,
“Ancient geography of India”, Indological book house
Varanasi,1963,p.405), which was about 4000 li in circuit. Its capital was
about 15 li in circuit lay more than 1000 li to the north east of the Ujjain.
The history of the zone is again developed in darkness for about half of a
century after Harsha’s death. During the period of instability , abranch of
Gaharwara , might have to come at Mahoba and its immediate
neighborhood. The massive embankment at Vijay Sagar lake and the
construction of the lake itself in addition to lakes at Bilki and Pawa in
Mahoba are assigned to Gaharwaras( Atkinson, op. cit.,p.524). The
construction of Kanduara Taal situated in the townships of Thana and
Paswara, is credited to one Kandaur Singh , an officer under the
Gaharwara Raja. In addition to these some other lakes and tanks in the
zone are also ascribed to Gaharwara rulers. The antique origin of these
lakes is attested by the rudeness of their construction .During the first
half of eighth century Yashoverman the vigorous ruler of Kannauj
brought the region under his sway. After the death of Yashoverman mist
again gathers over history of the zone and not lifted till the rise of
Pratihars in the last quarter of eighth century. The Pratihar ruler Vatsraja
established his supremacy over the large part of the northern India.The
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other important ruler of the dynasty was Nagbhatta II who extended the
kingdom far and wide . During the troublous days of conflict among
Pratihar, Pala & Rashtrakoota to win Kannauj, a new power knowmn as
Chandel emerged in Bundelkhnad region under Nannuka who stablished
an independent chiefship. The Khajuraho inscriptions mentioning him as
Pripa & Nahipati, confirm this fact ( Mitra, S.K., “The early rulers of
Khajuraho”, Calcutta,1958,pp.27-29).Nannuka was very brave as verse
15 of Khajuraho inscription no.4 refers to him as one whose skill in the
use of bows and arrown reminded people of great epic hero Arjun. It is
said that Mahoba was brought by Nannuka under his control by driving
away the Pratiharas. The region was known as Jejakbhukti after the
name of Jeja or Jejak the second chandela ruler of the region . The
Madanpur inscription(1184A.D.) of famous Prathvi raj III of chauhan
dynasty indicates the region as Jejakbhukti.
v:.k jktL; ikS=s.k Jh lkse’oj lquwukA
tstkd HkqfDr ns’kksM;a I`kFohjktsu ywfurkAA
Nephew of Jeja named as Rahila as mentioned in Khajuraho records,
was a great warrior and undertook works of public interest. The village
Rahila about three kms. South west of Mahoba and old lake with granite
temple on its bank near Mahoba called Rahilasagar are ascribed to him (
Majumdar & Pusalkar, op. cit. Vol.IV, pp.82-83).After the death of
Rahila , his son Harsha who succeeded the throne and ruled
approximately from 900 to 925, began to enhance his political power by
entering in to matrimonial alliances with other contemporary powers.
The reign of Harsha’s son Yashoverman who also marked with
significant political developments. According to Khajuraho inscriptions
he was “a scorching fire” to the pratiharas and gave a great blow to their
prestige . He made Chandelas independent and made them one of the
strongest power of the northern India . Yashoverman was the first
winner of Kalinjer fort. He defeated the Kalchuri ruler to win the fort.
Kalchuris were the first known ruler of Kalinjer having title
“Kalinjerpurwaradhishwar”.
r=% dkyatjksuke rnk fxfjojksRresaA
18
rsu dkyatjksuke Hkfo’;fr l% ioZr%AA
rr% dkaytj xRok ioZr yksdfoJqreA~
rr` nsoârs LukRok xkslgL= Qy yHksrAA
After this significant win , Yashoverman declared his new title
“Kalinjeradhipati”( Tiwari, Gorelal, “Bundelkhand ka samshipta
Itihas”in hindi, Kashi Nagri Pracharini Sabha, 1934,p.). Yashoverman
was succeeded by his son Dhanga (950-1008A.D.) who was one of the
greatest ruler of his times and the Chandel kingdom achieved great
prosperity under him( Mitra, op. cit.,p.54). The important event of his
reign was severence of all connections with Pratiharas. He attained the
supreme leadership after inflicting a defeat over the king of Kannauj.
Undoubtly the mantle of Imperialism fell from the Pratiharas upon the
shoulders of Dhanga( Bose, Nimai Sadan, “History of Chandelas of
Jejakbhukti”,Calcutta, 1958,p.50). The boundaries of Chandel Kingdom
under Dhanga extended up to Chedi country on one side and Bhilsa on
the other. To the east he retained his hold on Ganga-Yamuna Doab upto
Prayag where he ended his life when he attained the age of one hundred
years by drowning himself in the sacred waters of the confluence of
Ganga and Yamuna. Dhanga was credited to build Kandariya Mahadeva
Temple at Khajuraho , the apex of Nagara style in the world. He was not
only builder of empire but he also had the welfare of people at heart .
Historical tanks and lakes are living proof of this fact. In order to
dispense proper justice to his subjects he granted revenue free lands to
learned Brahmins so that they might settle into his kingdom and their
services might be utilized by the King( Mitra,op.cit.,p.69). Dhanga was
succeeded by his son Ganda(1008-1017A.D.). There is no epigraphic
record of any other contemporary account of his short reign. He was
succeeded by Vidyadhara who was undoubtedly one of the greatest
rulers of this dynasty. His greatness is not based on conquests but on
heroic part he took in the defence of his country against the Muslim
invasion, a fact even praised by Muslim historians. In 1017 Rajyapala ,
Pratihara King of Kannauj was defeated in an encounter with Mahmud
of Gazni and forced to make humiliating treaty. Vidyadhara attacked
19
Kannauj and Killed Rajyapala. It resulted in Mahmud’s invasion on
Chandel kingdom in 1019 (Bose, op. cit.,p.56).This time Vidyadhara ,
perfering strategy to war , adopted “scorch earth” policy and retreated
before Muslim army without engaging in any big fight and Mahmud
being afraid of penetrating much into interior , had to return Gazni
without much gain. Thus Vidyadhara happened to be only Indian ruler
of those times who distinguished himself by containing Mahmud’s
triumphant career and saving his kingdom from unprovoked destruction
by the ruthless invader. After his death his successors lacking the ability
of their illustrious predecessors. The Kalchuris defeated the Chandelas
in the reign of Devaverman (1050-1060). Chandelas did not remain
under the subjugation of the Kalchuries for long as Kirtiverman(1060-
1100), the brother of Devaverman revived the fortunes of his dynasty
defeating the Kalchuri king Karnadev. Besides being military genius
Kirtiverman paid close attention to public works. In addition to other
constructions in various parts his kingdom , He is credited with
constructing Kirat Sagar lake to the west of Mahoba . He was also great
patron of arts and letters. A highly philosophical drama like , the
“Prabodhchandrodayam” was composed under his patronage. He also
issued several types of gold coins. Kirtiverman was succeeded by his
son Sallaksana Verman(1100-1115) also mentioned as Hallaksana
Verman in the coins issued by him. He is reputed to have gained success
over the Parmaras and Calchuries. Not only he was able to stablish peace
and order in the state but he also improved the living standard of the
people and raised the reserves of the royal treasury . His successor Jaya
Verman(1115-1120) having lost a portion of territory to the Gahadwala
ruler Govind Chandra . His successor Prithvi Verman(1120-1129) did
not succeed in restoring the lost glories of Chandelas. Prithvi Verman’s
son Madan Verman (1129-1162) pursued a vigorous policy from very
beginning of his reign, in reviving the strength and organization of
Chandela power. He not only restored the lost possessions of his
kingdom but even expanded his territories as far as Yamuna in north,
Betwa in south west, Narmada in south and Rewa in the east. Besides
being a great warrior he also patronized art and literature. He is credited
to constructing a lake of Mahoba which bears his name as Madan Sagar
20
and probably the great Belatal tank was also built during his reign and
by his order.The site of fort at Mahoba near Madan Sagar founded by
Madan Verman is now marked by a large mound covered with broken
bricks and small mosque (Fuhrer,A., “the monumental antiquities and
inscriptions in NW provinces and oudh”, Varanasi,1969,p.173).His
many inscriptions near Nilkanth temple complex at Kalinjer are still
found , starting with “Om Namah Shivay”. His son and successor
Parmardi Dev(1165-1202) popularly known as PARMAL was the last
great king of Chandela dynasty. Most important event of Parmal’s reign
was his conflict with Prathvi Raj III, the famous Chauhan king of Delhi.
The latter’s attempt to extend his territories led to a serious and
sustained conflict between the armies of the two. Two folk accounts
through light over struggle . these two are “Prathvi Raj Raso” written by
Chand Bardai with “Parmal Raso” or “Alha Khand” by Jagnik.
According to Chand Bardai , Prathvi Raj advanced towards Mahoba
with a large force. He stationed another lagre force at Hamirpur.
Tradition has it that Prathvi Raj held his camp at Sirsagarh on the bank
of river Pahuj. A bloody battle ensued for eight days in which Malkhan,
a Samant of Parmal, after killing eight generals of Prathvi Raj met a
heroic death whereupon Prathvi Raj himself took the command. It is said
that the fall of Sirsagarh was due to treachery of Mahil Parihar , the
brother in law and Samanta of Parmal(Atkinson,op. cit.,p.132).
Mahilnourished a secret fellings of revenge against Chandelas and hence
he sided with Prathvi Raj.He was also responsible for Alha and Udal, the
two Banafar chiefs and the best warriors of the day, to have left Mahoba
earlier to seek refuge in the court of Jai Chand, ruler of Kannauj. A
number of localities are associated with the names of champion brothers
and their fame has travelled far beyond the limits of Bundelkhand(
Mitra,op. cit.,p.122).After the fall of Sirsawgarh Prathvi Raj marched
towards Mahoba and camped on bank of Betwa. Realising the gravity of
situation Parmal and his ministers, on the advice of Queen Malhan Devi,
decided to seek temporary truce and in the meantime summoned the two
Banafar chiefs from Kannauj. Prathvi Raj agreed to the proposal of
having a truce for a few months but he remained camping on the banks
of river. As the two Banafar chiefs had not been given a fair treatment
21
by the Chandela ruler, they were unwilling to come back . According to
Jaganika , Jai Chand ,the ruler of Kannauj sent some of his best generals
with a strong force with the Banafar chiefs to help Parmal. Bramhajit ,
son of Parmal along with Banafar heros Alha and Udal started the battle
of Mahoba. The Chandelas put up a strong resistance but they suffered
in the battle serious losses and numerous causalities including
Bramhajit, Udal, the son of Jai Chand and almost all brave Chandela
generals. Alha too was wounded. Thus Mahoba capital of Chandela
kingdom was occupied by Prathvi Raj in 1182A.D. He appointed Pajjun
Rai , one of his generals as governor. Besides traditional accounts, the
conflict between Chandela and Chauhan and the defeat of Parmal are
also proved by inscriptions discovered in Shiv temple situated in
Madanpur village. In one of these the names of Prathvi Raj and
Parmardideva are given together while another mentions the conquest of
Jejakbhukti Mandala by Prathvi Raj in 1182A.D. Parmal have to face a
greater enemy in 1202 in the shape of Turks under Qutb-Ud-Din Aibak
who had penetrated into his kingdom .According to Hasan Nizami, the
writer of Taz-Ul-Ma’sir , Parmal put up a gallant resistance against the
Turks, but he was compelled to capitulate due to the failure of water
supply. After winning the Kalinjer fort, Aibak appointed Hazbaruddin
Hasan Arnal as governor of Kalinjer. The history of Chandela dynasty as
one of the powers to be reckoned with in northern India ended thus in
1203A.D. Chandelas regained the Kalinjer fort from Turks in 1229 but
the glory of chandelas was ended.
In medieval period , Budelkhand was captured by Manmath
Gaharwar of Benaras, Raja Bhar of Ujjain, Mewatis, Gayasuddin
Tughlaq(1322), Firoz Shah Tughlaq(1351-1388) with Malik Us Sharq,
Dariya Khan & Zafar khan as Amir of Sultanate. With the collapse of
political citadel at Delhi as a result of Timur’s invasion in 1398-99 , the
administration of Budelkhand was affected . Mahoba and Kalpi passed
in to hands of Mahmud Khan , son of governor of Kalpi. Sikandar Lodi
have gained possession of few part of Bundelkhand in 1489. The
southern part of Bundelkhand became under the influence of Babur
(1528), when he moved from Kalpi to Malwa. Finally Akbar gained the
Kalinzer fort in 1569 by seize of his general Majnu Khan Kaqs’al.
22
bundelkhand remained under Mughals upto the reign of A’lamgir
Aurangzeb with the presence of Bundelas in the zone. Bundelas were
warriors of Gaharwar branch originated from Benaras and the zone
named after him as Bundelkhand. After Chandelas , Bundelas were only
ruler having soft corner with local Bundeli people and were involved
with public welfare works like construction of tanks and historical water
bodies. Sohan Pal was first Bundela chief to be sovereign as he captured
the famous fort of Garh Kundar from Khangars in mid of thirteenth
century. Rudra Pratap , the seventh in descent from Sohanpal occupied
Mahoba and all western parts of Bundelkhand . He constructed Orchha
as new capital of Bundelas in 1531 on the bank of river Betwa. Rudra
Pratap was succeeded by Bharti Chand contemporary to Akbar. Among
Bundela rulers Maharaja Vir Singh Judev (1605-1627) was the finest
ruler of Bundelkhand. His contemporary Mughal emperor Jahangir
awarded him by title of “King of Bundelkhand” and primary mansab of
3000 jat. Vir Singh is still famous for public welfare works with
prosperity. He started construction of 52 forts and 52 tanks at a time.
Several people were employed during above mentioned construction. It
is a matter of notice that Vir Singh Judev was credited for public welfare
works after Chandelas at mass level. Vir Singh has credit to construct
and renovate famous forts of Jhansi, Garh Kundar, Dhamoni, Datiya etc.
He donted 81 monads gold to Keshav Rai Temple of Mathura in form of
a Gold pillar , which was later on removed by Aurangzeb. His son Jujhar
Singh became the next ruler of Bundelkhand. During 1636-41 Shah
Jahan , Mughal emperor enraged at the preparations of Bundelas, who
blocked up the route of Deccan, sent three separate forces into
Bundelkhand –one under Mahabat Khan from Agra, a second under
Khan-I-Jahan from south and a third under Abdullah from Allahabad.
These forces soon reduced the zone under tranquility and punished
severely all who had shown any opposition to Imperial authority. After
this crush of Bundelkhand , a new hero from Bundelas named Champat
Rai came in scene since 1641. He opposed Pahar Singh ,representive of
Mughal. Champat Rai helped Prince Aurangzeb in battle of Dharamt in
1958 during war of succession. Champat Rai became King of
Bundelkhand in 1958 by order of Mughal emperor Aurangzeb. Champat
23
Rai was assassinated by his wife Queen Sarandha in situation of revolt
to Mughals. After Champat Rai , his fifth son Chhatrasal became the
greatest leader of Bundelas. First he entered the Mughal army under Jai
Singh commander in chief of Aurangzeb(Haig w., & Burn R., “The
Cambridge history of India”,vol.IV, Delhi,1958,p.201) Seizing the
opportunity of Aurangzeb’s long presence in Deccan, Chhatrasal
extended his power over the whole Bundelkhand. The Bundelas had
become masters of whole zone to the west of Chambal and the Yamuna.
The following couplet is famous in Bundelkhand regarding the frontiers
of Bundelkhand-
br tequk mr ueZnk] br pEcy mr Vksal A
N=lky ls yM+u dh] jgh u dkgw gkSalAA
While discussing about the tradition of tank construction , Bundelas
prooved to large hearted as compared to Chandela rulers. Except the
two, there is no central or regional dynasty who paid attention towards
local Bundeli people .
24
CHAPTER TWO
HISTORICAL TRADITION OF TANK
CONSTRUCTION IN BUNDELKHAND
Betwa is tributary of Yamuna , was known to ancients as Vetravati and
is described in puranas as flowing from Pariyatra mountains or western
Vindhyas. It is also mentioned in Meghduta of Kalidas. Betwa is prime
river of Bundelkhand which provides drinking and irrigation water to
several villages. The large hearted Chandela rulers started the tank
construction for the purposes of local people with special technique of
site selection. As discussed earlier, the middle transitional belt is most
important regarding tank construction. This fact is one of the major
conclusions found during the survey. In this transitional belt , Hard rocks
are hided by river deposits showing ideal condition for water collection
.This part has slope towards north & north-east. Generally this belt is
decided between contours of 150 m and 250 m. This belt has small
rivers like Shahzad, Sanjana, Jaimini, Bagain & Payaswini. The average
height from sea level varies between 100 meters to 280 meters as 280m
in Babina, 255.15m in Jhansi, 174.6m in Garutha, 149.4m in Gohand,
210.3m in Mahoba, 121.8m in Akauna,129.9m in Chitrakoot and
102.6m in Rajapur,the eastern point. This transitional belt has scattered
hills and small plane which converts in to big plane tending towards
northern belt. This middle transitional belt attracted Chandela rulers for
tank construction as this particular zone was fit for rain water collection
due to tough granite base. Rajendra Singh declares that this middle
transitional plateaus belt was most suitable for water collection as
compared to other belts.Chandela rulers became builders of Classical
Nagra styled temples of Khajuraho e.g., Kandariya Mahadev temple,
Vishwanath temple, Laxman temple, Jagdambi temple, Chitragupta
temple, Chausath Yogini temple, adinath temple and ofcourse Nilkanth
temple at Kalinzer with Karka Dev (Sun) temple at Mahoba. Chandelas
were also builder of famous strongholds of kalinjer, Marfa,Devgarh,
Maniyagarh, Kanhargarh etc. Chandelas also became the builder of
famous huge tanks in the region like Madan Sagar, Kirat Sagar, Bela
Taal, Vijay Sagar, Lalita Sagar and hundreds of tanks and waterbodies.
25
As discussed earlier, besides being military genius Chandela King
Kirtiverman paid close attention to public works. In addition to other
constructions in various parts his kingdom , He is credited with
constructing Kirat Sagar lake to the west of Mahoba. Kirat Sagar is a
huge lake having artifical boundries constructed by Kirtiverman. This
lake attracts large number of birds as well as fishes inside water. Famous
Chandela king Madanverman was credited to construct Madan Sagar
lake at Mahoba named after him. This lake have ruins of Karka Dev
temple at its Middle. A big lake named Kotitirth is situated at Kalinjer
except other water sources. This lake was constructed by early chandela
rulers. Edvin T. Atkinson had discussed about the lakes of present banda
district which were existing and constructed by Chandela rulers. The
largest tank in Banda district is situated at village of Sirsi Kalan , two
miles from Sagar road and near a tributary of the Ken river(Edvin T.
Atkinson, “statistical, Descriptive and Historical account of the north
western provinces of India ,Vol.I,Bundelkhand division,
Allahabad,1874,p.73) . Districtwise table of Historical tanks is given as
under , most of them were constructed by Chandela rulers.
district No. of
huge
tanks
Names of huge tanks
Panna 28
Dharasagar, Gaura, Bandha Panwari,
Benisagar, SinghSagar, Maharajsagar, Nripatisagar,
Ratital, Sunhara
M
ahoba
23
Belatal, Bhrimhatal, Mahamunital, Garhta,
Dispursagar
Rahilsagar, Vijaysagar, Madansagar, Kalyansagar
Jhansi 07
Baruasagar, Vijaysagar,Bijaulital ,Haiwatpura,
Kach-nevtal,Lahchurabandh, Pachwaratal
Lalitpur
16
Dhaurisagar, Ramsagar, Bartal, Lalitasagar,Talbehut
Tikamgarh
32 Gwalsagar, Barna,Birsagar,Madansagar, Jirontal,
26
SinghSagar, Nandanwara, Radhasagar,
Mahendrasagar, Saker Tal
Chhatarpur
23
Raosagar, Pratapsagar,Kishorsagar,Dronsagar,Jagat
Sagar,Panwari, Bhagwanttal, Bhadaura, Manaura,
Malhera
Datia
22
Baroni, Agora, Ramsagar, Sitasagar, Tarantal,
Laxmantal
SHAPE AND SIZE OF HISTORICAL TANKS
Classification of Granite base historical tanks on the basis of shape and
size is different . Circular tanks are most common in the study area but
it can be said that these tanks are not exactly circular but almost circular
in shape, but it can be said that the shapes are indefinite because tanks
take shape of the water collecting surface. According to Smrities ,water
reservoirs dug out by men are of four kind, viz.,Kupa, Vapi, Puskarini
and Tadag. Kupa is usually defined as a well of five to fifty cubits in
length or diameter. Vapi is a well with a flight of steps on all sides or on
three, two or one side only and its mouth varies from 50 to100 cubits. A
Puskarini (pond) is between 100 to 200 cubits in length or diameter , and
a Tadaga is from 200 to800 cubits . Chandela inscriptions record the
construction of all kinds of water reservoirs except the Puskarini.
Chandela rulers constructed the Tadaga of beyond the above mentioned
limitations ( Kane ,p.V., “History of dharmasastra”, vol.II, p.II, p.893).
In the Sabhaparva , the king is advised to look after the irrigation of the
land so that the agriculture may not depend on the rains alone (
Kane,P.V., op. cit., volIII p.162).Shukra says that the king should see to
the adequate supply of water in country by digging wells, wells with
steps, tanks, lakes etc. the great attention paid by Chandela rulers to this
problem is testified by the number of tanks and lakes still exist in
different parts of former kingdom of dynasty i.e., Bundelkhand . In
Mahoba , the Rahilya Sagar and a fine temple on its embankment are
regarded as monuments of Rahila . The Kirat Sagar , one and half miles
in circumference is known to be work of Kirti Verman. Madan Verman
also caused the excavation of a lake , three miles in circuit, which is
27
known as Madan Sagar. This is one of the most picturesque of all the
lakes. A tank in Ajaigarh is known to have been built by Parmardideva.
The vijay Sagar, apparently names after Vijaypala is very deep and is
about four miles in circuit. Another lakes of Bela Taal and Kalyan Sagar
were probably built by Bela Devi and Kalyan Devi respectively. Besides
circular, semicircular and indefinite shapes of tanks ,there are examples
of rectangular shaped tanks in the study area. The tank construction
technique of Chandela rulers had three steps as under-
1. Selection of granite base site, where rain water shoud be collected
from small streams of rain fall water . Evidences of water
collection capacity were must be present from previous years .
2. Construction of dams and bands from granite pieces and granite
bricks with exact fitting was second step . The rainy season was
most suitable for this step.
3. Construction of Ghat or steps of stairs to generalise the uses of
water. Therefore it is very clear that
artificiality of tank was related to only boundaries of the tank .Base
or surface of the tank was natural, hence the shape became
undefenite,but almost circular in big tanks.The another aspect of
size is too much important because size defines the water carrying
capacity of the tank. All huge tank in the Bundelkhand region are
capable to collect the rain water up to the next rainy season.
Though riverside villages on the bank of Ken, Dhasan and Betwa
are still dependent on the respective river, but 70% of villages are
away from catchment areas of rivers, are depending up on
historical tanks. If we consider the modern advance technique as
compared to Ancient Chandela tank construction technique we find
that a circular tank is generally economical except when the
diameter is so small , but this shape does not make the most use of
the ground when the site is cramped (Gray,W.S.,“reinforced
concrete reservoirs and tanks”, Concrete publications limited,
darthmouth street, London, 1960.p.34). It is a matter of discussion
that what was the exact technique of the construction of side walls
of a tank. During the survey, it was found that the wall build from
28
the granite pieces shaped in rectangle has no spacing between any
two granite bricks .This is the finest construction of wall from
granite blocks of size 16 cm length. It can also be seen on northern
high wall of Kotitirth lake at Kalinjer. The two granite blocks are
associated to each other with socket joint. The circular wall
surrounding the Vijay Sagar tank at Mahoba is full of fungai
nowadays. Important thing regarding the periferry of tanks is that
Tanks constructed by Bundela rulers are almost without boundary
wall except the few. Charkhari which is famous for Mangalgarh
Fort is known for seven huge lakes interconnected to each other.
These lakes minimise the temperature of the surrounding in
summer as temperature becomes horrible in summer. Taalbehut in
Lalitpur district is named after tank named Taalbehut having literal
meaning “behind the Lake”. Taalbehut is the biggest lake of the
district inviting people for enjoyment , bathing and fishing. The
fort of Taalbehut is situated on north-west bank of the lake. The
discussion is incomplete without Dhubela Taal near Mau-sahania
in Chattarpur district of Madhya pradesh . dhubela taal is memory
of Great warrior and King of Bundelkhand Maharaja Chhatrasal
Bundela. Musaulium of Maharaja Chhatarsal is situated on west
side of Dhubela taal. A national museum containing armary of
medieval times is existing since 1956 by the kind order of our first
prime minister Pt.J.L. Nehru. Barua Sagar lake which is
rectangular in shape is situated with a small fortress in Jhansi
district. Jhansi city has many tanks including huge lake of Laxmi
Taal which is named after the fiery Queen of Jhansi Laxmi Bai.
Some tanks are situated on old sites of tanks constructed by
Chandela rulers. Nawab tank of Banda city which is modern
construction by Nawab Shamsher Bahadur of Banda during the
early fifties of nineteenth century. Nawab tank in Banda is also
associated with a small sanctuary of black deer’s. These historical
tanks are very useful to people in many ways .Generalization of
purposes is discussed in next chapter.
29
CHAPTER- THREE
MULTIPLE & MULTILATERAL USES OF
HISTORICAL TANKS
The Chandela rulers of Bundelkhand constructed the great temples of
Khajuraho on one hand as well as huge tanks for public welfare on
another. Though these tanks were constructed for water supply only but
it was not imagined at that time that these tanks will be great factor in
future for ecological balance in the area. These huge tanks are the
certificate of historical contribution of rulers of Bundelkhand in field of
ecological balance in India.These historical tanks have multiple and
multilateral use as well as missuse . The primary use of these historical
tanks is drinking water to human settlements since one thousand years .
Human settlement contains the human beings and domestic animals for
milk and agricultural purposes. Uses and missuses of historical tanks and
other water bodies are given as under-
USES OF HISTORICAL TANKS
Most of these tanks are constructed along the human settlements, which
is remarkable point. At present the historical tanks are surrounded by
natural scenes, picnic spots , religious locations as well as many of them
are symbol of ancient cultural activities and festivals. If these historical
tanks may be maintained properly, they have capacity to change scenario
of water ecology in Bundelkhand. It is strongly needed that there must
be a multilateral planning for multipurpose use of the tanks. Small scale
and regional plannings are more useful than broad scale planning. Only
this view is fruitful in water conservation and government should also
accept it. If tanks are used for irrigation in limited areas then these
historical tanks become more useful. Hence government do not prefer
expend money over infrastructure of these tanks but important factor is
forgotten that role of these tanks in environmental protection is of high
level. Birds of different breeds migrate towards these tanks in various
seasons.
30
LIST OF BIRDS DEPENDING UP ON HISTORICAL TANKS
Bird common Indian name Bird’s zoological name
Balguli Mechlophus Xanthogeny sapolsnotus
Kaua Corvus spelndens spelndens
Darji chidia Orthotomus sutorious
Latusak Hemipus picatus
Krishnika Camphophaga sykosi
Black headed Maina Temenuchus Pagodorum
Maina Acridotheres tristis
Indian Paradise Terpsiphone paradisi paradisi
Baya Ploceus phillippinus phillippinus
White nacked Munia Uroloncha malabarica
Spotted Munia Uroloncha punctualta
Hari Munia Stictospiza formosa
Goraiya Passer domosticus indicus
Yellow nacked Goraiya Gymnorhis Xanthesterna Xanthesterna
Parbat Bhapdeek Brachypternus aurantius aurantius
Skylark or krikrat Alanda gulgula gulgula
Kasth koot Brachypternus aurantius aurantius
Khot kokil Micropus affinis
Chatak common Hemiprocue coroonata
Chatak Caprimulgus asiaticus
Koyal Eudynamis scolopaccus scolopaccus
Suk Psittacula torquata
Safed Ullu Tyto albajavanica
Ullu or Ulluck Strix occottala
Giddha Gyps fulvus fulvescans
Chhemankari Cheel Haliastu indus indus
Sadra Cheel Milres migrans govinda
Baaj Falko juggiar
Kapot Columba livia intermedia
Kapotak Stroptopelia senegalensis cambayensis
Dhawal kapotak Streptopelia decaocto decaocto
31
Mayur or Mor Pavo Cristatus
Titar Francolinus pondicerinus interpositus
Lab Turnix tanki tanki
Jal kukkuti Amaurornis phoenicura chineusis
Ambu kukkut Gellinula chloropus pravitraps
Saras Magalornis antigone antigone
Jal kapot Melopidius indicus
Tittibhak Sarciophorus malabarichus
Tittibh Charandrius dubius dubius
Nandimukh Hansak Sarcidiornis melanota
Green pigeon (Hariyal) Chrocopus chlorigaster
Gray jungali Murgi Gallus sonnoratti
Duck Sarkidiornis melanetos
Cotton Teel Nettapus coromandelianus
Whistling Teel Dondrocygna javanica
Spine Capella gallinago
The historical tanks have both poisonous and non poisonous type of
snakes. Among the poisonous snakes Bungarus, Naga and Vipers are the
important ones. Whiel Ajgar Pythonabea, Zamonis, Lycoden and
Macropiathodon are the non poisonous snakes. Few species of Rana and
Bufo genera do occour as amphibians.Except above fishes of several
breeds are found in historical tanks , listed below-
FISHES FOUND IN HISTORICAL TANKS
The Betwa, Dhasan, Ken and their tributaries , bigger lakes and tanks
abound in fishes of amny varieties which are much in demand . The
local villagers catch large number of fishes in the fish traps of numerous
desings and descriptions. They set them in rivers and tanks when the
fishes are migrating downstreams at the end of the rains. Through out
the drier months of the year , smaller fishes are caught in the smaller
pools formed by stopping the current, and by poisoning such pools with
barks, leaves and seeds of various species such as Arjuna, Kumbhi,
Mainphal, Tinsa etc.During the suvey, our group found that fishing at
32
few important historical tanks at Mahoba is banned by A.S.I. , but local
people were frequent about fishing because there is no practical control
over fishing there.The following fresh water fishes are found in the tanks
of the zone.
Local name of Fish Zoological name of fish
Calibasu Labeo Calbasu
Naren Labeo microphthalmus
Goria Labeo boggut
Malot Labeo angre
Rohu Labeo rohita
Chaptara Barbus amphibius
Mahasir Barbus tor
Khaddia Barbus gollus, Barbus stigma
Sinnia Barbus sarana, Barbus begenin
Magur Clarius magur
Pavda Clarius pavda
Bhagna Scophiodon themasis
Bokhra Cirrhina reba
Mirgal Cirrhina mrigala
Gutua Garra modesus
Gurta Rohtee cateo
Anjara Rasbora danicanius
Chahal Barillius brang
Gunguch Nemachilus botia
Palaseya Danic malabricus
Papta Collichrons bimaculatus
Gangra Rita pavimantata
Siland Silundia zangetica
Jagla Mystus cavesius
Gangi Glyptestornum telchitta
Suja Xenontodon cancila
Billa Ophicephalus gachus
Shore Ophicephalus stristus
33
Katla Catla catla
Spongilla is a sponge found in fresh water tanks. Earthworms, leeches,
unio,prawns and scorpions (Buthus palmnous) are commonly found.
Parasites like Ascaris araounulus and raonia are also commonly found.
Besides the above several types of insects and butterflies are commonly
met with.
HISTORICAL TANKS AS SOURCE OF IRRIGATION
The main source of irrigation in the zone have traditionally consisted of
the well and tanks with the former sharing bulk of it. The water from
these wells which may either be lined or Pakka or unlined or Katcha
type is raised with the help of Rahat or Persian wheels as well as by
Charas or the leather bucket. They are most important privately owned
source of irrigation for the farmer and are easily dug because of fairly
high water in the Bundelkhand zone. Tanks too covered a substantial
portion of irrigation in the zone ntill the arrivals of canals which
supplemented them in a big way and on an increasing scale. Canals thus
in due course, rose in importance to occupy a place second only to wells
in the present times. Tanks on the other hand , with many of them
having been built long ago mostly, by the Chandela rulers could even be
given a place in Bundelkhand history. Besides lending the landscape
with a picturesque beauty they have also proved useful for irrigation
since long. Among the larger of them are worth mentioning specially in
Mahoba and Tikamgarh districts. Many of them , had originally built by
the rulers as adjuncts to temples or palaces.
ROLE OF HISTORICAL TANKS IN ECOLOGICAL BALANCE
Historical tanks constructed by Chandela rulers are still paying their
important role in ecological balance of the area since 1000 years . As
discussed earlier that these tanks are shelter for several types of birds
and fishes, it is also noticeable fact that several hydro-plants with big
trees surrounding the tanks create ecological balance in the Bundelkhand
zone. If these historical tanks may be maintained properly, they have
34
capacity to change scenerio of water ecology in Bundelkhand. It is
strongly needed that there must be a multilateral planning for
multipurpose use of the tanks . Small scale and regional plannings are
more useful than broad scale planning. Only this view is fruitful in water
conservation and government should also accept it . If tanks are used for
irrigation in limited areas then these historical tanks become more
useful. Hence government do not prefer expend money over
infrastruture of these tanks but important factor is forgotten that role of
these tanks in environmental protection is of high level. Birds of
different breeds migrate towards these tanks in various seasons. The list
of these birds is lengthy. Many hydro plants which are preserved in these
tanks are struggling for their existence. A list of hydro plants is given as
under-
PLANTS WITH FLOATING LEAVES
1.Kumudani (nymphea Stellata)
2.Kamal (Nelumbo nucifera)
3.limnathenum crispus
4.Limnathenum cristatum
5.potemegeton sps.
6.Trapa bispinosa
7. Ipomea reptans
FREE FLOATING VEGETATION
1.Pistia stratiotes
2.Azolla pinanta
3.Wolffia arriza
4.Spirodella polyrrhiza
AMPHIBIAN PLANTS
1.Paspalidium geminatum
2.Panicum proliforum
3.Hydrarhiza aristata
4.Scirpus literalis
35
5.Kyllinga pravifloia
6.Cyperus indicum
7.Crinum spp.
8.Marsilea quadrifolia
9.Eichhornia spp.
PTERIDOPHYTES
1.Pteris longifolia
2.Adiantum cordetum
3.Adiantum semicordetum
4.Actinopteris dichtome
5.Equisetum debile
6.Azolla pinnates
7.Marsilea quadrifolia
BRYOPHYTES
1.Riceia spp.
2.Plagischasma appendiculatus
3.Notothyllus spp.
4.Targeonia cyathodium
5.Funeria hydrometrica
6.many species of Funjara
ALGAE
1.Oodagonium
2.Spirogyrs
3.Ulothrix
4.Volvax
5.Chlamydomonas
6.Eladophora
7.Pithophora
8.Zygnemachara
9.Nitella
36
10.Microcystis
11.Oscillatoria
12.Gleostrichis
13.Rivularia
14.Nostee
15.Anebeena
16.Diatoms
FUNGI
1.Agaricus
2.Lyospardon
3.Polyporus
4.Albugo species
5.Peranospara spp.
6.Uramyces spp.
7.Melamspora lini.
8.Unciunla techtonia
According to Champion’s classification of the forest types of India , the
forest of Bundelkhand zone fall under tropical dry mixed deciduous
forest. However a marked variation in species and density is seen . From
the point of view of species , pure forest growing a particular species
like teek, Khardai ,Khair, Arjuna, Jhingan, Ghont, Tendu, Marorphali,
Harsingar, Thuar, Panwar and Gokhru to an assemblance of almost all
the species are met with in small an area as a single compartment .The
variation in density of stocking is most marked , from fully stocked
forest to absolute blanks. Historical tanks attracts the density of stocking
therefore these tanks are playing an important role in ecological balance
in Bundelkhnad zone. Due to illegal misuse of historical tanks , the role
in ecological balance is decreasing since three decades. This should be
discussed in next chapter.
37
CHAPTER FOUR
PRESENT DAY PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED TO
HISTORICAL TANKS IN BUNDELKHAND
Historical tanks are facing several problems at present time therefore
uses of these tanks is not up to the highest mark. During the survey of
two summers (May & June 2010,2011) interview of many local people
was done in order to attain the knowledge regarding the multi lateral
problems of tanks . These problems are classified as under-
I).ILLEGAL ENCROCHMENT TO THE FIELD AREA OF TANKS:
Local people separated on the basis of caste and political parties are
deeply interested in illegal possession over historical tanks . These
illegal possessions can be seen on the site of tanks like Barua Sagar
(Jhansi), Laxmi Taal (Jhansi), Antiya Taal (Jhansi), Kirat Sagar
(Mahoba),Bela Taal (Mahoba), Baldeogarh (Tikamgarh), Jagat Sagar
(Chhatarpur). It is a matter of wonder that almost all tanks are
decreasing in size due to illegal possession . The famous Antiya Taal of
Jhansi city is remain one third of its actual due to illegal housing
constructions. Before 1857, this tank was used for bath of royal
elephants, hence known as Hanthiya Taal. The A.S.I. protected historical
tanks especially in Mahoba district are free to do any illegal task for
local people. There is no awareness regarding the History and Glory of
the zone ,while these tanks are symbol of Chandela’s glorious rule over
Bundelkhand. This situation is very similar to that of rough condition of
Chandela’s forts like Kalinjer, Ajaigarh, Marfa, Rasin, Kanhargarh,
Maniyagarh etc. Few cuttings of local edition of news papers are
attached as last pages of this report .
II) ILLEGAL USE OF TANK RESOURCES:
Illegal high level fishing at almost all historical tanks is great problem of
today, while theoretically, fishing at A.S.I. protected historical tanks is
totally banned. Not only fishing but also the local hunters hunt birds and
few animals daily. During the survey , this seen was common to all
38
historical tank sites. Due to lack of awareness , local people are misusing
the resources of historical tanks resulting into misbalance of ecology
based on historical water bodies .
III) TANKS AS CENTRE OF ILLEGAL TASK:
Tank surroundings are associated with old palaces, temples, and
musauliums etc. These old buildings are centre of smuggling and shelter
for criminals . These criminals are involved in illegal jobs as betting,
smuggling and sailing of illegal arms etc. few locals use the dry land
having moisture for agriculture and production of vegetables . Bela Taal
having area more than 2000 bighas is used by local people in march to
june as western portion of tank became waterless in march due to slope
towards east.
IV) UNDER DEVELOPED CONDITION OF HISTORICAL TANKS:
The dams and bands of dams at historical tanks became poor in course
of time , But government is enhancing the construction of new tanks at
village level under the central scheme of NREGA and not paying
attention towards old huge historical tanks . The historical tanks are
doing their respective role in water collection since ten centuries, but
government policies do neglect these tanks in very similar manner as
that of locals.
V) CURRUPTION IN GOVERNMENT PLANNINGS
This is the greatest problem of today that corruption in government
plannings is highest . During the survey at Jhansi , few people claimed
that the money for silt removing from Laxmi Taal was sufficient for
whole action but due to corruption , the above mentioned work is
incomplete till now . Money is consumed on papers not to the actual
work. Special packages were given to Bundelkhand from central government but
bad condition of historical tanks is still bad , because no money was consumed
over historical water bodies. Continuous borings in Bundelkhand region is
resulting in to decrease of water level of underground water. It is very harmful to
society because continuous decreasing level of underground water is signal of
warning that our second or third generation will surely face drinking water
problem.
39
CHAPTER FIVE
ROLE OF HISTORICAL TANKS IN DAILY LIFE &SOCIETY
Bundelkhand is a region of specific culture in central India with political
division in two states Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh. Chandela
rulers gave an identity to the region by constructing Forts, temples and
tanks. Fort is most important cultural factor among the three because
forts were centre of knowledge, music, performing arts, poetry etc. with
major political symptom. Forts were centre of people’s desires . Each
and every order was floated from the fort. Forts became shelter for
ordinary people during the war. Forts were centre of granaries , armories
and revenue collection. Therefore the role of forts in designing the
personality of culture is largest in the region as compared to other
factors. Kalinjer, Mahoba, Marfa, Rasin, Kanhargarh, Maniyagarh and
Ajaygarh were major Chandela strongholds contributing to the daily life
of public. Temples are another important factor playing an important
role among the people. Chandela ruler Dhanga (950-1008AD)
constructed the temples of Kandariya Mahadeva temple and Vishwanath
temple at Khajuraho (now in district Chhatarpur). These temples at
Khajuraho are famous for their cultural heritage as well as apex of
Nagara style architecture . The temples are living proof of glorious
Chandela culture which is unique in the world. Besides chandelas , only
Bundela rulers had given their contribution the evolution of Bundeli
culture, therefore lastly it is known as Bundeli culture. Rivers of
Bundelkhand flowing from south to north are playing a great role in
evolution of Bundeli culture. Similarly tanks and other water bodies
have significant role in formation of specific culture of the zone. A
natural question arises whether construction of tanks were surely a
public welfare work? Answer to this question can found from land grant
copper plate inscriptions of Chandela rulers (ASI- Epigraphia Indica: A
collection from inscription supplement at Corpus inscripsnum Indicarum
, editor- J.Berges & Assistant editor- E. Hultz & A.fuherer , Vol.I,
Calcutta ,1992). It is evident from the land grants that Bhaga, Bhoga,
40
kara, Hiranya and Shulka were the chief sources of revenue. Kara means
taxes in general, while Bhaga(share) usually means the king’s dues on
land , trees, drugs, cattles etc. Shulka usually meansthe tolls or customs
duties levied from vendors and purchasers on merchandise exported
from or imported into the kingdom. Thus there was no revenue imposed
on tanks during the reign of Chandela rulers. This fact shows that the
construction of tanks was a public welfare work. The economic
condition of chandelas in general must usually have been very
prosperous . The construction of beautiful temples, massive tanks, water
reservoirs and strong forts including Kalinjer testifies the vast amount of
wealth that was in treasury. The undertaking of works of public utility
was highly recommended by moralists from very ancient times. The
Vishnu Dharmashashtra states that , “one who digs a well for the public
is saved from the fruit of half his sins when the water has begun to flow
forth”. Baan Bhatta mentions that the Smritis enjoined upon men the
foundation for public use of halls, shelters, wells, gardens,
embankments, tanks etc. Some writers even say that the reward of
sacrifices is only heaven, but by putra, i.e., consecration of temples,
tanks and gardens, one is released from Samsara. This shows that
charitable works for the use of public or large sections of the public
came to be regarded as more meritorious than sacrifices , in the gifts of
which only Brahmans benefitted. That works of public utility especially
irrigation were extensively carried out in the Chandela kingdom, is
known from the inscriptions of the dynasty . In the Khajuraho
inscription Yashoverman is praised for building a temple and excavating
a tank (TADAGARNAVAM) (Epigraphia Indica, Vol.I, op.cit. p.144).
Virvarman’s queen Kalyanadevi is recorded to have built a well (Kupa),
a tank (Kasara) and a hall (Mandapa). One pahila made a gift to
Brahmans of a number of gardens (Vatika) and Kokkala in his
inscriptions records the grant of certain buildings for Brahmans. Vatsraja
,a minister of Kirti Verman built a flight of steps (Ghata) apparently for
a Vapi. A minister of Madan Verman is praised for building a temple
and a tank (Tadaga) and for executing other works for piety. A Rauta
(sub division of Kchatriya) built a Sirautha (of boubtful meaning) for all
people. A another Rauta built a Bauli (step well) for the use of all,
41
beside a road during a famine. While discussing the present condition of
these historical tanks , there is a greater lagging of social discipline
because people do not like to follow the established norms of society
and religion. For example , local people usually like to go to toilet in
open area nearest to tanks and use tank’s water for sanitation purposes ,
while this action is strictly prohibited by social sanctions and by
religious values. If we want to develop the historical tanks and maximize
the tank use , awareness is badly needed.
42
CHAPTER SIX
MODEL PLAN AND CONCLUSION
A time bound planning is essential to change the scenario of historical
tanks in Bundelkhand region in order to attain the goals of drinking
water problems . In 1992, the united Nations General Assembly
proclaimed 22 march as World Water Day with the goal to inspire action
and encourage understanding of need for more responsible water use and
conservation. Vigorous actions taken by all sectors , including
individuals and communities , will help ensure that there is water for all.
World Water Day 22 march 2005 was the start of the United Nations
International decade for action . The theme of world water day 2007 is
“COPING WITH WATER SCARCITY” . India also has joined other
countries across the globe to deal with this huge problem. Provision of
safe drinking water is considered today as fundamental to good
governance to promote good health and welfare of the people. The State
strive to resolve the issue involved in making safe drinking water
accessible to all and to tackle the ever increasing concerns of depletion
of ground water tables and quality problems that affect its sources.
Considering the magnitude of the problem , the Central Government
supplements the efforts of state governments in this regard. Drinking
water supply is one of the six components of Mission “BHARAT
NIRMAN” which has been conceived as a plan to implemented in four
years 2005 to 2009 for building rural infrastructure . Rural water supply
is, to a large extent , dependent on ground water . Though ground water
is less susceptible to pollution , the quality problem in ground water is
inherent in the form of contamination caused by the very nature of
geological formation viz, excess fluoride , arsenic, brackishness and iron
etc. The regions for chemical and bacteriological contamination are:
poor hygienic conditions around the water sources, improper disposal of
sewage and industrial waste water (A large problem in KANPUR at the
bank of Ganga), indiscriminate use of chemical fertilizers having high
quantity of nitrates used in agriculture sector , pollution from industrial
effluents (un-treated), over exploitation leading to quality degradation ,
pollution of source due to ignorance of the people, over population and
43
lack of awareness. The ground water level depleted resulting in
surfacing of quality problems due to higher concentration of the
contaminants in the depleted source of water . Inadequate recharging
also aggravates the problem of chemical contamination. Discussing the
problem concentrating on Bundelkhand , the barrier in implementation
of central government plans is division of Bundelkhand in two states
U.P. and M.P. There should be a strategy for two states combindly for
the problems in bundelkhand . this strategy will associated with
following points as under:-
STRATEGY
1. Source of rain water drain are blocked by illegal possessions,
therefore it is difficult to survive the ancient water collection
technique. All illegal possessions are created by person having
backing by political parties especially ruling party in two states. It
is very difficult to remove illegal possessions because ruling
parties are not interested to disturb their respective vote bank.
2. The flow of polluted water of human settlements is creating
problems. The water of historical tanks is much polluted to this
reason. The strategy for this problem is same as discussed in first
point.
3. Due to Silt setting the capacity of almost all tanks is remained to
less than of half of its actual. Therefore it is very difficult to
determine the actual capacity of tanks. During this project , the
investigator has tried to determine the actual surface , but due to
lacking of proper instruement (high capacity tracker), objective is
not achieved . the required tracker was beyond the budget
sanctioned for this project.
4.The bands of dams are almost weak and most of the water is captured
by fungi. Therefore it is difficult to determine the flora and fauna of the
tanks . This point was discussed in previous chapters as due to
corruption at each and every level, cleanliness of tanks became
impossible . There are several government plans including the mission
of “Bharat Nirman” , but no body in study area knows about them
44
because there is no practical implementation of plannings to be seen by
public.
MODEL PLAN FOR BETTERMENT OF HISTORICAL TANKS
A model plan for the betterment of chandela’s historical tanks of
Bundelkhand as conclusion of the project work done is given as under-
STEPS OF PLAN
1. Bundelkhand is one as cultural unity but politically it is divided in
to two states. For the betterment of several aspects of bundelkhand
, there should be formation of co-ordination committee of cabinet
ministers of two stats . This co-ordination committee will work as
“Bundelkhand Development Authority”. This is the first step of
betterment of Budeli people, which is mandatory .
2. The “Bundelkhand Development Authority” will work primarily
on deep survey of historical tanks with three important indicators
with the help of District administration and revenue & irrigation
department. There are several engineers working on Hydel Power
Project at Lalitpur district headquarter which can help in survey
with subject experts in History, Geography, Plant pathology and
Hydrology from different Colleges in the study area. The three
indicators of deep survey in the region are suggested as under-
I) Actual surface area of tank
II) Water carrying capacity of tank (Maximum)
III) Water supply mediums to tank and water distribution
methods
3. There should be full listing of varieties of hydro plants, birds,
insects and fishes dependent on historical tanks. Few listings are
given in this report on the basis of survey done during the last two
summers. This listing will help to protect the ending species of
birds, fishes and insects due to illegal hunting.
4. The knowledge regarding the maximum uses of historical tanks
particularly big tanks should be collected from experts and local
experts.
45
5. To remove silt from historical tanks in order to maintain the actual
water height the “Bundelkhand Development Authority” should
take help of local people with N.G.O.s. This process will help the
tanks to create the clean water. If water grass is removed from
tanks , the bands of tanks will work for a long time as working
since long long time.
6. The “Bundelkhand Development Authority” should organize the
awareness camps for the college and school students about the
importance of historical tanks. This method can be applied to
countrymen with the help of students.
7. To determine the specific use of historical tanks , the
“Bundelkhand Development Authority” should act with policy
determination committee formed by officers of Forest and
Environment department , Fisheries department, Tourism
department of two states. The specific use of historical tanks
should be limited to few big tanks.
8. “Bundelkhand Development Authority” should work in transparent
manner as to fight with corruption. Each plan and grant allocation
for plan should be pasted on official website of authority . The
transparency in working of “Bundelkhand Development
Authority” will lead to inform about the budget and implementing
agency to literate people of the zone .
9. For awareness programs , the “Bundelkhand Development
Authority” should call the personalities like Sunderlal Bahuguna
and medha patkar etc.
10. Last point of this model plan is related to cultural heritage of
Bundelkhand. The famous local festival of “KAJALIYA” is
celebrated through out the Bundelkhand. This festival is related to
Sister –Brother relation in society . The festival is organized by
people in Hindi month of Sawan near the historical tanks . It takes
the shape of fair at Madan Sagar (Mahoba), Nawab tank (Banda)
and Jagat Sagar (Chhatarpur). This festival is characterized since
hundreds of years by the generations of the people. This festval
shoud become a medium of tourism in Bundelkhand. As Jhansi
Mahotsava and Khajuraho Mahotsava are successfully organized
46
by U.P.tourism and M.P. tourism respectively since more than ten
years , the feastival of “kajaliya” should be placed on the map of
tourism. Few steps were taken by two governments for the
betterment of tourism in the zone . for example Vijay Sagar tank
on the state highway of Jhansi-Banda , 05 kms.from Mahoba city
is now attracting the tourists because it is converted to a bird
sanctuary . This lake is very deep, cool ; therefore this lake is able
to attract more people of domestic as well as foreigners .
This study is most significant in many ways nowadays because the
study area is facing drought situation. Apex leaders of all political
parties are trying to be highlight by this issue. It is a matter of
historical fact that these tanks were constructed for public welfare
since thousands years ago. We have to maintain these tanks so that
the drinking and irrigational water is obtained maximum. Besides
the above aspects the students of geology and geography can do
further research on recharge of underground water and soil
conservation.
47
1A . Mangalgarh fort site of Charkhari with one of the seven tanks
1B. Dhubela taal from the Samadhi of Maharaja chhatrsal Bundela
48
2A. Madan Sagar tank at Mahoba with Karka dev temple in centre
2B. Huge tank of Jagat Sagar near Mau-Sahaniya (Chhatarpur)
49
3A. Royal tank of charkhari with Royal palace
3B..Huge tank of Kirat Sagar at mahoba constructed by Kirti Verman
50
4A.. Large lake of Barua Sagar (Jhansi)
4B.. Reservoir at betwa riverside At Orchha(Tikamgarh)
51
5A.. Historical water body with sediment rocks at Sihunda (Datiya)
5B.. Koti-Tirth tank at Kalinjar Fort (Banda-Panna Vindhyachal range)
52
APPENDIX
CHRONOLOGICAL ORDER OF CHANDELA KINGS
Chandela king Ruling period in A.D.
1. NANNUKA , founder 825-840
2. VAKPATI 840-850
3. JAYASHAKTI or JEJA 850 ONWARDS
4. VIJAYSHAKTI Not known
5. RAHILYA UPTO 905
6. HARSHA 905-925
7. YASHO VERMAN 925-950
8. DHANGA DEV 950-1008
9. GANDA DEV 1008-1019
10. VIDYADHAR 1019-1030
11. VIJAY PAL 1030-1050
12. DEV VERMAN 1050-1060
13. KIRTI VERMAN 1060-1100
14. SALKSHAN VERMAN 1100-1115
15. JAY VERMAN 1115-1120
16. PRITHVI VERMAN 1120-1128
17. MADAN VERMAN DEV 1129-1163
18. YASHO VERMAN II 1163-1165
19. PARMARDI DEV
Or PARMAL
1165-1202
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