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Making Sense: Reference, Agency, and Structure in a Grammar of Multimodal Meaning

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Abstract

Cambridge Core - Semantics and Pragmatics - Making Sense - by Bill Cope
... The concept of meaning as Design, with its three interrelated dimensions, captures the relationship between the dynamic processes of embodied meaning making, with the changing materiality of textual practices in digital literacy contexts. In terms of embodiment and language, theorists of the NLG, such as Cope and Kalantzis (2020) explain that meanings are configured by human bodies. This includes semiotic resources, such as gaze, facial expression, gesticulation, clothing, gait, posture, and demeanour. ...
... This includes semiotic resources, such as gaze, facial expression, gesticulation, clothing, gait, posture, and demeanour. They similarly acknowledge that in digital environments, wearable devices can play a role in communicating bodily meanings across time and space, often making digital recordings of these corporeally generated meanings (Cope & Kalantzis, 2020). ...
... The digital production and distribution of sonic media is a rapidly changing landscape, with some referring to an 'audiovisual turn' across a range of fields, from applied linguistics to media studies, and from musicology to philosophy. In the digital age, sonic elements often carry a significant functional load of textual meaning that is felt viscerally in the body (Cope & Kalantzis, 2020). Humans and civilisations encounter transformed soundscapes -sonic or acoustic environmentslayers of meanings in our daily lives that are a vital part of our multisensorial emplacement in the world (Schafer, 1993). ...
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Engagement with video games can potentially advance student digital competence however, there is a digital skills gap by the time young people progress into adolescence. This current research explores how elementary school students’ digital self-efficacy might relate to experiences in video game environments to influence perceptions of digital competence. We examine the differential impact of sex, self-efficacy, and socioeconomic status (SES) on 7–10-year-old students’ (N = 613) perceptions of video gaming and their digital skills. Analysis revealed the unexpected finding that SES was inversely related to enjoyment for gaming and digital technology, with students in the lower-SES category responding more positively compared to students in higher SES categories. As expected, boys self-reported digital skills higher than girls across all SES categories. We argue for the use of gaming pedagogies to support learning in classrooms that accounts for nuances in students’ digital self-efficacy moderated by gender and SES.
... The concept of meaning as Design, with its three interrelated dimensions, captures the relationship between the dynamic processes of embodied meaning making, with the changing materiality of textual practices in digital literacy contexts. In terms of embodiment and language, theorists of the NLG, such as Cope and Kalantzis (2020) explain that meanings are configured by human bodies. This includes semiotic resources, such as gaze, facial expression, gesticulation, clothing, gait, posture, and demeanour. ...
... This includes semiotic resources, such as gaze, facial expression, gesticulation, clothing, gait, posture, and demeanour. They similarly acknowledge that in digital environments, wearable devices can play a role in communicating bodily meanings across time and space, often making digital recordings of these corporeally generated meanings (Cope & Kalantzis, 2020). ...
... The digital production and distribution of sonic media is a rapidly changing landscape, with some referring to an 'audiovisual turn' across a range of fields, from applied linguistics to media studies, and from musicology to philosophy. In the digital age, sonic elements often carry a significant functional load of textual meaning that is felt viscerally in the body (Cope & Kalantzis, 2020). Humans and civilisations encounter transformed soundscapes -sonic or acoustic environmentslayers of meanings in our daily lives that are a vital part of our multisensorial emplacement in the world (Schafer, 1993). ...
... The concept of meaning as Design, with its three interrelated dimensions, captures the relationship between the dynamic processes of embodied meaning making, with the changing materiality of textual practices in digital literacy contexts. In terms of embodiment and language, theorists of the NLG, such as Cope and Kalantzis (2020) explain that meanings are configured by human bodies. This includes semiotic resources, such as gaze, facial expression, gesticulation, clothing, gait, posture, and demeanour. ...
... This includes semiotic resources, such as gaze, facial expression, gesticulation, clothing, gait, posture, and demeanour. They similarly acknowledge that in digital environments, wearable devices can play a role in communicating bodily meanings across time and space, often making digital recordings of these corporeally generated meanings (Cope & Kalantzis, 2020). ...
... The digital production and distribution of sonic media is a rapidly changing landscape, with some referring to an 'audiovisual turn' across a range of fields, from applied linguistics to media studies, and from musicology to philosophy. In the digital age, sonic elements often carry a significant functional load of textual meaning that is felt viscerally in the body (Cope & Kalantzis, 2020). Humans and civilisations encounter transformed soundscapes -sonic or acoustic environmentslayers of meanings in our daily lives that are a vital part of our multisensorial emplacement in the world (Schafer, 1993). ...
... The concept of meaning as Design, with its three interrelated dimensions, captures the relationship between the dynamic processes of embodied meaning making, with the changing materiality of textual practices in digital literacy contexts. In terms of embodiment and language, theorists of the NLG, such as Cope and Kalantzis (2020) explain that meanings are configured by human bodies. This includes semiotic resources, such as gaze, facial expression, gesticulation, clothing, gait, posture, and demeanour. ...
... This includes semiotic resources, such as gaze, facial expression, gesticulation, clothing, gait, posture, and demeanour. They similarly acknowledge that in digital environments, wearable devices can play a role in communicating bodily meanings across time and space, often making digital recordings of these corporeally generated meanings (Cope & Kalantzis, 2020). ...
... The digital production and distribution of sonic media is a rapidly changing landscape, with some referring to an 'audiovisual turn' across a range of fields, from applied linguistics to media studies, and from musicology to philosophy. In the digital age, sonic elements often carry a significant functional load of textual meaning that is felt viscerally in the body (Cope & Kalantzis, 2020). Humans and civilisations encounter transformed soundscapes -sonic or acoustic environmentslayers of meanings in our daily lives that are a vital part of our multisensorial emplacement in the world (Schafer, 1993). ...
... The concept of meaning as Design, with its three interrelated dimensions, captures the relationship between the dynamic processes of embodied meaning making, with the changing materiality of textual practices in digital literacy contexts. In terms of embodiment and language, theorists of the NLG, such as Cope and Kalantzis (2020) explain that meanings are configured by human bodies. This includes semiotic resources, such as gaze, facial expression, gesticulation, clothing, gait, posture, and demeanour. ...
... This includes semiotic resources, such as gaze, facial expression, gesticulation, clothing, gait, posture, and demeanour. They similarly acknowledge that in digital environments, wearable devices can play a role in communicating bodily meanings across time and space, often making digital recordings of these corporeally generated meanings (Cope & Kalantzis, 2020). ...
... The digital production and distribution of sonic media is a rapidly changing landscape, with some referring to an 'audiovisual turn' across a range of fields, from applied linguistics to media studies, and from musicology to philosophy. In the digital age, sonic elements often carry a significant functional load of textual meaning that is felt viscerally in the body (Cope & Kalantzis, 2020). Humans and civilisations encounter transformed soundscapes -sonic or acoustic environmentslayers of meanings in our daily lives that are a vital part of our multisensorial emplacement in the world (Schafer, 1993). ...
... The concept of meaning as Design, with its three interrelated dimensions, captures the relationship between the dynamic processes of embodied meaning making, with the changing materiality of textual practices in digital literacy contexts. In terms of embodiment and language, theorists of the NLG, such as Cope and Kalantzis (2020) explain that meanings are configured by human bodies. This includes semiotic resources, such as gaze, facial expression, gesticulation, clothing, gait, posture, and demeanour. ...
... This includes semiotic resources, such as gaze, facial expression, gesticulation, clothing, gait, posture, and demeanour. They similarly acknowledge that in digital environments, wearable devices can play a role in communicating bodily meanings across time and space, often making digital recordings of these corporeally generated meanings (Cope & Kalantzis, 2020). ...
... The digital production and distribution of sonic media is a rapidly changing landscape, with some referring to an 'audiovisual turn' across a range of fields, from applied linguistics to media studies, and from musicology to philosophy. In the digital age, sonic elements often carry a significant functional load of textual meaning that is felt viscerally in the body (Cope & Kalantzis, 2020). Humans and civilisations encounter transformed soundscapes -sonic or acoustic environmentslayers of meanings in our daily lives that are a vital part of our multisensorial emplacement in the world (Schafer, 1993). ...
... The concept of meaning as Design, with its three interrelated dimensions, captures the relationship between the dynamic processes of embodied meaning making, with the changing materiality of textual practices in digital literacy contexts. In terms of embodiment and language, theorists of the NLG, such as Cope and Kalantzis (2020) explain that meanings are configured by human bodies. This includes semiotic resources, such as gaze, facial expression, gesticulation, clothing, gait, posture, and demeanour. ...
... This includes semiotic resources, such as gaze, facial expression, gesticulation, clothing, gait, posture, and demeanour. They similarly acknowledge that in digital environments, wearable devices can play a role in communicating bodily meanings across time and space, often making digital recordings of these corporeally generated meanings (Cope & Kalantzis, 2020). ...
... The digital production and distribution of sonic media is a rapidly changing landscape, with some referring to an 'audiovisual turn' across a range of fields, from applied linguistics to media studies, and from musicology to philosophy. In the digital age, sonic elements often carry a significant functional load of textual meaning that is felt viscerally in the body (Cope & Kalantzis, 2020). Humans and civilisations encounter transformed soundscapes -sonic or acoustic environmentslayers of meanings in our daily lives that are a vital part of our multisensorial emplacement in the world (Schafer, 1993). ...
... The concept of meaning as Design, with its three interrelated dimensions, captures the relationship between the dynamic processes of embodied meaning making, with the changing materiality of textual practices in digital literacy contexts. In terms of embodiment and language, theorists of the NLG, such as Cope and Kalantzis (2020) explain that meanings are configured by human bodies. This includes semiotic resources, such as gaze, facial expression, gesticulation, clothing, gait, posture, and demeanour. ...
... This includes semiotic resources, such as gaze, facial expression, gesticulation, clothing, gait, posture, and demeanour. They similarly acknowledge that in digital environments, wearable devices can play a role in communicating bodily meanings across time and space, often making digital recordings of these corporeally generated meanings (Cope & Kalantzis, 2020). ...
... The digital production and distribution of sonic media is a rapidly changing landscape, with some referring to an 'audiovisual turn' across a range of fields, from applied linguistics to media studies, and from musicology to philosophy. In the digital age, sonic elements often carry a significant functional load of textual meaning that is felt viscerally in the body (Cope & Kalantzis, 2020). Humans and civilisations encounter transformed soundscapes -sonic or acoustic environmentslayers of meanings in our daily lives that are a vital part of our multisensorial emplacement in the world (Schafer, 1993). ...
... The concept of meaning as Design, with its three interrelated dimensions, captures the relationship between the dynamic processes of embodied meaning making, with the changing materiality of textual practices in digital literacy contexts. In terms of embodiment and language, theorists of the NLG, such as Cope and Kalantzis (2020) explain that meanings are configured by human bodies. This includes semiotic resources, such as gaze, facial expression, gesticulation, clothing, gait, posture, and demeanour. ...
... This includes semiotic resources, such as gaze, facial expression, gesticulation, clothing, gait, posture, and demeanour. They similarly acknowledge that in digital environments, wearable devices can play a role in communicating bodily meanings across time and space, often making digital recordings of these corporeally generated meanings (Cope & Kalantzis, 2020). ...
... The digital production and distribution of sonic media is a rapidly changing landscape, with some referring to an 'audiovisual turn' across a range of fields, from applied linguistics to media studies, and from musicology to philosophy. In the digital age, sonic elements often carry a significant functional load of textual meaning that is felt viscerally in the body (Cope & Kalantzis, 2020). Humans and civilisations encounter transformed soundscapes -sonic or acoustic environmentslayers of meanings in our daily lives that are a vital part of our multisensorial emplacement in the world (Schafer, 1993). ...
... The concept of meaning as Design, with its three interrelated dimensions, captures the relationship between the dynamic processes of embodied meaning making, with the changing materiality of textual practices in digital literacy contexts. In terms of embodiment and language, theorists of the NLG, such as Cope and Kalantzis (2020) explain that meanings are configured by human bodies. This includes semiotic resources, such as gaze, facial expression, gesticulation, clothing, gait, posture, and demeanour. ...
... This includes semiotic resources, such as gaze, facial expression, gesticulation, clothing, gait, posture, and demeanour. They similarly acknowledge that in digital environments, wearable devices can play a role in communicating bodily meanings across time and space, often making digital recordings of these corporeally generated meanings (Cope & Kalantzis, 2020). ...
... The digital production and distribution of sonic media is a rapidly changing landscape, with some referring to an 'audiovisual turn' across a range of fields, from applied linguistics to media studies, and from musicology to philosophy. In the digital age, sonic elements often carry a significant functional load of textual meaning that is felt viscerally in the body (Cope & Kalantzis, 2020). Humans and civilisations encounter transformed soundscapes -sonic or acoustic environmentslayers of meanings in our daily lives that are a vital part of our multisensorial emplacement in the world (Schafer, 1993). ...
... The concept of meaning as Design, with its three interrelated dimensions, captures the relationship between the dynamic processes of embodied meaning making, with the changing materiality of textual practices in digital literacy contexts. In terms of embodiment and language, theorists of the NLG, such as Cope and Kalantzis (2020) explain that meanings are configured by human bodies. This includes semiotic resources, such as gaze, facial expression, gesticulation, clothing, gait, posture, and demeanour. ...
... This includes semiotic resources, such as gaze, facial expression, gesticulation, clothing, gait, posture, and demeanour. They similarly acknowledge that in digital environments, wearable devices can play a role in communicating bodily meanings across time and space, often making digital recordings of these corporeally generated meanings (Cope & Kalantzis, 2020). ...
... The digital production and distribution of sonic media is a rapidly changing landscape, with some referring to an 'audiovisual turn' across a range of fields, from applied linguistics to media studies, and from musicology to philosophy. In the digital age, sonic elements often carry a significant functional load of textual meaning that is felt viscerally in the body (Cope & Kalantzis, 2020). Humans and civilisations encounter transformed soundscapes -sonic or acoustic environmentslayers of meanings in our daily lives that are a vital part of our multisensorial emplacement in the world (Schafer, 1993). ...
... The concept of meaning as Design, with its three interrelated dimensions, captures the relationship between the dynamic processes of embodied meaning making, with the changing materiality of textual practices in digital literacy contexts. In terms of embodiment and language, theorists of the NLG, such as Cope and Kalantzis (2020) explain that meanings are configured by human bodies. This includes semiotic resources, such as gaze, facial expression, gesticulation, clothing, gait, posture, and demeanour. ...
... This includes semiotic resources, such as gaze, facial expression, gesticulation, clothing, gait, posture, and demeanour. They similarly acknowledge that in digital environments, wearable devices can play a role in communicating bodily meanings across time and space, often making digital recordings of these corporeally generated meanings (Cope & Kalantzis, 2020). ...
... The digital production and distribution of sonic media is a rapidly changing landscape, with some referring to an 'audiovisual turn' across a range of fields, from applied linguistics to media studies, and from musicology to philosophy. In the digital age, sonic elements often carry a significant functional load of textual meaning that is felt viscerally in the body (Cope & Kalantzis, 2020). Humans and civilisations encounter transformed soundscapes -sonic or acoustic environmentslayers of meanings in our daily lives that are a vital part of our multisensorial emplacement in the world (Schafer, 1993). ...
... The concept of meaning as Design, with its three interrelated dimensions, captures the relationship between the dynamic processes of embodied meaning making, with the changing materiality of textual practices in digital literacy contexts. In terms of embodiment and language, theorists of the NLG, such as Cope and Kalantzis (2020) explain that meanings are configured by human bodies. This includes semiotic resources, such as gaze, facial expression, gesticulation, clothing, gait, posture, and demeanour. ...
... This includes semiotic resources, such as gaze, facial expression, gesticulation, clothing, gait, posture, and demeanour. They similarly acknowledge that in digital environments, wearable devices can play a role in communicating bodily meanings across time and space, often making digital recordings of these corporeally generated meanings (Cope & Kalantzis, 2020). ...
... The digital production and distribution of sonic media is a rapidly changing landscape, with some referring to an 'audiovisual turn' across a range of fields, from applied linguistics to media studies, and from musicology to philosophy. In the digital age, sonic elements often carry a significant functional load of textual meaning that is felt viscerally in the body (Cope & Kalantzis, 2020). Humans and civilisations encounter transformed soundscapes -sonic or acoustic environmentslayers of meanings in our daily lives that are a vital part of our multisensorial emplacement in the world (Schafer, 1993). ...
... and learning analytics. 1 We became involved in diverse projects based on our expertise the areas of digital literacy, AI-supported e-learning platforms and pedagogies, and the theoretical extensions of semiotics required to analyze participation in computer-mediated meaning. ...
... It was not until the industrial revolution that the first programmable machines pointed to the potentials of mechanized calculation. Two nineteenth century mathematical geniuses, Ada Lovelace and her mother Anne Byron, had visited English factories using the Jacquard loom to manufacture finely patterned fabric ( [1]: 156-59). On these machines, intricately woven patterns were manufactured, whose designs had been programmed with punched cards. ...
... In 1950, Alan Turing returned to Lovelace's by-then largely forgotten paper ( [1]: 159-69). Can machines think?" ...
Article
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Artificial intelligence (AI) is emerging as a defining technology of our time, a source of fear as often as inspiration. Immersed in its practicalities, rarely do we get to ask the question, what is it? How does it impact our lives? How does it extend our human capacities? What are its risks? What are its limits? This paper is a theoretical and historical overview of the nature of binary computing that underpins AI and its relations with human intelligence. It also considers some philosophical questions about the semiotic or sense-creating work of computers. Our argument proceeds in five steps. We begin with an historical background: since Ada Lovelace, we have wondered about the intelligence of machines capable of computation, and the ways in which machine intelligence can extend human intelligence. Second, we ask, in what ways does binary computing extend human intelligence and delimit the scope of AI? Third, we propose a grammar with which to parse the practical meanings that are enabled with and through binary computing. Through this discussion, we raise the question of ontology as a counter-balance to what we will argue has been an over-emphasis on the instrumental reasoning processes of the algorithm. Fourth, we situate binary computing in the context of broad developments in modern societies which we characterize as a series of systems transitions: from industrial, to informational, to a new phase that we term “cyber-social.” Finally, we explore the risks inherent in a pervasively cyber-social system. These are narrowly captured in the technical domain, “cybersecurity.” We set out to reconceive this problem framework as the location for a potential solution, supplementing analyses of cybersecurity risk with a program of cyber-social trust.
... Building on this work and responding to the call for a metalanguage that is sufficiently sophisticated yet flexible enough to support the interpretation and creation of multimodal artefacts (Macken-Horarik 2009; Macken-Horarik and Horarik 2019), Cope and Kalantzis, 2020;Kalantzis and Cope, 2020;Cope and Kalantzis, 2021; have proposed the development of a "transpositional grammar". Rather than focusing on specific aspects of multimodal meaning-making, or specific genres, a "transpositional grammar" offers theoretical tools that can be translated into the pedagogic context as ways of thinking with and talking about multimodal meaning-making. ...
... Of particular interest is the concept of "transduction" (Kress 2010) and "transmodal transformation" (Newfield 2014) which have been used in multimodal studies to examine shifts or resemiotization (Iedema 2003) in meanings across different modes. Cope and Kalantzis (2020) and Kalantzis and Cope (2020) explain that the notion of transposition is similar in its interest in the reconstitution of meanings. They outline a FIGURE 2 | Transpositions between forms of meaning (Cope and Kalantzi, in review ...
... Here, Kalantzis and Cope (2022) propose five functions-reference, agency, structure, context, and interest ( Figure 3). The development of the five functions and the connection of these terms with concepts from multimodal studies, including those from a systemic functional theoretical orientation, are discussed in Cope and Kalantzis (2020). Kalantzis and Cope (2020) and Kalantzis and Cope (2022), these five functions are always present in meaning-making regardless of its form or combination of forms. ...
Article
Full-text available
Technology has enabled new ways of meaning-making in the digital age, incidentally bringing with it inequities in education as a result of the differing access, resources, and experiences of students. These inequities may be rendered invisible if society and schools neither recognize, value nor set out to include in formal education the meaning-making practices from students' lifeworlds. Such neglect can perpetuate the digital divide among students from diverse home backgrounds. The reform agenda of multiliteracies is to bring about educational justice through a pedagogy of access. In this paper, we discuss how this agenda can be operationalized in the frontline of education-the classroom. We propose a pedagogic metalanguage of transpositional grammar for the learning of multimodal literacy. "Transposition" refers to the process of moving between different forms of meaning (text, image, space, object, body, sound and speech), and changes of attention to their functions (reference, agency, structure, context and interest). In particular, we show the value of having a common shared conceptual framework with which to reflect upon and unpack multimodal meaning in terms of its forms and functions. We also describe how a repertoire of knowledge processes, rebalancing the cognitive and the socio-material, affective and embodied, can support teachers in their design for students' multimodal literacy learning. We argue that attention to multimodal literacy in the curriculum, pedagogy, and assessment can be productively supported with a pedagogic metalanguage of transpositional grammar and discuss how this can be a step towards mediating the invisible inequities in education in the digital age.
... Building on this work and responding to the call for a metalanguage that is sufficiently sophisticated yet flexible enough to support the interpretation and creation of multimodal artefacts (Macken-Horarik 2009; Macken-Horarik and Horarik 2019), Cope and Kalantzis, 2020;Kalantzis and Cope, 2020;Cope and Kalantzis, 2021; have proposed the development of a "transpositional grammar". Rather than focusing on specific aspects of multimodal meaning-making, or specific genres, a "transpositional grammar" offers theoretical tools that can be translated into the pedagogic context as ways of thinking with and talking about multimodal meaning-making. ...
... Of particular interest is the concept of "transduction" (Kress 2010) and "transmodal transformation" (Newfield 2014) which have been used in multimodal studies to examine shifts or resemiotization (Iedema 2003) in meanings across different modes. Cope and Kalantzis (2020) and Kalantzis and Cope (2020) explain that the notion of transposition is similar in its interest in the reconstitution of meanings. They outline a FIGURE 2 | Transpositions between forms of meaning (Cope and Kalantzi, in review ...
... Here, Kalantzis and Cope (2022) propose five functions-reference, agency, structure, context, and interest ( Figure 3). The development of the five functions and the connection of these terms with concepts from multimodal studies, including those from a systemic functional theoretical orientation, are discussed in Cope and Kalantzis (2020). Kalantzis and Cope (2020) and Kalantzis and Cope (2022), these five functions are always present in meaning-making regardless of its form or combination of forms. ...
Article
Full-text available
Technology has enabled new ways of meaning-making in the digital age, incidentally bringing with it inequities in education as a result of the differing access, resources, and experiences of students. These inequities may be rendered invisible if society and schools neither recognize, value nor set out to include in formal education the meaning-making practices from students' lifeworlds. Such neglect can perpetuate the digital divide among students from diverse home backgrounds. The reform agenda of multiliteracies is to bring about educational justice through a pedagogy of access. In this paper, we discuss how this agenda can be operationalized in the frontline of education-the classroom. We propose a pedagogic metalanguage of transpositional grammar for the learning of multimodal literacy. "Transposition" refers to the process of moving between different forms of meaning (text, image, space, object, body, sound and speech), and changes of attention to their functions (reference, agency, structure, context and interest). In particular, we show the value of having a common shared conceptual framework with which to reflect upon and unpack multimodal meaning in terms of its forms and functions. We also describe how a repertoire of knowledge processes, rebalancing the cognitive and the socio-material, affective and embodied, can support teachers in their design for students' multimodal literacy learning. We argue that attention to multimodal literacy in the curriculum, pedagogy, and assessment can be productively supported with a pedagogic metalanguage of transpositional grammar and discuss how this can be a step towards mediating the invisible inequities in education in the digital age.
... Cope and Kalantzis, however, have transformed it into a metafunction. The purpose is to "locate meaning in its surroundings [e.g., time and space]" (Cope & Kalantzis, 2020, p. 47) and to answer the question, "what is the ensemble connected with?" • Interest is connected to SFL's notion of purpose, but Cope and Kalantzis (2020) have These five metafunctions are part of an integrated theory that Cope and Kalantzis (2020; have developed for the analysis of multimodal meaning, which they have named a grammar of multimodal transposition. Even though the grammar might not have a pedagogical purpose per se, its five metafunctions bear a theoretical relationship with L-by-D's knowledge processes and overall principles behind the framework, and they expand it. ...
... Cope and Kalantzis, however, have transformed it into a metafunction. The purpose is to "locate meaning in its surroundings [e.g., time and space]" (Cope & Kalantzis, 2020, p. 47) and to answer the question, "what is the ensemble connected with?" • Interest is connected to SFL's notion of purpose, but Cope and Kalantzis (2020) have These five metafunctions are part of an integrated theory that Cope and Kalantzis (2020; have developed for the analysis of multimodal meaning, which they have named a grammar of multimodal transposition. Even though the grammar might not have a pedagogical purpose per se, its five metafunctions bear a theoretical relationship with L-by-D's knowledge processes and overall principles behind the framework, and they expand it. ...
Chapter
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Chapter 1 offers theoretical and research information on the framework of focus, Learning by Design. The first part of the chapter provides an in-depth description of the multiliteracies pedagogy proposed by the scholars in the New London Group (NLG) in 1996, and it introduces Learning by Design. In the second part, both pedagogies are compared, and parallels between them are discussed. The last sections of the chapter are devoted to the presentation of Learning by Design’s principles (belonging and transformation), its conception of a transformative curriculum, its knowledge processes (experiencing, conceptualizing, analyzing, and applying), and its most recent developments (e.g., the grammar of multimodal transposition metafunctions).
... In mainstream university teacher education, the emphasis on "knowledge of content" and "linguistic competence" for language teachers most often overshadows key aspects of communicative interactions with children (eminently multimodal), which should rather be seen in terms of intersemiotic relations, namely relationships across and between modes (Halliday 1973;Ravelli 2006;Archer 2014). Storytelling events are ideal for implementing the shift from "language teacher education" towards "multimodal teacher education and communication" (Painter, Martin, and Unsworth 2013;Archer 2014;Djonov, Stenglin, and Torr 2018;Bertoldi and Bortoluzzi 2019;Ngo 2019;Bruce, McNair, and Whinnett 2020;Vasta and Baldry 2020) and multiliteracy awareness (Cope and Kalantzis 2020). ...
... Digital environments and social media (YELL weblog, YELL/TELL Storytelling SIG, WhatsApp group, and Twitter account) allow educators, teachers, and volunteer narrators to engage in shared practices of transformative learning (Bezemer and Kress 2016: 37) and to experience a variety of affordances across media, such as videos, podcasts, photos and images, private and public instant messages, digital versions of the storybook, etc. Digital media in general, and for mobile-supported communication and learning in particular, are used by narrators for discussion and collective and selfreflection on resources and practices in complex learning ecologies (Cope and Kalantzis 2020), where contexts, participants, and media affordances expand and vary over time, creating everchanging multimodal ensembles. "Mobility of learning" for the volunteer narrators means that formal training (university courses) and learning outside the university context (civic spaces, natural environments, and private homes) are enabled, supported, enriched, and expanded by digital textualities used for diverse purposes (planning, rehearsing, recording experience, keeping in touch, getting multimodal feedback, self-and peer-reflection, etc.). ...
... For example, a criticism of SFMDA is whether the notion of a 'grammar' derived from language, can similarly be applied to other semiotic resources, such as images, gestures, and the use of space (Bateman, 2014). The tri-metafunctional organisation of meanings in discourse has also been subjected to challenge, with scholars such as Cope and Kalantzis (2020) proposing five functions of meaning, which include Context and Interest to the metafunctions. While each theoretical framework brings affordances and constraints, this challenge can be addressed by the researcher having a self-reflexive awareness of what the theoretical positioning offers and inhibits. ...
... Solving such a broader problem is beyond the remit of our endeavor. Still, we believe that a post-digital critical literacies pedagogy, coupled with an appropriate semiotic toolkit, can help learners develop a 'multimodal grammar' (Cope and Kalantzis 2020), enabling them to engage with the post-digital socio-semiotic new media landscape critically. 6. Conclusion: Contributions, limitations, future directions Hymes (1996:115) argued that narrative is a universal language function, yet our analysis has shown that narrative is a fundamental function of semiotics. ...
Article
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The paper addresses the post-digital, multimodal narratives of a thirteen-year-old teenage girl on Instagram. Post-digitality refers to the ontological assumption that the online is inseparably intertwined with the offline world. On the other hand, narratives are understood as sociocultural, perspectival, and interactional discursive nodes co-produced by the teenage girl and the platform. The fine-grained interpretation of our data draws upon a transdisciplinary framework combining several theoretical and methodological approaches , most prominently social semiotics and semiotic technology, narrative studies, new literacy studies, and critical sociolinguistics. The qualitative analysis of our data follows the logic of nexus analysis, highlighting the design of the post-digital, multimodal teenage narratives on Instagram Stories and the software's complex role in co-crafting situated storytelling. The main research findings indicate that Instagram's affordances, i.e., its technological, semiotic, social, and algorithmic features, function as co-active, non-human agents with which the adolescent girl strategically negotiates to produce her multimodal narrative work. Finally, we argue that educational policy should acknowledge the affordances of the teenage-platform multimodal narrative synergy and the need for a post-digital critical literacies pedagogy.
... Given the diversity and differences in social backgrounds of students, a common pedagogic metalanguage as a resource for the description and discussion of multimodal meaning making can raise students' semiotic awareness by augmenting and transforming their resources for meaning making. The usefulness of a metalanguage for multimodal meaning making in the classroom has been widely advocated (Cope and Kalantzis, 2020;Unsworth, 2006;Serafini, 2011). Likewise, the development of a pedagogic metalanguage, drawing from Kress and Van Leeuwen's (2021) framework for analysing images, has been a focus in our work to support teachers and students in the learning of multimodal literacy from the multiliteracies project in Singapore (Lim and Tan-Chia, 2023). ...
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Gunther Kress’s multimodal and social semiotic theory of communication has moved beyond the realm of linguistics, which originally framed his work, and has reached out to inform other fields, such as those of education, museum studies, as well as the humanities and social sciences more broadly. This article brings together our insights in relation to a concept from Gunther Kress’s theory, that of design. Drawing from our research, we reflect on Kress’s conceptualisation of design in social semiotics and discuss how this idea has inspired us to advance research across the domains of formal learning in schools, informal learning and communication in museums, and in everyday communication and social interaction. We consider that the contribution of design is to challenge the boundaries of concepts such as ‘competence’, ‘interpretation’ and ‘critique’, associated respectively with the dominant discourses and practices in the worlds of education, museums and everyday communication and research practice. We look at design as: (1) learning; (2) transformation of resources; and (3) an engaged and engaging social semiotic research, and argue that as an interpretative resource it enables us to move beyond the limitations posed by institutions such as schools, museums and academia.
... A linguagem cinematográfica se vale, ainda, de figuras de linguagem clássicas, a exemplo da metáfora e da elipse. O cinema, por ser uma arte intrinsecamente multimodal, precisa ser percebida como uma integração de semioses que formam um todo (Cope & Kalantzis, 2020). Essas modalidades podem ser analisadas tanto separadamente quanto integradas, sendo que elas fazem sentido quando estão pensadas no contexto de um enredo. ...
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A inteligência artificial é uma expressão massivamente atrelada a atmosferas futuristas e de inovação. No entanto, essa não é uma temática originada recentemente, uma vez que as suas origens datam de meados da primeira metade do século XX. Diante disso, este artigo pretende explorar sentidos que têm sido construídos em torno de temas sobre inteligência artificial em obras cinematográficas para discutir sobre possibilidades de trabalho com essa temática na educação linguística crítica. A escolha por pensar a inteligência artificial em filmes no contexto das línguas(gens) surgiu como meio para pensar de que forma essas obras tencionam a construção de sentidos sobre tecnologias, nesse caso, as que envolvem a inteligência artificial. Nessa direção, este artigo caracteriza-se como uma análise qualitativa desenvolvida por meio de pesquisa documental focada em filmes que versam sobre inteligência artificial. Os resultados apontam, em geral, para a ênfase em robôs e em cidades do futuro altamente equipadas com tecnologias de última geração.
... Le premier répertoire catégorisé par le NLG est constitué de huit modes subjectifs de création du sens : le linguistique, le visuel, l'audio, le gestuel, le tactile, le spatial et le multimodal (Kalantzis & Cope, 2008 ; le deuxième traduit objectivement ces modes en médiums. Il s'agit du texte, de l'image, de l'espace, de l'objet, du corps, du son, du discours et du multimodal (Cope & Kalantzis, 2020). ...
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... In mainstream university teacher education, the emphasis on 'knowledge of content' and 'linguistic competence' for language teachers most often overshadows key aspects of communicative interactions with children (eminently multimodal) which should be rather seen in terms of intersemiotic relations, namely relationships across and between modes (Halliday 1973;Ravelli 2006;Archer 2014). Storytelling events are ideal for implementing the shift from 'language teacher education' towards 'multimodal teacher education and communication' (Painter, Martin, Unsworth 2013;Archer 2014;Djonov, Stenglin and Torr 2018;Bertoldi and Bortoluzzi 2019;Ngo 2019;Bruce, McNair and Whinnett 2020;Vasta and Baldry 2020) and multiliteracy awareness (Cope and Kalantzis 2020). ...
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It is in the nature of pedagogy as a social activity to bring the outside world in, and not just some aspects of the outside world but every conceivable aspect—atoms, poems, mountains, revolutions, laws, kidneys. This is how everything in the world becomes learnable within the formalized institutional frame of education —by exophoric reference. If the architecture of meaning of the classroom is like a clause where the given/subject is addressed by the new/predicate, then the given/subject is the taken-for-granted existing knowledge of the student, and the new/predicate is whatever the class happens to be about—and that could be anything at all.
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The launch of ChatGPT in November 2022 precipitated a panic among some educators while prompting qualified enthusiasm from others. Under the umbrella term Generative AI, ChatGPT is an example of a range of technologies for the delivery of computer-generated text, image, and other digitized media. This paper examines the implications for education of one generative AI technology, chatbots responding from large language models, or C-LLM. It reports on an application of a C-LLM to AI review and assessment of complex student work. In a concluding discussion, the paper explores the intrinsic limits of generative AI, bound as it is to language corpora and their textual representation through binary notation. Within these limits, we suggest the range of emerging and potential applications of Generative AI in education.
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The current study deals with the concept of persuasion, which is one of the prominent linguistic phenomena in all societies. The study attempts to examine the concept of persuasion in marketing context from the point of view of the multimodality of promotional medical brochures, taking into account the fact that the process of persuasion in marketing of medical brochures depends on the relationship between texts, images, designs, fonts, and other factors. The study uses a multimodal analysis of some medical brochures, it includes textual and graphic analysis multimodality. The study aims to show how texts are made and their connection to other texts or images that are added to the medical brochures to make them carry an accurate meaning. It shows the strategies of persuasion used by the owners of medical products manufacturers and why they use these strategies. A search for the various elements of persuasion and marketing used in medical brochures, both linguistically and visually.
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Global expansion of smartphone use has made the production of visual texts easy and accessible. This article explores six adult immigrant students’ multimodal text production in everyday and learning situations. The students are between 25 and 55 years and attend adult education in Norway, they have little or no previous schooling and little experience with alphabetic texts. Yet they produce multimodal texts daily when communicating on their smartphone devices. To study the students multimodal text production the following two questions were asked: 1. what do the texts consist of? 2. What are the purposes of the texts? And in continuation discuss: Could this multimodal text production serve as a resource in learning and communication in and outside the classroom? This study shows that their multimodal texts produced on smartphone applications such as Messenger and WhatsApp, serve different purposes. In everyday communication, multimodal texts are used to maintain transnational contact with family and to solve practical situations with texts based on iconic pictures. In learning situations, the smartphone applications that initially are designed for communication between users, are rather used to produce notes to self, to practice language in- and outside of school as a form of multimodal translanguaging. The article further discusses how maintaining a less logocentric view of text production, including iconic pictures and other multimodal signs, and the possibility of using familiar digital tools, could be a resource in adult immigrants learning and participation. The article concludes that multimodal communication via smartphone is important as a text practice, and it functions to solve specific tasks both in everyday life and in formal learning situations. The use of the student’s experiences with iconic pictures and other multimodal texts, can thus be a resource for participation and learning in- and outside the classroom.
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The research from this ongoing nationally funded study explores multiliteracies and multimodality in secondary schools and adult education settings including a museum, dance studio, and French language learning centre. There are 30 participants to date in the study. Using constructivist grounded theory methodology, the study draws upon data from face-to-face interviews, observations, document analysis, and original film footage of learning spaces. Social semiotics theory is used in this paper to articulate how a range of modes (visual, linguistic, and gestural) affect teaching and learning. The findings suggest that multiliteracies and multimodality foster creativity and criticality, engage marginalized learners, and provide greater versatility in meaning-making practices.
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: The paper presents the extension theory of technology and its synergetic relation to the "literacy doctrine". By "literacy doctrine" the author means the discourse which encourages the discussions about the existence of many types of literacy, each related to the respective type of communication technology. The thesis of this paper is that the concept of literacy acquires completeness based on the philosophical grounds of the theory of technology as "extension". The purpose of the article is to present the two research fields and their mutual reinforcement and to address the question to what extent can we agree with the usually refuted principle of technological determinism, which is evident in them, given that the concept of literacy is widely used in contemporary discussions of education in pedagogy, media research, and policy documents. The article consists of three parts: the first presents the theory of technology as an "extension", the second presents the doctrine of literacy and its interaction with the theory of technology as an extension, and the third one discusses the idea of the pre-set structure of knowledge form the point of view of Heidegger's analysis on the essence of technology. The conclusion of the article recommends the strong definition of multiliteracy as a principle in education. Резюме: (За синергията между теорията за технологията като екстензия и доктрината за грамотността) Настоящата статия представя т.нар. теория за технологията като "екстензия" и нейната връзка с "доктрината за грамотността", която се определя като синергетична. Под "доктрина за грамотността" тук се има предвид дискурсът, който окуражава дискусиите за съществуването на много типове грамотност, всеки от които е съотнесен към определена комуникационна технология. Тезата на статията е, че
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This chapter explores the connections between the bio and the digital in the construction of ‘bioinformation’ and ‘biodigital convergence’. The site of examination of these connections is medical understandings of the body. Its focus is the notion of ontology in two related senses, philosophical and technical. The chapter considers the connections between, on the one hand, the immaterial understanding reflected in medical knowledge—in philosophical terms ‘the ideal’ or ideational—and on the other, the material, biological realities of bodies. In a technical sense, the chapter discusses medical ontologies in a computer science frame of reference, and the emergence in recent years of ‘knowledge graphs’ for their representation. On these philosophical and technical bases, the chapter goes on to discuss a research and development project in which the authors have been engaged, to develop a web-based knowledge graphing environment, with a wide range of potential sites of applications, one to support medical students in clinical case analysis, and the other to build medical logic visualizations to supplement electronic health records.KeywordsKnowledge graphsOntologiesMedical informaticsMedical educationElectronic health records
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This dialogue (trilogue) is an attempt to critically discuss the technoscientific convergence that is taking place with biodigital technologies in the postdigital condition. In this discussion, Sarah Hayes, Petar Jandrić and Michael A. Peters examine the nature of the convergences, their applications for bioeconomic sustainability and associated ecopedagogies. The dialogue chapter raises issues of definition and places the technological convergence (‘nano-bio-info-cogno’) – of new systems biology and digital technologies at the nano level – in an evolutionary context to speculate, on the basis of the latest research, future possibilities. The chapter also reviews these developments within familiar landscapes of posthumanism and postmodernism, raises the question of political bioeconomy and the role of postdigital education within it.KeywordsPostdigitalBiodigitalismBioinformationalismBiopoliticsBioeconomyConvergenceKnowledge ecologyTechnoscience
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The focus of Chapter 2 is second language (L2) learning. The discussion traces the relationship between current L2 teaching and learning and Learning by Design. This is achieved through the examination of L2 frameworks, perspectives, and foci (in terms of themes and language use) that exhibit theoretical and instructional similarities with the pedagogy of focus. The chapter also includes information on L2 critical approaches and L2 teaching for social justice, as well as practical resources for L2 educators. The last section provides an example of an L2 social-reading task grounded in Learning by Design to synthesize, both textually and graphically, the conceptual and pedagogical links previously presented.
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The discussion in Chapter 3 centers on pedagogy and everyday classroom practices. The first part offers an in-depth description of Learning by Design’s reflexive pedagogy, including principles and information on instructional interventions. In the next section, connections are established among Learning by Design’s pedagogical approach, Universal Design for Learning, and the vision of second language (L2) teaching and learning presented in Chapter 2. The last part of the chapter is devoted to the examination of five pedagogical moves that are deemed essential for the successful adoption of the framework of focus in L2 classes. The chapter also provides practical resources that can be adapted for use in diverse educational contexts.
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The Erasmus+/KA3 project Augmented Assessment “Assessing newly arrived migrants' knowledge in Science and Math using augmented teaching material” aims to address the gap that exists in assessing newly arrived migrant students' prior knowledge in the fields of science and mathematics caused by the linguistic obstacle between them and the teachers. To address this gap, the project will develop the Augmented Assessment Library as well as a teachers' training course focusing on inclusive assessment and augmented reality. The chapter outlines the theoretical orientations of the project (augmented assessment bridges) and discusses the elements that comprise them focusing on the connections among inclusive pedagogy, visual representations in science and math education, multimodality, and augmented reality. It also describes the pedagogical framework underpinning the design of the Augmented Assessment Training Course as well as the main innovation of the project which is the Augmented Assessment Library and its pedagogical value for assessment.
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Ergativity refers to patterning in a language whereby the subject of a transitive clause behaves differently to the subject of an intransitive clause, which behaves like the object of a transitive clause. Ergativity can be manifested in morphology, lexicon, syntax, and discourse organisation. This article overviews what is known about ergativity in the world's languages, with a particular focus on one type of morphological ergativity, namely in case-marking. While languages are rarely entirely consistent in ergative case-marking, and the inconsistencies vary considerably across languages, they are nevertheless not random. Thus splits in case-marking, in which ergative patterning is restricted to certain domains, follow (with few exceptions) universal tendencies. So also are there striking cross-linguistic commonalities among systems in which ergative case-marking is optional, although systematic investigation of this domain is quite recent. Recent work on the diachrony of ergative systems and case-markers is overviewed, and issues for further research are identified.
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