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A Review on Recent Progress of Batteries for Electric Vehicles

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The progress of the development of electric vehicles over the decades has been improving in a fast pace. After the outbreak of oil shortage and the impact of greenhouse gaseous released from the internal combustion engine vehicles to the environment in 1970s, society started to work on investigating the usage of environmentally friendly vehicle that uses alternate energy. Out of all the solutions, electric vehicle could be the answer to the challenges addressed. As battery serves a large part in the industry of electric vehicles, this review paper focuses on the recent progress of battery for electric vehicles. This review paper discussed about the oldest type of rechargeable battery, lead-acid battery to the recent commonly used battery, which is the latest technology of battery, lithium-ion battery. The materials of battery components, battery parameters, battery pack design and cell design as well as the sustainable issue of batteries for lead-acid battery, nickel metal hydride battery (NiMH), ZEBRA battery and lithium ion battery (Li-ion) were descripted and examined in exquisite details. The future development of the batteries such as rechargeable magnesium battery and sodium ion battery were also evaluated.
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International Journal of Applied Engineering Research ISSN 0973-4562 Volume 14, Number 24 (2019) pp. 4441-4461
© Research India Publications. http://www.ripublication.com
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A Review on Recent Progress of Batteries for Electric Vehicles
T. Y. Chian, W. L. J. Wei, E. L. M. Ze, L. Z. Ren, Y. E. Ping, N. Z. Abu Bakar*, M. Faizal and S. Sivakumar
School of Engineering, Taylor’s University, Taylor’s Lakeside Campus,
No. 1 Jalan Taylor’s, 47500, Subang Jaya, Selangor DE, Malaysia.
Abstract
The progress of the development of electric vehicles over the
decades has been improving in a fast pace. After the outbreak
of oil shortage and the impact of greenhouse gaseous released
from the internal combustion engine vehicles to the
environment in 1970s, society started to work on investigating
the usage of environmentally friendly vehicle that uses
alternate energy. Out of all the solutions, electric vehicle could
be the answer to the challenges addressed. As battery serves a
large part in the industry of electric vehicles, this review paper
focuses on the recent progress of battery for electric vehicles.
This review paper discussed about the oldest type of
rechargeable battery, lead- acid battery to the recent commonly
used battery, which is the latest technology of battery, lithium-
ion battery. The materials of battery components, battery
parameters, battery pack design and cell design as well as the
sustainable issue of batteries for lead-acid battery, nickel metal
hydride battery (NiMH), ZEBRA battery and lithium ion
battery (Li-ion) were descripted and examined in exquisite
details. The future development of the batteries such as
rechargeable magnesium battery and sodium ion battery were
also evaluated.
Keywords: Electric Vehicles; lead-acid battery; nickel-based
battery; ZEBRA battery; Lithium based battery
1.0 INTRODUCTION
Due to public attention of the limited amount of fuel energy in
the world and the emission of greenhouse gaseous by the
internal combustion engine vehicles, people started to look for
environmentally friendly vehicles that can be powered using
alternate rechargeable energies. As electricity is one of the
sustainable energies, the concept of vehicles using electricity to
power up the car was introduced. Although electricity is the
sustainable energy to power up the motors of the vehicles, the
concept of an electric vehicle was not introduced to the world
until the year of 1859. In the same year, the rechargeable
battery named lead-acid battery was first conceived by Gaston
Planté [1]. Batteries play an important role to the evolution of
the electric vehicles as it is a must for the electric vehicles to
carry a portable item that stores electricity in order to have the
electricity supply to its motor.
Figure 1. The first invention of electric car by Gaston Planté
1.1 ELECTRIC MOBILITY
Electric mobility is one of the fields that uses rechargeable
energy which is the electricity. Electric mobility includes all the
street vehicles using electric motor that rely on the electricity
power either fully or partially. Vehicles using purely electric
motor (Electric Vehicles EV), vehicles using small
combustion engine and electric motor (Range Extended
Electric Vehicles REEV) as well as vehicles using
conventional internal combustion engine system and electric
propulsion system (Hybrid Electric Vehicles HEV) are
considered as electric mobility. The automotive vehicles
created in the industry of electric mobility use electricity energy
in the rechargeable batteries to power up their systems in order
to function. As the automotive vehicles use electricity to power
up their electric motors, there are no emission of greenhouse
gaseous by the automotive vehicles as there are no combustion
occurred in the system unlike the usage of internal combustion
engines [2].
1.2 ELECTRIC VEHICLE
The electric vehicle, which is as known as EV, is powered
purely by its electric motor that gains energy from the source
of electricity. Electric vehicles are not something new to
today’s world, the first electric car was invented back in 1859,
which is 160 years ago from 2019. The electric vehicles lost the
game in the industry of automobiles to the internal combustion
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engine vehicles over the years. According to the US
automobiles sales data in 1900, among 4800 automobiles sold,
the percentages of electric vehicles, internal combustion engine
vehicles and steam-power vehicles were 38%, 22% and 40%.
At that time, the demand of electric vehicles is considerable.
Frantically, the popularity of electric vehicles did not last and
the demand of it almost wiped out just 30 years later. The
demand of electric vehicles in 1930 was almost replaced by the
demand of internal combustion engine vehicles. However, due
to the announcement of oil shortage in 1970s as well as the
concerns of environmental and awareness of air quality in the
surrounding in 1980s arise, people starting to rekindle their
interests in electric vehicles. The development of the electric
vehicles accelerated as people wanted to save the environment
[3]. Norway is one of the many countries in the world that
highly promotes the usage of electric vehicles to its nations.
The government of Norway promotes electric vehicle usage by
adapting measurements like exemption of roadway tolls,
accessing infrastructure of charging stations, limited lanes for
public bus and more [4].
The usage of using electric vehicles can certainly bring several
benefits to the humankind society. One of the most obvious
advantages that people using electric vehicles is the reduction
of greenhouse gaseous emission. Electric vehicles that powered
mainly by the electric motor do not require combustion to run
the vehicles like internal combustion engine vehicles. Without
combustion, there is zero emission of greenhouse gaseous by
the electric vehicles.
However, there is also downsides of using electric vehicles than
using internal combustion engine vehicles. The downsides of
using electric vehicles including the lengthy time required for
the electric vehicles’ batteries to recharge. By using electric
vehicles, the users required to charge the vehicles exactly just
like how the internal combustion engine users needed to refill
the fuel. Unlike refilling the fuel, the time required to recharge
the batteries in the electric vehicles is longer. The time-
consuming batteries recharging session could be quite
inconvenience to the electric vehicles’ users.
1.3 TRACTION BATTERY
Traction battery was one of the most important components of
the electric. Mainly road vehicles, locomotives, industrial
trucks and mechanical handling equipment use the traction
batteries as power resources. It is also possible to refer to the
rechargeable traction battery as the electric vehicle battery
(EVB). The traction batteries, unlike the auxiliary batteries,
support the entire electric vehicles instead of just providing the
energy needed to start the engine for the vehicles. The lead-acid
battery, the nickel-cadmium battery (Ni-Cd), the nickel-metal
hydride battery (NiMH) and the lithium are examples of the
major traction batteries.
1.4 LEAD-ACID BATTERY
Lead-acid battery was invented in 1859 by Gaston Planté as the
world’s first rechargeable traction battery. The lead-acid was
the first type of rechargeable battery in the world that was
commercially used especially in the industry of automobiles
[5]. The lead-acid battery was modified by Camille Alphonse
Faure in 1881 and the performance and capacity of the modified
lead-acid battery has improved by using the lead grid lattice.
The manufacturing processes of the lead-acid batteries were
also made easier after the modification of lead-acid batteries by
Camille Alphonse Faure. Although the lead-acid battery was
invented 160 years ago from 2019, it is still contributing widely
in the field of automobiles considering its cheap cost [6].
1.5 NICKEL CADMIUM BATTERY (NICD)
Nickel Cadmium Battery has been widely used by the society
and intended to replace lead-acid battery especially the
automobiles manufactured in Europe. The usage of Nickel
Cadmium battery in the electric vehicles is developed in 1980s
and 1990s. The Nickel Cadmium battery is well known for its
good battery cycle life. Unfortunately, due to its relatively low
range and uncompetitive selling price, the market of Nickel
Cadmium battery did not expand [7].
1.6 NICKEL METAL HYDRIDE BATTERY (NIMH)
The usage of hydrogen inserted in metallic alloys instead of
cadmium at the negative electrode, the Nickel Metal Hydride
battery is considered an advanced version of the Nickel
Cadmium battery. The Nickel Metal Hydride battery is
constantly sealed to prevent hydrogen from leaking. Due to the
Nickel Metal Hydride battery’s significant improvement in
energy density, it replaces Nickel Cadmium in the application
of electric vehicles. The usage of Nickel Metal Hydride battery
did not get commercialized in the 1990s as the newer
technologies of battery were introduced very soon after the
Nickel Metal Hydride was developed [7].
1.7 LITHIUM-ION BATTERY
Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries were developed and
introduced in the 1990s to the world with a significant weight
advantage over other battery systems. Lithium-ion battery,
known as one of the most outstanding quality in the new
electrochemical industry. It is one of the most used and
widespread batteries used by electric vehicles today [8]. The
Lithium-ion battery's weight advantages make it competitive
with other battery systems. Because of its high specific energy,
the lithium-ion battery has a relatively greater travel distance,
which is about three times greater than the mileage of the lead
acid battery [9].
In the automotive industry, the Lithium-ion battery has obvious
advantages as it has a long cycle life, high energy capacity and
high efficiency. Lithium-ion batteries are extremely likely to
contribute more to the current markets and the lives of people
as the development of new products, innovations and strategies
continues to advance[10].
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2.0 ELECTROCHEMISTRY
Batteries with the ability to store energy electrochemically have
achieved many of today’s advancements. Batteries are widely
used in variety of devices and machinery; however, it is the
complex chemistry occurring within the battery cells that
enables the modern conveniences. Batteries are composed of
two terminals which are positive and, negative terminals or
cathode and, anode, electrolyte and casing to hold all the
components within. The electrolyte is added to divide anode
and cathode but allowing the ions to flow. Battery undergoes
an electrochemical reaction where the conversion of chemical
energy to electrical energy occurs when a load or power supply
is connected between the terminals [11]. In this reaction, anode
undergoes oxidation which donates or releases electrons
through the terminal. Meanwhile, cathode undergoes reduction
where the electrode reacts with the ions and accepts the
electrons given by the anode. In short, the anode releases its
electrons and, the cathode accepts and uses them.
Currently, there is a few different types of rechargeable
batteries available to be used in electric vehicles. The batteries
are enhanced and transformed to have better quality and
chemical properties as the time passes by. The evolution of the
batteries can be arranged in the sequence of lead-acid battery,
nickel-metal hydride battery, sodium-nickel chloride battery
and a lithium-ion battery. Today, lithium-ion batteries have
dominated the major commercial market. Therefore, a brief
description of the electrochemistry in all rechargeable batteries
used in electric vehicles and the recent progress on the materials
selection for the electrodes used in lithium-ion battery will be
discussed.
Lead-acid batteries are assembled with multiple individual cells
covered with layers of lead alloy plates drenched in an
electrolyte. In each cell, there is a plate with lead dioxide as
positive electrode, a metallic lead plate as negative electrode.
Both plates are separated by an insulated separator and
immersed in an electrolyte with the composition of
approximately 65% H2O and 35% sulphuric acid [12].
In the charge and discharge condition of lead acid battery, huge
chemical processes take places for the conversion of energy.
The diluted sulphuric acid molecules dissolve and convert into
positive hydrogen ions (2H+) and negative sulphate ions
(SO4). If a DC supply is connected to the terminals, the
positive hydrogen ions (2H+) moved towards the negative
electrode. Also, the negative sulphate ions (SO4) are attracted
by the electrode that connected to the positive electrode. The
hydrogen ions receive two electrons at the cathode and form a
hydrogen atom. This atom reacts with the lead sulphate
(PbSO4) to form a product with the composition of lead (Pb)
and sulphuric acid (H2SO4).
Nickel-metal hydride batteries in a solid hydride cycle store
hydrogen as an active component. The negative electrode of the
nickel-metal hydride battery is a hydrogen storage medium that
releases the hydrogen when charging and discharging and
enables the electrochemical reaction to take place [3]. This
electrode is made from metal hydride which is usually the rare
earth mixture of lanthanum alloy [4]. The nickel hydroxide
Ni(OH)2 serves as the positive electrode in the battery cell.
Oxidation and reduction take place at both electrodes through
an electrolyte which consists of 30 % by weight of alkaline
potassium hydroxide (KOH) in water.
In charging condition. oxidation took place in nickel hydroxide
Ni(OH)2 electrode. Hydroxyl ion reacts with nickel hydroxide
Ni(OH)2 and form nickel oxyhydroxide (NiOOH) and water.
On the other hand, the MH electrode which represents the
hydrogen-absorbing alloy is reduced. Water is separated into
hydrogen which again reacts with the metal to form MH in the
cathode. The nickel hydroxide Ni(OH)2 served as positive
electrode to promote the reversibility in electrochemical
reaction with nickel oxyhydroxide (NiOOH). The stream of the
nickel-metal hydride battery charging and discharging is
therefore in the opposite direction.
Sodium-nickel chloride battery used a negative electrode which
is composed of liquid metal sodium and a mixture of nickel (II)
chloride (NiCl2) and iron (II) chloride (FeCl2) as the positive
electrode. A ceramic solid metal, Na-β” alumina (Na2Al11O17)
is used as an electrolyte to separate both electrodes away. It
prevents the direct chemical reactions between the electrode
constituents but allowing the sodium ions to flow between the
electrodes. Also, the second electrolyte of molten sodium
tetrachloro-aluminate ( NaAlCl4) is used in helping the
transportation of sodium ions to the positive electrode [5]. The
constitution of a cell for sodium-nickel chloride battery is
shown as Figure 2.
Figure 2. The constitution of a cell [5]
In the discharged state, the mixture of metal chloride phase is
fabricated in the positive electrode from a mixture of
aluminium, iron, nickel and common salt. These metals are
oxidized by the initial charge and the salt is decomposed into
sodium and chloride ions. The chloride ions react and combine
with the oxidized metals to form metal chlorides. The cell
discharging process is a reversible chemical reaction.
Lithium-ion batteries relied on the insertion of reactions from
both negative and positive electrodes where lithium ions act as
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the charge transporting system to store energy. In 1991, Sony
became the first to manufacture and sell lithium-ion batteries
[6]. The idea of the reversibility in the movement of lithium ion
between the electrodes in the battery is first developed by
Armand which used different intercalated materials for two
electrodes [7]. It enables the lithium ions to flow back and
forward among two electrodes. Goodenough laboratory
discovered the reversibility of the NaFeO2 crystal structure in
deintercalation of the lithium ions at relatively high potentials.
Metals, including magnesium, aluminium, iron, etc. with the
mixture of nickel and cobalt were discovered later to have the
similar ability and adopted the lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2)
to be the active positive materials for Sony’s lithium-ion
battery. Lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2) is the first and most
common form of layered transition metal oxide cathodes. It is
very suitable to be a cathode material because it has high
theoretical specific capacity, volumetric capacity, discharge
voltage, and good cycling performance. Meanwhile, most
lithium-ion batteries ' negative electrode consists of graphite or
lithium titanate (Li4Ti5O12) and certain materials still under
development, namely lithium metal and Li-Si alloys [8]. The
electrolyte is used which is usually created to allow the
movement of ions between electrodes with a mixture of organic
solvent and lithium salts. Besides, a separating membrane or
separator is used to separate both electrodes away from each
other but, allowing the electrode to flow while eliminating the
chances of internal short circuit. Figure 3 shows the schematic
construction of a battery cell of the lithium-ion battery.
Figure 3. Schematic construction of a Li-ion battery cell [8]
Based on Figure 3, a separator is integrated to avoid the direct
contact between two electrodes. The electrons flow from
negative electrode to the load, and then went to the positive
electrode through the current collector when it acts as a
galvanic device. Concurrently, the lithium ions (Li+) flow from
negative electrode to positive electrode via the electrolyte so
that the electroneutrality can be maintained. At present, there
are many choices of materials that could be selected to be the
positive and negative electrodes, and the electrolyte in the
lithium-ion battery.
2.1 CATHODE
Intercalation compounds which enable the lithium ions (Li+) to
diffuse out and in are generally used as the positive electrodes.
These compounds include lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2),
lithium nickel oxide (LiNiO2), lithium manganese oxide
(LiMn2O4), lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4), lithium nickel
manganese cobalt oxide (Li(NixMnyCo1-x-y)O2), and lithium
nickel cobalt aluminium oxide (Li(NixCoyAl1-x-y)O2). Lithium
cobalt batteries are very reactive which cause it to have low
thermal stability and unsafe to use if it is not being monitored.
The limitation of resources in cobalt also makes it be more
expensive which decrease the feasibility to be implemented
into electric vehicles. However, it is used to create high energy
to power the Tesla Roadster and Smart Fortwo electric drive.
Lithium nickel oxide (LiNiO2) is recognized to be a low-cost
material for the high voltage batteries where it has a high
theoretical capacity with a value of 250 Ah kg-1. But the self-
passivation layer which formed on the surfaces cause
difficulties in the handling of this material. This material has a
complex manufacturing process due to its stoichiometric
properties and a lot of requirements needed to be met. Thus,
Lithium nickel oxide (LiNiO2) is somewhat a less practical
electrode materials used in rechargeable batteries. Lithium
manganese oxide batteries (LMO) also have low internal
resistance and good current handling due to their architecture
that forms a three-dimensional spinal structure that could
improve the ion flow between the electrodes. The chemistry
within the battery cells provide better thermal stability.
However, it has roughly thirty-three percent lower capacity and
lower life span than lithium cobalt oxide. Most of the lithium
manganese oxide batteries are blended with the lithium
manganese cobalt oxide (NMC) to enhance its specific energy
and extend its life span. Nissan Leaf, Chevy Volt and BMW i3
had been manufactured in the past with the LMO-NMC
batteries [9]. Besides, a researcher in the University of Texas
had discovered which phosphate materials are selected as the
positive electrodes in the lithium-ion battery in 1996. Lithium
iron phosphate (LiFePO4) was then introduced, which has
improved electrochemical efficiency with low cell resistance
and high current rating Phosphate helps to stabilize the
electrode against overloading and increase heat tolerance which
restricts material breakdown [9]. Lithium iron phosphate
(LiFePO4) battery is less likely to experience the thermal
runaway as it has a wide range of operating temperature. This
battery also has higher self-discharge as compared to other
lithium-ion batteries. However, the moisture is an issue of this
battery where it significantly limits the its lifetime.
Additionally, lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide
(Li(NixMnyCo1-x-y)O2) electrode is designed to increase its high
specific energy either power with high density. This electrode
is composed of nickel and manganese where nickel has high
specific energy but low stability; manganese helps in forming
a spinel structure which achieves low internal resistance but
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provides low specific energy. Nickel is used to combine with
the manganese enables to enhance the strength of each other’s
which make the NMC to be one of the most effective lithium-
ion system. This battery is currently high demand in the current
commercial market due to its high specific energy and excellent
thermal properties. Lastly, lithium nickel cobalt aluminium
oxide (Li(NixCoyAl1-x-y)O2) battery is somewhat similar to
NMC which offers high specific energy, power and a long life
span. This battery is not as safe as other batteries mentioned
above and require a special safety monitoring measure before
integrating it into the electric vehicles. It is also more expensive
to manufacture which limits their viability to be used in a wide
variety of application.
2.2 ANODE
There are two types of negative electrodes that are used in
lithium-ion batteries, namely lithium titanate and carbon-based
electrode. New types of negative electrodes are currently under
development, including lithium metal, lithium-metal alloy,
lithium-silicon alloys and conversion electrodes. First of all,
carbon and usually synthetic graphite are still used as the
negative electrode in the lithium ion batteries because they have
high specific capacity, low average voltage and high energy
efficiency in the round trip [10]. It is generally used and an
excellent alternative for the electrode as it is a material that is
low cost, available and safe from toxic. However, if the carbon
reacts with the atmospheric oxygen or experiences a thermal
runway event, the electrode may catch on fire. Furthermore, in
the traditional lithium ion battery, lithium titanate was used to
substitute graphite as the negative electrode which shapes into
a spinel shape. The appropriate counter-electrode with lithium
titanate is lithium manganese or lithium manganese cobalt
oxide. There is no volume difference in the spinel lithium
titanate during lithiation that extends the electrode's operational
life. Because of its lithium diffusion coefficient, it has weak
electrical conductivity and poor performance at high power
rates, but this can be enhanced by increasing the duration of the
transport path of lithium ion by correct nano-structuring.
Lithium titanate batteries are integrated in the Mitsubishi’s i-
MiEV electric vehicle. Therefore, lithium metal is a favorable
negative electrode in the lithium ion battery with large capacity
and low negative electrochemical potential where the electrode
size will decrease the negative electrode mass due to the
magnitude order. However, during lithium plating or stripping,
the growth of metallic dendrites in the lithium metal electrode
may cause short circuit. The design of this electrode progresses
and aims to create a stable lithium metal electrode that could
boost electric vehicle efficiency [11]. In addition, alloy-based
electrodes made of lithium-alloy metals have a higher specific
capacity than conventional graphite electrodes. Throughout
phase transitions, accommodation of a large amount of lithium
is followed by a major density shift in the host material. The
mechanical strain allows the metal electrode to break and
crumble during the alloying or de-alloying processes and the
lack of capacity that used to hold charge. The electrochemical
method experiments that are partly reversible to form alloys
between several metals and lithium proceed. In comparison,
lithium-silicon alloy has a greater potential effective strength
than metallic lithium in its completely lithiated structure. In this
electrode chemistry, during the transition between Si and
Li15Si4, there is a significant volumetric change in the
electrode material that creates high internal strain in the active
materials [12]. The internal strain could cause the Si material
to crack and eventually disintegrate, resulting in a significant
fade in reversible capacity. In contrast, Si has strong electrical
resistivity and poor lithium diffusivity. The composite
electrodes made of nanostructure Si have a high capacity to
withstand volume expansion [13], and boost mechanical and
electrical properties through the use of a highly doped Si
embedded in conductive matrices. The issues mentioned to date
have prevented the practical use in electric vehicles of silicon-
based electrodes. Finally, batteries that use the conversion-type
electrodes have a higher density of energy storage but undergo
a substantial fading in power than the one with intercalation-
type electrodes. In the conversion electrodes there is an actual
chemical reaction where it is opposed to the only intercalation
of the lithium ions into a host material's lattice.
3.0 BATTERIES PARAMETERS
The most important core for the electric vehicle is the traction
battery component. Without the main battery, the electric motor
cannot perform its function relatively. Lately, EV battery
manufacturers were keeping developing new type of battery for
electric vehicle, innovating and improving the existing batteries
to increase the efficiencies for each parameter.
3.1 BATTERY SPECIFIC ENERGY, SPECIFIC POWER,
ENERGY DENSITY, WEIGHT AND SIZE
At the early stages of the EV generation, Pb-Acid has used as
the primary core to power the EV. Pb-Acid battery basically
can be identified as two primary categories : Starting battery
and Deep-Cycle Battery[22]. Deep-cycle type such as VRLA,
AGM and Gel was used for EV as it has a greater energy
capacity and durability. In fact, Pb-Acid batteries was unable
to generate voltage itself; instead they received or stored a
charge from another origin. Therefore, Pb-Acid batteries are
referred to as storage batteries as they carry just one charge.
The size and amount of electrolyte of the battery plates will
determine how much charge lead acid batteries can be stored.
A battery's amp-hour (Ah) or watt-hour (Wh) rating is
described as the size of the storage capacity for all types of
batteries [23]. The Pb-Acid battery has a low specific energy
and energy density with a value of 35-40 Wh/kg and 80-90
Wh/L [24], in which the early electric vehicle required a large
amount of battery size in powering the vehicle that resulted in
incremental of curb weight of the electric vehicle at the same
time. According to study by Ahman, an EV battery should be
able to store up 30 kWh capacity to afford the vehicle an
acceptable range [25]. In order to generate 1 kWh electrical
energy, an approximate 30 kg lead acid battery was required.
Assuming the initial electric vehicle consumed 20 kWh/100
km, for the Pb-Acid battery to be capable to support the electric
vehicle, 20 packs of batteries to travel 100 km which consisted
total of 600 kg mass from the batteries itself. The typical Pb-
Acid battery has a specific power of 285 W/kg [26]. Specific
power, or gravimetric power density can be defined as the
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loading capability for a battery. Batteries made for EV
application usually have a low specific energy or energy
density in combination with a high specific power. A higher
specific power value indicate that more energy can deliver to
the electric motor to drive the vehicle which means greater
acceleration in a short time.
It did not take long for people to recognize that lead-acid type
battery was not suitable for powering the EV for a long-term
period due to low energy densities, sensitive to temperature and
life cycle. Soon, a new nickel-based battery was invented by
Waldemar Jungner in 1899 [27] which replaced the lead-acid
battery as the power source in EV. Unlike Pb-Acid, the nickel
metal hydride (Ni-MH) uses an alkaline electrolyte
a concentrated potassium hydroxide aqueous solution. Some
common type of nickel-based batteries consisted Nickel-Iron
(Ni-Fe), Nickel-Cadmium (Ni-Cd), Nickel-Zinc (Ni-Zn) and
Nickel-metal hydride (Ni-MH). Because of the short life cycle
and low specific strength characteristics, the Nickel Iron and
Nickel Zinc batteries were not really applied on the EV
application [28]. The battery which commonly used for EV was
the Ni-MH type as it possessed higher specific energy and
energy density compared to Pb-Acid battery with a value of 50-
70 Wh/kg and 100-140 Wh/L [28]. Ni-MH battery was chosen
over the Ni-Cd is because it has relatively higher specific
energy and density content and Ni-MH did not contain toxic
metals which was cadmium. Besides, research also had shown
that Ni-MH provided 40 % higher specific energy than the
standard Ni-Cd [27]. Therefore, most of the EVs has adopted
the Ni-MH battery technology as it can greatly lower the battery
packs total weight and improve the energy consumption
efficiency. It also has a lower energy density value which allow
the battery system to be contained within a smaller space. In
order to generate 1 kWh using Ni-MH battery, an approximate
20 kg of Ni-MH battery was required. Comparing to the lead-
acid, the battery mass can say to be reduced by a 33 %.
However, the used of Ni-MH battery in EVs has reached a
bottleneck as its practical specific energy limitation can only
achieved until 75 Wh/kg [29]. A typical Ni-MH battery has a
specific power of 200 W/kg [26]. Other than that, Ni-MH
battery also having self-discharge problem. In the first 24 hours
right after charge, the self-discharge rate of the Ni-MH battery
has a value of twenty percent and 10 percent per month
thereafter [27].
Later, there was another alternative battery that can be used for
power the EV which named as sodium-nickel chloride
(ZEBRA) or ‘Zero Emission Battery Research Activity’. This
technology was first invented in South Africa during the 1970s
and 1980s [30]. This type of battery has a remarkably specific
energy and energy density with a value of 100 Wh/kg and 160
Wh/L [31]. The specific power rating and power density for
ZEBRA battery is 170 W/kg and 250 W/L respectively [32].
However, the optimum operating temperature (300 °C) for
ZEBRA battery requires pre-heating before use, which
consumed considerable energy if parked regularly for long
periods. Therefore, it is more suitable to applications where the
EV is being used continuously such as the urban public
transportation.
Finally, the revolution of the battery reached the stage where
the lithium-ion based battery took over the place. The current
primary sources for almost every EV around the world are
using the Li-ion based battery. Lithium has the smallest value
of weight among of all metals, with the greatest
electrochemical potential and possessed the largest specific
weight and high density of energy [33]. Li-ion based battery
basically consisted of two types, those with liquid (Li-ion-
liquid) and those with polymer electrolyte (Li-ion-polymer)
while the liquid-ion type is preferable for EV purpose. There
are three different combination of materials for the liquid Li-
ion type battery which are Lithium Iron Phosphate (𝐿𝑖𝐹𝑒𝑃𝑂4),
Lithium Manganese oxide (𝐿𝑖𝑀𝑛2𝑂4) and Lithium Cobalt
Oxides ( 𝐿𝑖𝐶𝑜𝑂) . Li-ion based batteries that used for EV
applications normally has a specific energy of 150-200 Wh/kg
and an energy density of 250-400 Wh/L [34]. The specific
power rating for a typical liquid Li-ion battery used for EV
application has a value of 260 W/kg [26]. In order to generate
1 kWh using Li-ion battery, an approximate 7 kg of Li-ion
battery was required. Comparing to the Pb-Acid and Ni-MH,
the battery mass can say to be reduced by 77 % and 65 % for 1
kWh capacity.
Table 1. Comparison among four batteries used for EV
Battery type
Specific
Energy
(Wh/kg)
Energy
Density
(Wh/L)
Specific
Power
(W/kg)
Mass of battery for
EV to run a 100 km
with 20 kWh/100km
Lead -
Acid
35-40
80-90
285
500 600 kg
Ni- MH
50-70
100-140
200
300 400 kg
ZEBRA
(Na-NiCl2)
100
160
170
200 kg
Li-ion
150-200
250-400
260
100 140 kg
The data and specifications of each type of battery was
summarized and tabulated in Table 1. Table 1 displays that the
specific energy and energy density of Li-ion type of battery are
greater compared to others. This means that the EV powered by
the Li-ion batteries was lighter in mass and the batteries pack
occupied a relatively small volume space. The Li-ion batteries
were already become a very mature technology in powering the
EVs for year s[25]. Due to the improved technology of the Li-
ion battery, many car manufacturers had implemented the Li-
ion batteries into their EV to introduce into the consumer
market. Among the well-known vehicles are Nissan Leaf, VW
E-Golf, Hyundai Ioniq, Renault Twizzy and Tesla Model S
[35].
Currently, the used of Li-ion battery in EV application has
developed maturely. It consists a lot of different combination
of material for the Li-ion battery and each of the battery has
different parameters. A study has also stated that the specific
power for the current Li-ion battery can reach approximately
1000 W / kg and can be driven beyond 10,000 W / kg and the
energy density of 1000 W / L can be forced above 10,000 W /
L when needed, such as motor sports and military applications.
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[32]. Figure 4 that compares the various type of Li-ion batteries
will be illustrated below which consisted of Lithium Titanium
Oxide (LTO), Lithium Nickel Manganese Cobalt Oxide
(NMC), Lithium Nickel Cobalt Aluminum Oxide (NCA),
Lithium Manganese Oxide LMO, Lithium Cobalt oxide
(LiCoO), and Lithium Iron Phosphate (LFP).
Figure 4. Specifications of different type of Li-ion batteries used for EV [17]
As shown from above, NMC, LiFePO4 and LMO has an
overall better performance based on the six parameters
compared among the six and most of the EVs today were using
these three types of Li-ion batteries.
3.2 BATTERY CAPACITY (EFFICIENCY) & TRAVEL
DISTANCE
The efficiency of a battery is a function of how much power the
battery can charge and eventually discharge which in terms of
battery capacity. In fact, different battery models made by
different manufacturers had different capacity numbers. In
which among of all the batteries types, Li-ion battery
technology has been proven that it possessed higher energy
density than Pb-Acid battery and other batteries used for EV
applications. This means that the same physical space can be
used to store more energy in a Li-ion battery. Because with Li-
ion batteries, it can retain more electricity as well as able to
discharge more fuel, running more devices for long duration at
the same time. The travel range of an EV depends on the type
and number of batteries used. There are other considerable
factors such as terrain, weather or the driver performance but
type of batteries being used was the focus. In addition, energy
efficiency also related to the battery capacity. The greater the
value rated for the battery efficiency, the more percentage the
energy stored in the battery can be utilized. Besides, the
charging time for a high efficiency battery is faster and
allowing the battery can achieve a greater depth of discharge at
the same time. Thus, a high efficiency battery corresponding to
a battery with a high capacity. Table 2 below has indicated the
comparison of the rated capacity from typical batteries used for
EV.
Table 2. Comparison of battery capacity
Type of
battery
Energy
Efficiency
(%) [24]
Nominal
Voltage
(V)
Rated
Capacity
(Ah)
Rated
Capacity
(kWh)
Distance that can
travel on a single
charge
Lead Acid
85
6
215
1.29
Approximate 22
miles [36]
Ni-MH
85
343
77
26.4
75 - 150 miles
Na-NiCl2
[37]
75
278.6
64
17.83
~ 120 miles
Li-ion
90
350
158
55
250 miles
Some of the batteries from the existing EVs were taken to
compare the battery capacity. Lead-acid battery properties was
determined from 6 V electric golf car [38], Ni-MH battery
properties was determined from General Motors EV1 [39], Na-
NiCl2 battery properties was determined from the Z5-278-ML-
64 series and Li-ion battery properties was determined from the
current Tesla Model 3 - Standard Range Model [40]. From
Table 2, it can be clearly seen that the Li-ion based battery has
the greatest battery capacity (kWh) compared to others and
most of the current EVs are all using Li-ion based batteries. As
observed from table above, Li-ion based batteries have the
overall greater performance in EV application. Therefore, most
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of the current EVs are utilizing Li-ion based batteries to be the
power source in propelling the vehicle as Li-ion batteries
outperformed others in significant parameters. Some of the
aspects that affect the battery capacity would be discussed.
In fact, the battery capacity is affected by several factors such
as internal resistance, type of discharging method, discharge
mode and rate of discharge and charge. If the battery cannot
deliver the stored energy effectively, it will limit the use of
battery capacity. Thus, a battery needs a low internal resistance
(IR) as it is the person in charge of the amount of the energy
that can be delivered. A high resistance will heat up battery and
cause a voltage drop under load.
Table 3. Relationship between type of battery, internal
resistance and impact to battery capacity
Type of battery
Internal
Resistance
Impact to battery capacity
Lead Acid (VRLA)
15 ~ 16 mΩ [41]
Low resistance smooth flow
Ni MH
778 mΩ [42]
High resistance restrict flow
Na NiCl2
180 mΩ [43]
Relatively low resistance
Li ion
320 mΩ [42]
Moderate resistance
Another factor is the different types of discharging mode of the
battery. There are basically two types of discharge which are
continuous discharging and intermittent discharging.
Continuous discharging refers to when battery continuously
supply energy to load without rest which the capacity is
dropping continuously. Intermittent discharging means connect
and disconnect the battery to drive a load at an interval period.
Some voltage will be recovery during this period and it will
provide a longer discharging time. Three common discharge
modes consisted of constant load, constant current, and
constant power. Constant power mode has the shortest
discharge time, followed by the constant current and then
constant load. Lastly, the discharge and charge rate of the
battery. Repeating overcharging and over-discharging a battery
can reduce the battery capacity as well as its lifespan.
Most of the Nickel-based batteries have suffered from the
memory effect problem. Basically, the Nickel-based batteries
will retain its memory of the most often used of depth of
discharge in the recent past. For any value that exceed the
regular usage of DOD, the battery cannot perform well beyond
the value, and partly decreases its unused capacity for future
use. For instances, as shown in Figure 5, the point M represents
the frequent usage of a Ni-MH battery with a 25 % charging
and discharging of its capacity, in which the point M will be
remembered by battery itself. For any usage beyond point M at
the next subsequent use, it will cause battery cell voltage to fall
below its original value as indicated by dotted line in the figure
below [44]. So, memory effect is one of the reasons that makes
Nickel-based batteries are not the ideal type battery for EV
purpose.
Figure 5. Ni-MH memory effect
3.3 SELF-DISCHARGE & CHARGING TIME &
TEMPERATURE
This section will be focused on the charging parameters of each
types of batteries used for EV. A battery’s charging and
discharging rate are subject to C-rates. A battery's power is
usually rated at 1 C, so a fully charged 1 Ah battery should
provide 1 A for an hour. Over two hours, the same battery
discharge at 0.5 C should provide 0.5 A, and for 30 minutes at
2 C, 2 A. A higher C-rate meaning can provide more current
flow in a relatively short time [45].
First and foremost, the Pb-Acid battery. As mentioned at the
previous section, Pb-Acid battery consisted of two types which
are Starting battery and Deep-Cycle Battery. However, the
common lead-acid battery used for EV application was the
VRLA which from deep-cycle category while some EVs still
using SLI type for auxiliary function. Most of the Pb-Acid
batteries has a self-discharge rate of 5 % per month [46]. In
fact, all types of batteries suffered from the self-discharge
problem. It is a permanent process and cannot be reversed. It is
a part of battery characteristics but not a manufacturing defect,
but poor fabrication process and improper handling can further
worsen the discharge rate per month. Self-discharge in the form
of leakage fluid indicated that the highest self-discharge rate
occurs immediately after charge and tapers off. Based on
research, the Pb-Acid battery and Li-ion battery have a lower
self-discharge rate compared to Nickel-based batteries.
Normal Pb-Acid battery has a charging time of around 8 16
hours for a deep-cycle charge at a charging temperature around
-20 °C to 50 °C [46]. The lead-acid battery is encouraged to be
always stored in a charged state (2.10 V) to avoid sulfation [47].
The lead-acid battery is best to operate at an optimum
temperature of 25 °C and has high overcharge tolerance. The
acceptable operating discharging temperature for the lead
acid range between -45 °C - +50 °C [31]. However, the lead-
acid battery has a low charging rate of 0.1 C 0.05 C which it
needs longer duration to full charge the battery itself [48]. The
lead-acid battery has a columbic efficiency around 90 % [46].
Coulombic efficiency (CE), also known as faradaic efficiency
or current output, defines the efficiency of charge that transmit
electrons into batteries. CE is the proportion of the battery's
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total discharge capacity to the battery's total charge capacity
over a full cycle. The longevity of the battery will be reduced
as temperature goes higher. According to study, the battery life
is cut in half for every 8 °C increase in temperature. A VRLA
that would last at 25 °C for 10 years would only be good at 33
°C for 5 years. If maintained at a steady desert temperature of
41 °C [49], the same battery will desist after 2 ½ years. The
nominal cell voltage of Pb-Acid battery is 2 V[46].
For the Nickel-based battery, the typical battery that normally
used for EV application is the Ni-MH battery. Most of the Ni-
MH batteries have a high self-discharge rate around a value of
20 % - 30 % per month [46]. Whenever a Ni-MH battery must
be used, it needs to be recharged first. It takes around a charging
time of 3 hours for rapid charge and an hour for a fast charge
purpose [47]. The Ni-MH batteries usually has an optimum
range of operating temperature from -30 °C to 65 °C [47].
Unlike lead-acid, Ni-MH battery has a low overcharge
tolerance as can damage the battery cells and create potential
hazards such as depleted battery capacity, possible explosion
and generate excessive heat [50]. It has a peak load current C-
rates of 0.5 C 5 C [46]. The Ni-MH batteries commonly has
a columbic efficiency of 70 % for slow charge and 90 % for fast
charge [46]. The nominal cell voltage of Nickel-based batteries
is around 1.2 V[46].
For the ZEBRA battery, it has a negligible self-discharge rate
or none [37]. The ZEBRA battery has a 100 % coulombically
efficiency, in which the capacity charging in equal to capacity
discharging out [37]. It is because the ZEBRA battery has a
chemical element that possessed good electronic insulating
properties and has no chemical side reactions, which is the
sodium ion conducting beta alumina. In terms of the charging
time, ZEBRA battery takes about 6 hours for normal charge
and an hour for a fast charge [51]. It has an optimum operating
temperature from 270 °C 350 °C as the beta alumina
electrode contribute only a little amount resistance at these
temperature [37]. The nominal cell voltage of ZEBRA batteries
is around 1.2 V[46]
For the Li-ion based battery, it has a small discharge rate per
month with a value less than 5 % / month [46]. The Li-ion
based batteries normally has a columbic efficiency of 99 % and
battery remains cool during charge [46]. For the charging time,
Li-ion based batteries has a charging duration about 2 3 hours
for a complete charge[46]. Li-ion batteries manufacturers
recommended using a 0.8 C or less to prolong the battery life,
nevertheless, most Li-ion batteries can take a higher charge C-
rate with only little stress. Thus, The acceptable range of
discharging temperature and charging temperature for the Li-
ion batteries are ranged between 20 °C 60 °C and 0 °C -
45 °C respectively and it has a low overcharge tolerance[47]. It
has a peak current range from 10 C 30 C [46]. The Li-ion
battery was encouraged to be stored at an intermediate DoD
with a value of 3.7 3.8 V. It is advised to avoid storing the Li-
ion batteries at full charge and above room temperature as
irreversible self-discharge will occur [47]. The nominal cell
voltage of Li-ion based batteries is around 3.2 V 3.7 V[46].
Under normal circumstances, Li-ion's self-discharge is
relatively stable throughout its service life; nevertheless, there
is a rise in maximum loading status and high temperature.
Longevity is also influenced by these same causes. In contrast,
a fully charged Li-ion is more likely to fail than a partly charged
Li-ion. Table 3 displays Li-ion's self-discharge at different
temperatures and level of charge every month. As shown in the
table, the Li-ion battery has a higher self-discharge rate at a
high temperature with a full charge. Hence, it can be concluded
that the self-discharge rate of the Li-ion battery is directly
proportional to the operating temperature and the state-of-
charge of the battery itself. It is advisable to not discharge a Li-
ion battery below 2.50 V/cell as it will turn off the protection
circuit at that state, in which the battery will not able to be
charged by most of the battery chargers[52].
Table 4. Relationship between of the various temperature and
state-of-charge in affecting the self-discharge rate per month
of the Li-ion battery [52]
State-of-charge
0°C
25°C
60°C
Full charge
6%
20%
35%
40-60% charge
2%
4%
15%
3.4 LIFETIME / LIFECYCLE AND COST
In this section, cost, lifespan and lifecycle parameters for the
different types of batteries that utilized in EVs will be
discussed. The Pb-Acid battery act as the ancestors for all the
recent technology of batteries and has the overall lowest cost
compared to Ni-MH, ZEBRA as well as the Li-ion battery. Due
to low specific energy and energy density value, utilization of
Pb-Acid battery in the early EVs is limited. From past until
today, the Pb-Acid battery that typically use for EV application
is the valve-regulated type (VRLA). VRLA has a fast recharge
capability, high specific power and low initial cost as well as
having a maintenance-free operation [28]. Nevertheless, it
suffers from a low cycle life about 1000 cycles at the depth of
discharge (DOD) of 50 % and has an initial cost of $ 120 /
kWh[24] as well as having a lifetime of roughly 3-15 years.
Depth of discharge is a parameter used to determine the total
amount of the discharged battery. In fact, the amount of
discharged for a typical lead-acid battery should not exceed 50 %
as it will shorten the battery life [53]. The dominant reason for
its relatively short lifecycle of the VRLA battery. For examples,
the grid of the positive electrode corrodes, active material
depletes and positive plates expands in the battery [54]
As shown in Figure 6 below, it illustrated that the higher depth
of discharge used for a battery, the less life cycle that a battery
is. An alternative way to think of loading a battery or
discharging it is to visualize it as a balloon. If you constantly
inflate a balloon to its maximum capacity and then totally
deflate it, repetitive pressure will fatigue the material of the
balloon. Imagine now that by inflating repeatedly with another
balloon and deflate it from 50% to 90% full, the material will
become less stressed and last longer than the first balloon.
Likewise, the concept of the balloon example is like the battery
technology. The plate inside the battery is exposed to the same
pressure as the balloon content. In this example, when
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compared to Pb-Acid battery, Li-ion batteries are simply
manufactured from a more superior, greater balloon material.
Figure 6. Number of cycles against DoD for VRLA battery
[55]
A higher working temperatures and high discharging current
condition would accelerate the aging phenomenon not only for
the lead-acid battery but also for others as shown in Figure 7.
Figure 7. Relationship between battery capacity, discharge
rate and operating temperature[56]
After introducing of the nickel-based battery into the EV, the
usage of lead-acid battery for the EV has reduced as the nickel-
based battery has a higher specific strength and energy density
compared to Pb-Acid battery. Among of the nickel-based
batteries, Ni-MH was the one commonly used for EV
application. It is because that Ni-MH battery has no utilized
cadmium material act as the electrode and more
environmentally friendly. Ni-MH also has a great specific
energy and energy density among other nickel-based batteries.
Since after the introduction of Ni-MH battery in 1991, the
battery technology has developed rapidly until today. But,
mostly Ni-MH batteries are used for Hybrid Electric Vehicle
(HEV) application such as Toyota Prius and Honda Civic
Hybrid as it has a great specific power value. According to
study, a Ni-MH battery has a lifecycle as high as 3000 cycles
with the battery operating between 20 % - 80 % DOD. The life
requirements of full-function battery EVs and plug-in HEVs
could be achieved with a full-function Ni-MH battery[57]. At a
DOD of 80 %, the lifecycle of the Ni-MH battery can be
achieved over 1000 cycles for current trend. It is believed that
lifetime for a Ni-MH battery used for EV can be last over 7
years[58]. The cost for a Ni-MH battery is somewhere around
$ 200 350 /kWh [59]. In fact, due to roughly one third of the
mass of a Ni-MH battery pack was originated from the nickel
metal itself and the price of nickel has a large impact on the
overall price of a Ni-MH battery pack [60].
After the introduction of the Ni-MH battery into the EV field,
there is another alternative battery which come after Ni-MH
which was Sodium-Nickel Chloride (Na-NiCl2) or ZEBRA
battery. This battery is commonly used for public transportation
such as bus or van due to its high operating temperature. Thus,
for this battery, it has a lifecycle of around 1000 cycles at 80 %
DOD and expected to cost roughly between $160-300 /kWh
[28]. Lifetime is expected to be sustained more than 10 years
[51]. Overall for the ZEBRA battery, it has a greater
performance compared to lead-acid but it is only to able to
perform its maximum efficiency at temperature around 250
350 °C which made this battery only suitable for urban public
transportation.
In 21st era of centuries, the most modern battery technology
used in EVs is the Li-ion based battery. It is majorly used for
many EV application and HEV today such as Nissan Leaf,
Toyota Prius, Honda Insight and Tesla Model due to its long
cycle life and high energy density. Considering the customer-
driving profiles, the Li-ion battery is designated in a way to
ensure that it can be performed full-operating capability at least
10 years. According to one of the studies, Li-ion battery was
believed that it has reached its end of life when the cell achieved
80 % of beginning of life power or 80 % of beginning of life
capacity. The Li-ion battery can be able to provide a total
energy of up to 800,000 kWh for a 10-year vehicle life
depending on the demand for power and vehicle mileage
expectations [61].
Besides, the cost for the Li-ion battery pack is high at the initial
stage when the Li-ion was freshly introduced into EV
application which having a value of $ 1000 +/kWh in the year
around 2005 2010 and expected to drop to below $ 400 /kWh
in future trend as shown in Figure 8 [62]. However, due to
progressively advanced technology in battery field, the process
to manufacture the Li-ion battery become simplified as well as
a lot of alternative materials can be utilized in the Li-ion battery
which has a lower cost. Based on a market analysis paper, the
author made a core conclusion that the reduction of the costing
to manufacture a full automotive Li-ion battery packs has been
reached to roughly $410/kWh industry-wide whereas
automotive car manufacturing leaders such as Tesla and Nissan
predicted the Li-ion battery cost around $300/kWh
[62]. Likewise, the lifecycle of the Li-ion battery also depends
on the DOD. The larger the DOD, the shorter the lifecycle for
a Li-ion battery and avoid fully discharging and charging the
Li-ion battery between uses to prolong the battery life. One
more thing is that Li-ion battery has no memory effect and does
not required periodic full discharge cycles to extend life. A
typical type of Li-ion battery that used for EV application is
Nickel Manganese Cobalt Oxide (NMC) such as Nissan Leaf,
Chevy Volt and BMW i3 [18].
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Figure 8. Cost for Li-ion and future prediction
The discharge cycle for the NMC battery at each of the DOD
will be shown in the Table 5 below. A typical Li-ion based
battery can have a lifecycle around 500 2000 cycles at a 80%
DOD condition [46]
Table 5. Lifecycle for Li-ion (NMC) battery at different DOD
Level
Depth of discharge (DOD)
Discharge Cycles
100 % DOD
~ 300
80 % DOD
~ 400
60 % DOD
~ 600
40 % DOD
~ 1000
20 % DOD
~ 2000
10 % DOD
~ 6000
Besides, there is another study on the future trend for the EVs
batteries cost which also displaying the findings from the
studies that highlighted the likely range for 20202030 battery
pack costs which will be shown in Figure 9.
According to some of the papers, some estimations has made
on the analysis of the battery cost. At year of 2020-2022, the
battery pack costs is believed will be reduced to $130
$160/kWh, and at year of 2025, the battery cost is claimed to
reach to a price of $120$135/ kWh. Furthermore, Tesla also
made a report that the price of the battery cost will become
$100/kWh by 2022 due to its NCA-based battery pack design
combining with the high-production volume can promote the
cost of battery pack become lower. In Berckmans’s finding, by
replacing the 2018-dominant graphite with the silicon alloy in
the NMC cathode batteries, the battery costs can has a great
decrease and solving the cycle-life issues at the same time [63].
BNEF's market survey indicated that the battery pack's volume-
weighted average cost is $176/kWh and expects pack-level
prices will fall to $62/kWh by 2030 [64].
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Figure 9. Future prediction for electric vehicle battery pack costs [64]
4.0 BATTERY PACK DESIGN AND CELL DESIGN
4.1 REVOLUTION OF THE DESIGN (FROM INITIAL
ARCHITECTURE GEOMETRY UNTIL LATEST DESIGN)
Battery pack is the essential component to power electric
vehicles. It is the entire battery energy storage system. It
consists of the battery modules, battery management system
(BMS) and cooling system. The amount of power needed for
EV is huge and hence it needs dozens to thousands of batteries.
Current Li-Ion batteries have overheating issues, they are also
prone to failure which is caused by mechanical vibration and
impact force. The battery pack provides protection to the
batteries and manage batteries efficiently and safely. The
battery pack design has undergone significant development in
recent years.
In 1998, Ford produced the Ford Ranger EV. The first Ford
Ranger EV is powered by Delphi lead acid battery. It had 39
battery modules. In 1999, nickel metal hydride version of Ford
Ranger was produced. It had 25 Panasonic battery modules.
The NiMH Ranger has better performance than lead-acid
Ranger. The driving range for lead-acid Ranger is 105 km while
the NiMH Ranger has 132 km driving range. The recharging
duration also decreases from 8 hours 51 minutes to 8 hours 13
minutes. The mass of the packs has also been reduced
significantly from 870.1 kg to 485 kg [65]. The lead-acid
Ranger had double layer of modules while the NiMH Ranger
had single layer. Figure 10 shows the battery pack of NiMH
Ranger.
Figure 10. Battery Pack of NiMH Ranger [65]
Nissan Leaf is an electric vehicle launched in 2010. The battery
pack of Nissan Leaf has 48 serially connected modules. Each
module consists of 4 battery cells. There are total of 192 battery
cells. It uses Lithium Manganese Oxide laminated pouch cell
[66]. Laminated cell is smaller than cylindrical cell and thus the
packaging can be more compact and flexible. Figure 11 shows
the laminated cell used by Leaf.
Figure 11. Laminated Cell [66]
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The way of cells connecting in the module is two cells
connected in parallel and two cells connected in series. Figure
12 shows the battery module used by Nissan Leaf.
Figure 12. Battery Module of Nissan Leaf [66]
The modules are connected in series, and together with the
Battery Management System, service disconnect switch and
junction box, it forms the battery pack. Figure 13 shows the
battery pack of Nissan Leaf.
Figure 13. Battery Pack of Nissan Leaf [66]
The battery pack has total energy of 24 kWh. The driving range
is 160 km. Comparing to NiMH Ranger, the driving range of
Nissan Leaf has increased by approximately 20%.
Chevrolet Bolt EV started to produce in 2017. The battery pack
consists of 10 modules, there are eight modules which have 10
groups of cells each, another two modules have 8 groups of
cells each. Each group has three cells connected in parallel.
There are total of 96 cell groups and 288 lithium ion cells [67].
Figure 14 shows the battery pack of Chevrolet Bolt EV.
Figure 14. Battery Pack of Chevrolet Bolt [67]
The cell used is also laminated pouch cell. The group of three
cells resembles a book and each group is stacked together
which forms the module like a bookshelf. The battery pack has
60 kWh energy. Chevrolet Bolt EV has driving range of 380
km [68], which doubled the driving range of Nissan Leaf.
By comparing battery pack of these models, battery pack
design has developed in implementing more battery cells in a
compact design, storing more energy and increases the driving
range.
4.2 CELL CHEMISTRY, MATERIALS, BALANCING,
INTEGRITY
Batteries provide power to electric vehicle through electricity.
The electricity comes from the electrochemical reactions
occurred, which results in the flow of electrons and produces
electricity [69]. Different types of batteries contain different
chemical components and thus the chemical reaction also
varies from each other. The theory of the chemical reaction of
different batteries is similar.
As mentioned earlier, there are different materials used for the
anode, cathode and electrolyte of Lithium-Ion battery. The Li-
Ion battery developed by Sony in 1991 used Lithium Cobalt
Oxide (LiCoO2) as the positive electrode and graphite as the
negative electrode [70]. During discharge, oxidation is
occurred at the negative electrode. The lithium ion and electron
are released. The lithium ion moves through the electrolyte
while the electrons move through external circuit and both
particles react with cobalt dioxide at the cathode to form lithium
cobalt oxide. The reaction is in reverse direction when the cell
is charging. The electrolyte consists of lithium
hexafluorophosphate (LiPF6) and organic solvent.
It was found by researchers from University of Texas in 1996
that the material for positive electrode of Li-ion battery could
be phosphate material too[17]. Lithium Iron Phosphate
(LiFePO4) battery has longer cycle life than other lithium ion
batteries. The negative electrode is also graphite. The half
reaction of negative electrode is the same as Lithium Cobalt
Oxide battery since graphite is used for both cases. At the
positive electrode, Lithium Cobalt Oxide is replaced by
Lithium Iron Phosphate [71].
4.3 BATTERY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
(REQUIREMENTS, DESIGN, TOPOLOGY)
Battery Management System is an important electronic system
to maintain the performance of batteries. Overcharging may
damage the batteries. BMS helps to keep the batteries working
under safe conditions by monitoring the charging voltage and
stops charging when the required voltage has reached [72].
BMS also measures state of charge (SOC), which is the
available capacity of batteries [73]. The longevity of battery life
is also maintained by BMS.
4.3.1 Requirements for Lithium Ion batteries
Lithium Ion batteries are common batteries used by EV today
due to their high energy density and efficiency. However, there
is risk of electric shock and fire hazard if not handled properly.
BMS is a complex system. There are certain requirements of
BMS that have to be met for it to perform all the important task.
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4.3.2 Temperature Sensing
The temperature of batteries affects the performance greatly.
The range of operating temperature for Li-Ion batteries is -20
C to 60 C. Nagasubramanian has found that when the
temperature is 25 C, the energy density of Panasonic 18650
Li-Ion battery was 100 Wh/L and was reduced to 5 Wh/L at -
40 C[74]. Thus, it is important to measure the temperature of
batteries. A few temperature sensors are needed and the
location where the sensors are placed need to be determined.
Simulations can be conducted to find the suitable placements
for the sensors. Example of the sensors are thermocouple and
fiber sensors [75].
4.3.3 Voltage Sensing
Minimum of one voltage acquisition channel is needed per cell.
Most electric vehicles have an additional programmable device
which alert BMS whenever any cell is not operated within the
allowed voltage range. The voltage acquisition is also
responsible for the SOC estimation. If the voltage measured is
more accurate, the SOC estimation is better [76].
4.3.4 Current Sensing
The determination of SOC using voltage measurement is
suitable during stand-still periods, another method which is
suitable for determining dynamic SOC is by measuring current,
also known as coulomb counting. The coulomb counter can
track the SOC. Current sensors in EV should be capable of
measuring current ranging from milliampere to 1000 Ampere
[76].
4.3.5 Communication
BMS needs to communicate with other system such as power
electronics, energy management system and others, to transmit
important information and receive instructions. The common
mean of communication is Controller Area Network (CAN). It
can provide robust communication under harsh operating
environment such as loud electrical noise. Other requirements
include electromagnetic interference (EMI) filtering device
which reduce the influence of EMI on sensors, galvanic
isolation to isolate high voltage part and low voltage part of
battery packs, and contactors which can cut off DC currents
when hazardous events happen.
4.3.6 Topologies and Design
As mentioned, battery pack consists of many batteries. The
Integrated Circuit (IC) of BMS plays important role in
monitoring these batteries at once. The front-end IC of modules
is referred as BMS Slaves. Their function is acquiring signal
and filtering. Another important component is The Electronic
Control Unit (ECU), also known as BMS Master. It controls
and oversees the electrical system.
4.3.7 The traction batteries of three EV models
4.3.7.1 Mitsubishi i-MiEV.
Battery pack of Mitsubishi i-MiEV has 12 modules. 10
modules contain eight cells each and another two modules have
four cells each, there are total of 88 prismatic cells [76]. There
is a Printed Circuit Board (PCB) mounted on each module,
which contains a battery monitoring IC. It can monitor 12 series
connected lithium ion cells. There are also three temperature
sensors in each PCB. Other components in the battery pack
includes contactors, service plug, current transducer, fuses and
a fan. The BMS Master is placed under the rear bench seat. The
Cell Management Unit (CMU) is connected to BMS Master by
Controller Area Network. Figure 15 shows the battery pack of
Mitsubishi i-MiEV.
Figure 15. Battery Pack of Mitsubishi i-MiEV [76]
4.3.7.2 Volkswagen e-Up
The battery pack of VW e-Up contains 17 modules connected
in series, each module has six pairs of two prismatic cell. There
are total of 204 cells in the pack. There are BMS slave in the
white box which is situated at the left side of the pack. The fuse,
contactors and current measurement is situated below the black
cover in the middle. The BMS master can be found in another
white box. There is no cooling system in this pack. Figure 16
shows the battery pack of VW e-Up.
Figure 16. Battery Pack of Volkswagen e-Up [76]
4.3.7.3 Smart Fortwo Electric Drive
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There are 90 pouch bag lithium ion cells in the battery pack of
third generation Smart ED. The batteries are connected in
series. There are three PCBs in the battery pack and each of
them has six monitoring IC[76]. The BMS master is placed
beside the communication signal connector. The fuse and
contactor can be found beside the power connector. The entire
BMS of Smart ED is placed in the battery case. The space of
battery pack is used efficiently and there aren’t many cables
used. Figure 17 shows the battery pack of Smart ED.
Figure 17. Battery Pack of Smart Fortwo Electric Drive [76]
The main difference between the BMS of these three batteries
packs is integration. The battery of Smart ED showed large
scale of integration, while there is average amount of
integration in the batteries of VW e-Up and Mitsubishi i-MiEV.
For Smart ED, the monitoring IC and PCB are mounted on the
battery modules in a space saving method. The BMS master is
placed inside the pack too. As for the i- MiEV, the BMS master
is not placed in the pack, which leads to more cabling required.
Smart ED showed large scale of integration, while there is
average amount of integration in the batteries of VW e-Up and
Mitsubishi i-MiEV. For Smart ED, the monitoring IC and PCB
are mounted on the battery modules in a space saving method.
The BMS master is placed inside the pack too. As for the i-
MiEV, the BMS master is not placed in the pack, which leads
to more cabling required.
4.4 BATTERY THERMAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
(BTMS)
Battery temperature affects the performance, reliability and
safety of EV. It is important for batteries to maintain within
ideal operating temperature range. The four important
functions of BTMS are cooling by removing heat, heating to
increase temperature of battery when temperature is too low,
insulating to reduce sudden change in battery temperature and
ventilation to expel hazardous gas from battery [77].
BTMS can be classified into two categories, which are BTMS
with vapor compression cycle (VCC) and without VCC. The
options of system for BTMS with VCC includes cabin air
cooling, direct refrigerant two phase cooling and secondary
loop liquid cooling. As for BTMS without VCC, there are
phase change material cooling, heat pipe cooling and
thermoelectric element cooling.
Production of BMW i3 started in 2013. It uses direct refrigerant
two-phase cooling system [78]. The refrigerant evaporator
which is implemented in the cooling plate is used to cool the
battery. There is phase changing during heat transfer, which
helps to keep the temperature almost constant. Audi e-tron
started production in 2018. It uses liquid cooling system. There
is 22 liters of coolant flowing around the 40 m cooling pipes
[79]. Important components such as the electric motor,
batteries, stators are liquid cooled. A heat pump is used to
utilize the waste heat from the electric motor for heating and air
conditioning the interior.
5.0 ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES OF BATTERIES
Batteries can help on replacing our reliance fossil fuels which
can make the economy to by greener, although it may make the
world greener, the environment footprint for batteries need to
be consider too. In this part, lithium-ion batteries will be
mentioned regarding the environmental issues since lithium-
ion batteries are the batteries that commonly used in these days
[80]. Lifecycle analysis (LCA) will be used in this section to
calculate the footprint of the environment across the range of
impacts on GHG emissions, pollution issues, and more. LCA
can be defined as a way of assessing the impact on the
environment through the life cycle and process of the raw
materials, manufacturing, use, recycling and final disposal of
the product [81].
5.1 MATERIAL ISSUE
There are a lot of choices of materials can be used to produce
electrodes and electrolytes. Since there are a lot of materials
choices, this brings in slot issues such as toxicity, safety,
recycling or disposal impacts [82].
5.1.1 Resource Availability
Due to the soaring demand and huge size of future energy
storage installations, more material resources need to produce
more batteries to fulfill these circumstances [83]. Nowadays,
there are enough batteries key constituents, but as the
production getting larger years by years, the reserve key
constituents for batteries will ended up used up and one day this
will be the issue if there aren’t any further action taken when
there are still resources in the world [83].
In lithium-ion batteries, the key constituents of this battery are
lithium, manganese, cobalt, nickel and natural graphite, it were
expected to meet the near-term demand of batteries and the
inventor and researcher mentioned that these key constituents
are able to supply until the next decades with the rise in demand
[83].
In the statement from the researcher and inventor of the lithium-
ion batteries does not include the sharp increase in demand
where this will boost the market prices. It seems like the amount
of lithium left will not be enough to supply for the world to
have 100% electrification vehicles [80]. This might happen in
the next decades since the production and manufacturing line
of vehicles has slowly innovate electric vehicles. It has already
been 10% of the world vehicles were functioning with the help
of electricity with reducing of fuels [83].
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The key constituents of lithium-ion batteries were very limited
nowadays in the sense that the minded area were very small
selections and this will be very risky in the terms of only supply
lithium-ion batteries to the technologies [84].
5.1.2 Environmental Impacts
5.1.2.1 Electrode Materials
Among all the life cycle stages, mineral extraction and metal
refining has the most important contributions. Lithium-ion
batteries key constituents such as nickel and cobalt will
significantly increase the environmental footprint. According
the lifecycle analysis, these materials were considered as toxic
substances and from the min tailing, this will have the chance
of leaking [85]. Besides that, when smelting takes place for the
virgin cobalt and nickel recovery, high levels of Sulphur oxide
will be produced [86]. Cobalt and nickel can only be mined in
a less strict countries on environmental, health and regulations.
However, just minimize the leakage will reduce the toxicity
where it will benefit the environment, and this will beneficial
the environmental performance of batteries [87].
The way to reduce the impact of extractive activities are to
increase the efficiency of the resources and recycling or reusing
the batteries. Lead acid batteries can be last until this decade
are because there are more recycled (secondary) than raw
(primary) lead acid batteries were used in worldwide. However,
there are new inventor trying to replace lead acid batteries are
mainly because the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) has
added lead acid batteries as the Candidate List of Substances of
Very High Concern (SVHCs), this is mainly due to the toxic
substances [80].
5.1.2.2 Electrolyte Risks
The electrolyte used for batteries brings major impact on the
performance of a battery. However, electrolyte performance
and safety will need to be compromise. Minor electrolytes
substances will bring impact to human health such as the
electrolyte of lead acid batteries, sulphuric acid [88]. Not just
lead acid batteries, for one of the latest technologies batteries,
lithium-ion batteries, it is consider as relatively high flammable
and the electrolyte of the lithium-ion batteries will form a toxic
atmosphere when the lithium-ion batteries are not closed or
semi-closed properly and this aloe the formation of hydrogen
fluoride (HF), where it is an extremely toxic and corrosive
chemical reaction. This will only occur when there are car
crashing happening or any incident that not closing the batteries
properly [88].
5.1.2.3 Binders
Binders is like a glued where is “glued” the components of the
battery together. The binders used has cause impact to the
environmental. Majority binders are made of fluorinated
substances, this is because these substances will produce
energy intensive and the emission of ozone depleting
substances [87]. In the terms of recycling, it needs further
process such as toxic solvent to break down the binders only
can be recycled, and it is not biodegradable[89]. Therefore, the
binders took another process, but it can still be considered as a
substance that can be recycled.
5.2 ENERGY ISSUE: PRODUCTION & CHARGING
5.2.1 Energy Source for Production
The carbon intensity normally used in producing batteries have
a big impact on the environment footprint. In the production of
lithium-ion batteries, the production can be very complicated,
this is because to prevent the HF to be formed therefore it need
to be manufacture at extremely low humidity and cell assembly
at very dry surroundings [90]. According to a research paper
stated that there are 7 types of lithium-ion batteries which
assessed cumulative demand of 19 studies and took the average
of 1 Wh of lithium-ion batteries needs approximately 328Wh
of energy to produced. With the 1 Wh will be around 110 grams
of CO2, which are the GHG emissions[90]. Asian country is
mostly placing to manufacture lithium-ion batteries with some
mixture of electricity which results differently compared to
majority of the Europe countries [91]. An example shows that
in South Korea, the lithium-ion batteries there are production
with the mixture of coal, nuclear and gas. This results that the
impact to the global warming will be 60% higher than using
100% electricity supply [91].
After all these incidents, the things that can overcome GHG
emissions from the production of batteries will be by making
sure that the cells can be fully renewable sources [92]. When
the world thinks that this is nearly impossible, but there goes in
one of the largest batteries’ factory in Sweden, in the year of
2023, the manufacturing batteries factory will make sure it will
be 100% powered by renewable sources such as
hydroelectricity [92].
5.2.2 Roundtrip Efficiency
Roundtrip efficiency can be defined as a place to store the
energy and give the energy back to the grid. In mathematically
term it means the ratio of energy input is the ratio of energy
output which it is normally calculated in percentage. It can be
simplified with saying that when the power needs to be used,
the amount of energy coming out when there is discharge
occurring of a secondary (recycled) battery.
In a commonly used lead acid battery, there are efficiency over
70-80%. In another words, 20-30% of the energy will be lost
during the charging cycles. In another hand, lithium-ion
efficiency is over 90%, where after the charging cycle, only
10% of the energy will loss. All these lost energies will be the
impact to environmental [87]. It is a serious scenario since if
the improvement to overcome these issues can be reduce from
90% to 92% for lithium-ion battery, these 2 % difference will
lead to 7% reduction from the impact of environmental [93].
5.3 LIFESPAN
If a battery has a longer lifespan, it drags the number of times
on replacing the battery. The longer the lifespan will also affect
the cost reduced by relating it back to less impact to the
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environment. In real life application, battery in the electronic
vehicle’s lifespan is longer than the other smaller electronic
device. If the battery drained up dramatically, users will change
the whole electronics away and this will consider as end-of-life
(EoL) of the whole electronics which will increase the impact
of environment.
Battery’s lifespan has 2 categories to differentiate the batteries
namely calendar years and life cycle. For calendar years, the
inventor will calculate the maximum use of the batteries with
the length of time. For example, the battery can last for 3 years,
then the battery will be drained off completely. On the other
hand, life cycle of the batteries is where the inventor will
calculate with the number of charges to the batteries. For
example, if the battery can be charge for 2400 cycles, after 2400
cycles, the battery will be “half dead” or completely not
functionable. For the case of using lead acid batteries, it will go
through 3 phases which are formatting, peak and decline [94].
Figure 18. The three phases of lead acid batteries [94]
From Figure 18, it clearly shows how a battery life span will
be like. In formatting, this required 20-50 cycles to reach the
second phase, which is the peak phase. It will take 100-200
cycles to reach the third phase which is the decline phase. To
increase the lifespan of lead acid batteries, these batteries must
make sure to charge for ±15 hours [94]. For lithium-ion
batteries, the peak it can reached 2000 cycles, in another words,
the lead acid batteries result higher impact on environmental
compared to lithium-ion batteries.
5.4 END OF LIFE (EOL)
Recycle and reuse can be the ways for batteries that came end
of life (EoL). Recycle in batteries also called as secondary
batteries, this will give a big hand on reducing impact on
environmental Besides that, by comparing on increasing the
lifespan, reuse the batteries will be a better choice [80].
5.4.1 Recycling
Recycling has the direct environmental benefits. In lithium-ion
batteries, if the cathode used were materials such as aluminum
and copper, this may help the environment to save over 50% of
its lifetime which is a decade’s number [80]. As mentioned
earlier in section 5.1.2, the reduction of sulphuric oxide will be
emission by approximately 100% which is emission completely
since it prevents from smelting [86]. Somehow it will be
challenging to recycle lithium-ion batteries [95]. It contains a
huge number of mixed materials in lithium-ion batteries, where
compared to simpler batteries such as Pb-Acid batteries, the Li-
ion battery is much more complicated. For an electric vehicle
that powered by Li-ion battery, at least 100 individual cells are
needed [95]. Some of the materials need to be separated in the
lithium-ion batteries as the composition of the materials is not
allowed to be recycled.
When there are lithium-ion batteries without any labeled on it,
it stand for there are some of the compositions are not allowed
to be recycled [95]. Due to the production of electric vehicles,
the number of productions for lithium-ion batteries reaches
approximately 25 billion by just 2019 globally [96]. The
method of extracting cobalt, nickel and copper were known one
of the most economically valuable resources in the field of
recycling lithium-ion batteries, the other products will not be
recycled and neglected as there are too many cells in lithium-
ion batteries [95]. The main reason that cobalt lithium-ion
batteries can be recycled is that cobalt is a precious element, so
if cobalt is not extracted, the recovery of lithium-ion batteries
will be commercially unattractive [96].
5.4.2 Reuse
Batteries from electric vehicles that has lost the initial
capacities can be used in other lesser demand energy storage, it
means by lost the initial capacities means the batteries has only
75% compared to the initial capacities [89]. In some of the
research studies stated that secondary lithium-ion batteries are
feasibility and environmental benefits [97]. There are some
challenges to reuse due to the complex physical and chemical
process, one of the challenges is to design a battery
management system which fulfill the qualification of evolution
[98].
6.0 CONCLUSION AND FUTURE DEVELOPMENT
The development and revolution of battery technology from old
centuries to latest battery technology have been reviewed in the
paper. The revolution processes and parameters of the
rechargeable batteries from the earliest which is Pb-Acid
battery to the recent latest Li-ion battery were examined. Based
on the evolution from lead acid battery to lithium ion battery,
the parameters such as specific energy, energy density, specific
power, weight and size had enhanced along the evolution. The
battery specific energy, energy density and specific power have
increased over the evolution and the weight and size of battery
have significantly decreased over the years. Tin terms of
battery capacity and travel distance, the lithium ion battery has
the best performance among the other batteries. The charging
time and the discharge time of the batteries were also discussed.
The lifetime / lifecycle and cost of the evolution of batteries
were also reviewed. However, there are currently a few
developing batteries which use different anode, cathode and
electrolyte separator that could possibly enhance the
performance of the batteries by increasing the parameters such
as heat capacity, lifetime / lifecycle sustainability. The
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revolution in terms of the essential of battery pack design and
cell design were considered in the review paper. This include
the cell chemistry, materials, balancing and integrity of
batteries. The attributes of battery management system, thermal
management system for battery pack and the battery state
estimation were deliberated. Lastly, the sustainability issues of
the batteries including the impact of batteries to the
environment, the degradation / aging defects, the recyclability,
repurposing and extend life issues were discussed in detail.
Li-ion batteries have changed dramatically over the past 25
years, making it possible to introduce better performance in
consumer electronics and new applications such as drones and
EVs. Nonetheless, innovation is crucial to speed up these and
other implementationsa step-change in efficiency is required.
There's a lot going on in innovations of the next century. A host
of battery technologies are being built by innovative start-ups
utilizing new materials, while in the Li-ion sector there is
growing development focusing primarily on three areas: silica
anodes, advanced cathodes and solid-state electrolytes.The
silica anodes technology will be used to replace the carbon or
graphite anode in Li-ion batteries. The Li-ion anode
substitution with silica anode technology will increase the
battery capacity in absorbing ions because each silicon atom
will take up to four lithium ions, whereas six carbon atoms
absorb just one lithium in graphite anodes. It is therefore stated
that it can improve the energy density up to 40%. However, to
implement this technology in current Li-ion batteries, cycle-life
issues need to be addressed as the silicon atom will expand up
to 300 percent volume while charging, which can cause it to
break and cause the battery to fail. Ongoing technologies use
only small concentrations of silica which restrict possible
increases in density to 1020%.
One of the future developments of the battery system industries
that can contribute to the progress of battery for electric
vehicles is the investment of magnesium-ion batteries.
Rechargeable magnesium battery (RMB) is potentially
contributing more to the automobiles industries after Lithium-
ion battery due to its relatively safe characteristic regardless of
it being a reactive metal, the high specific capacity and richness
in the earth’s crust. The availability and cost of magnesium is
winning over its counterpart which is the lithium-ion battery.
Another potential battery that possibly could be developed
further to achieve equally if not more of what lithium ion
battery has achieved is the sodium ion battery (SIB). The
positive aspects of sodium ion battery including the richness of
sodium precursor materials in the earth as well as its low
budget. Lithium precursors are about 25-30 times more
expensive than the sodium precursors. Due to the expansion of
knowledge of developing lithium ion over the decades, the
theories that have been accumulated during the research and
development of lithium ion battery can be used in developing
the sodium ion battery.
However, the current limitations of sodium ion battery include
the identification of suitable materials to have layered materials
which have been adopted by the lithium ion battery for most
applications. Comparing to lithium ion battery, the sodium ion
battery has lower energy density because of the layered sodium
ion battery cathode materials has operating voltages of up to
1.5 V lower than lithium ion battery’s layered. The success of
further research, investigation and development on the
materials to have layered materials that is suitable to use on the
sodium ion battery system will let sodium ion battery to make
a major impact on the electrochemistry industry.
Ultimately, in EV applications, the battery plays the most
important core role. To encourage more industrial EV
implementations in the future, other battery targets such as long
lifecycles, high specific energy and power, and the right
amount of price that can compare with an ICE must be met.
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... They also power electric cars such as the Tesla roadster and the Smart ForTwo. Still, the high cost due to the limited cobalt resources has been a major limiting factor in its widespread adoption in electric vehicles [65]. Another cathode material used in electric vehicles such as electric buses in China is Lithium iron phosphate (LFP) [67]. ...
... However, low energy density means that LMO cannot be used alone as a cathode in electric cars and it is usually blended with Nickel manganese cobalt oxide (NMC) to improve its energy density. Nissan Leaf, BMW i3, and Chevrolet Bolt are examples of cars that use LMO-NMC batteries [65,67]. The most popular cathode materials for electric vehicles are Ternary layered oxides; specifically nickel-rich ternary layered oxides (NMC and NCA). ...
... Nickel-rich NMC provides higher capacity but suffers in thermal stability and cyclic performance, which is solved by preparing a full concentration gradient solution (FCG) [67]. Ni-rich NCA is also similar to Ni-rich NMC in providing higher specific energy, but it is not as safe, requiring additional safety measures before being integrated into electric vehicles; NCA is used in electric vehicles such as Tesla [65,67]. Fig. 4 shows a comparison between different types of lithium-ion batteries. ...
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