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Public Goods and Public Choices

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... Here, we explore those new ways of collaborating and question: How can we systematically analyze coproduction cases? Importantly, the term co-production is not new; it was coined in the 1970s to describe the involvement of multiple public and private actors, including citizens and clients, in shaping service production (Ostrom & Ostrom, 1977). Citizen and user involvement in designing and delivering goods and services has since become an accepted option in provider-consumer relationships. ...
... Indeed, one failure can jeopardize future community engagement in co-producing services, having a wider impact on policy efforts (e.g., rather than increasing effectiveness and efficiency of public services, unsuccessful co-production can have the adverse effect). As such, in addition to contributing to a well-established (Ostrom & Ostrom, 1977) but still growing academic interest in co-production (Jakobsen et al., 2019), our work is of interest to public policymakers promoting co-production, as well as those willing co-production practice to thrive. ...
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The “woolliness” and “methodological hurdles” of co‐production make it challenging to compare and contrast different co‐production policy initiatives and their outcomes, and distil ‘what works’, for whom and in what circumstances. Inspired by Nabatchi et al.’s (2017) 3Ws typology of the Who, When and What of co‐production, we draw on co‐production theory deriving from a narrative literature review and empirical research of co‐production cases in Scotland and Australia. We propose a new ‘5Ws’ co‐production framework of Who, When, What, Why and Where, arguing that the context (where) should be an integral part of co‐production analyses as socio‐political, geographical conditions and service settings influence the processes and outcomes of co‐production, and that the reasons (why) behind co‐production determine who is involved in co‐production. The paper suggests that the 5Ws of co‐production can offer a useful theoretical lens for analysing a variety of international co‐production cases to inform future policies and practice. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... According to the peasant communities, the State should assume the maintenance and operation of the collective facilities it has built for public use (usually before an election). This type of infrastructure would move from a state of common good to a state of public good as defined by Ostrom and Ostrom (1978). 6 The State considers them to be common goods and the result of cooperation between farmers and public services, and thus the maintenance of this becomes the responsibility of the local population. ...
... Ostrom and Ostrom (1978) defined public goods as goods with free access for all and defined common goods as public goods that are subject to restrictions upon access or user rights. ...
Article
This paper analyses the importance of reciprocity in the processes and procedures recorded in the management of common resources. First, it examines the role that Elinor Ostrom attributes to the norm of reciprocity in her approach to common property resources. Second, it interprets economic and social relationships in the management of common resources as seen by Francophone economic anthropology’s theory of reciprocity. The argument relies on the application of these two theoretical and methodological approaches to the analysis of common resources management systems in the Northeast of Brazil and in New Caledonia. The conclusion attempts to establish a dialogue between Ostrom’s proposals and the theory of reciprocity.
... Governance regimes regulate the production and supply of economic goods. There are generally four types of economic goods: public goods, private goods, club goods, and common pool goods (Ostrom & Ostrom, 1977). These goods are defined by two basic characteristics: rivalry and excludability (Table 1). ...
... Indeed, the challenge of developing a governance system that can Table 1 Types of economic goods as defined on the basis of excludability (is it possible for a user of a good to prevent the use of a good by others?) and rivalry (does the use of a good by one user diminish its availability for use by others?). Modified from Ostrom, 1977 andOstrom, 2005 overcome the collective action failures that result in competing taxonomic lists is the primary motivation underlying the efforts of the IUBS Working Group. ...
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Governance is the act of governing or organizing, that is a system of rules, norms, or shared strategies to guide or regulate the actions of the governed. Since the initial development of Linnaean taxonomy, a diversity of approaches have been adopted for critical taxonomic decisions, introducing pluralism to taxonomic principles and resulting in disagreements about the development of species lists. These disagreements are in part a product of the fragmented governance structure that has developed for the creation of taxonomic lists. To address these challenges and achieve the goal of a single, accepted list of life on Earth, a new governance structure for the development of taxonomic lists is needed. Here, we introduce three high-level categories of governance structure—fragmentation, monocentric governance, and polycentric governance—which differ in the way decision-making power is distributed and coordinated. We then show the problems caused by the fragmented governance structure currently in place for the development of taxonomic lists and consider the potential for a new approach grounded in either monocentric or polycentric governance. Both monocentric and polycentric approaches have the potential to address the problems inherent in the existing fragmented system. Ultimately, the best governance system for taxonomic lists will be the one that the taxonomic community is prepared to accept.
... Depending on their physical and economic characteristics, that is the combination of excludability and rivalry, the ecosystem services provided by forests can be classified within a continuum between pure private (or market) goods which are excludable and rival, and pure public goods that are non-excludable and non-rival (Ostrom and Ostrom, 1999;Mantau et al., 2001;Fisher et al., 2009). 'Excludability' is commonly defined as the ability to control the use of a good or resource, which requires the establishment of institutions (Ostrom and Ostrom, 1999;Wayburn and Chiono, 2010). ...
... Depending on their physical and economic characteristics, that is the combination of excludability and rivalry, the ecosystem services provided by forests can be classified within a continuum between pure private (or market) goods which are excludable and rival, and pure public goods that are non-excludable and non-rival (Ostrom and Ostrom, 1999;Mantau et al., 2001;Fisher et al., 2009). 'Excludability' is commonly defined as the ability to control the use of a good or resource, which requires the establishment of institutions (Ostrom and Ostrom, 1999;Wayburn and Chiono, 2010). For tangible forest goods and services such as timber or non-timber forest products (NTFPs), it is fairly easy to create institutions that provide and enforce exclusive property rights. ...
Article
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This Special Issue provides insights into conceptual approaches, methodological procedures and practice findings for the development and assessment of governance innovations for the sustainable provision of forest ecosystem services (FES) in Europe. We depart from the observation that the sustainable and balanced provision of FES requires novel policy, management and business approaches that need to overcome challenges in order to emerge, develop and flourish. These challenges are rooted in the diversity of forest ecosystems and institutional contexts, a lack of system understanding, of innovation dynamics, the public good character of many FES, and a production-oriented reference frame for forest management. We use a set of good governance innovation practices in form of new actor alliances and payment schemes as a basis for assessment and learning how to promote different kinds or bundles of FES. The contributing authors of the SI combine several methodological approaches to understand the working conditions of such innovations, including integrated mapping, stakeholder and governance analysis, and a forward-looking scenario approach for innovation assessment. Applying multi-methods and multi-actor approaches fruitfully orchestrated a constructive debate among stakeholders on the chances and challenges of governance innovations in Europe, to allow for their uptake in forest policy, business and practice.
... The notion of public goods, originating in the economics discipline, centers on two principles: non-rivalry and non-exclusion (Ostrom and Ostrom 1977;Samuelson 1954). Public goods are non-rivalrous, implying that one individual's consumption of the good does not influence what is available for others. ...
... Finally, we summarize our contributions and draw implications of our research. Ostrom and Ostrom (1977) noted that public goods are usually supplied by the state, or some other collaborative network, which seeks to coordinate collective action on behalf of the public. In the case of the DHIS2 platform, UiO has taken this responsibility together with partners, including donors and ministries of health. ...
Article
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The purpose of this paper is to explore digital global public goods (DGPG) as a foundation for theorizing platforms for development. Global public goods (GPG) are widely accepted as fundamental for socio-economic development due to non-rivalry, non-exclusivity and global relevance. However, the challenges of extending the ideals of GPG to the digital platform domain are poorly understood and further theoretical developments are needed to advance our current knowledge of this relationship. To theorize the challenges, we draw on the GPG, digital platforms literature and concepts related to paradoxes. We illustrate the value of these ideas in making sense of the case study of the DHIS2 digital platform for health information primarily used in developing countries. Furthermore, the case analysis provides some practical implications on DGPG platforms.
... Il est important de préciser que, selon la classification introduite par Ostrom et al. [Ostrom et al., 1977] illustrée Figure 16, les données font partie de la catégorie des biens de clubs car elles satisfont les deux propriétés suivantes : ...
... Un type d'enchères à la fois très populaire et très simple est celui des enchères à ballots-scellés au premier prix, First Price Sealed-Bid Auction (FPSBA), dans lequel le bien est remporté et payé par l'agent qui propose la meilleure offre. Ce type d'enchères, qui est pertinent dans le cas d'un bien [Ostrom et al., 1977]. ...
... The foundation of the IAD is the goods taxonomy from Table 21.1. [Ostrom and Ostrom (1977)] first introduced it. The idea is to map all the goods (or bads) into a two-dimensional space. ...
... When this happens, the foundations of a democratic society are threatened. 82 Buchanan and Tullock argue that, under the above logic, legitimate reasons for transfers between jurisdictions can quickly get out of hand: ...
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This essay explains how to use the calculus of consent framework to think more rigorously about self-governance, and applies this framework to the issue of evaluating federal regulatory agencies. Robust political economy is the idea that institutions should be designed to work well even under weak assumptions about decision-makers’ knowledge and benevolence. I show how the calculus of consent can be used to analyze both incentives and knowledge problems. The calculus is simultaneously a theory of self-governance and a tool for robust political economy analysis. Applying this framework to the case of public administration leads to the conclusion that private goods (such as medicine) tend to be over-regulated, public goods tend to be under-regulated (such as enabling too much pollution), and regulatory agencies tend to be over-centralized (and should in most cases either be replaced with certification markets or moved to state level).
... Therefore, with the drive to reduce the high level of poverty in the region, it is necessary for the various governments and other stakeholders to effectively utilize national resources and ensure their equitable distribution (Fosu & Gafa, 2020) [1]. According to Ostrom and Ostrom (2019) [2] public goods are consumable goods commonly enjoyed by all and the consumption of such goods should not cause its reduction or subtraction. Much has been said on a fair distribution of public goods; however, the bone of contention has been whether its provision will have any impact on poverty reduction, especially in sub-Saharan Africa countries. ...
... The foundation of the IAD is the goods taxonomy from Table 21.1. [Ostrom and Ostrom (1977)] first introduced it. The idea is to map all the goods (or bads) into a two-dimensional space. ...
Book
The book offers an overview of credit risk modeling and management. A three-step approach is adopted with the contents, after introducing the essential concepts of both mathematics and finance. Initially the focus is on the modeling of credit risk parameters mainly at the level of individual debtor and transaction, after which the book delves into counterparty credit risk, thus providing the link between credit and market risks. The second part is aimed at the portfolio level when multiple loans are pooled and default correlation becomes an important factor to consider and model. In this respect, the book explains how copulas help in modeling. The final stage is the macro perspective when the combination of credit risks related to financial institutions produces systemic risk and affects overall financial stability. The entire approach is two-dimensional as well. First, all modeling steps have replicable programming codes both in R and Matlab. In this way, the reader can experience the impact of changing the default probabilities of a given borrower or the weights of a sector. Second, at each stage, the book discusses the regulatory environment. This is because, at times, regulation can have stricter constraints than the outcome of internal models. In summary, the book guides the reader in modeling and managing credit risk by providing both the theoretical framework and the empirical tools necessary for a modern finance professional. In this sense, the book is aimed at a wide audience in all fields of study: from quants who want to engage in finance to economists who want to learn about coding and modern financial engineering. Contents: Mathematical and Statistical Foundations: Distributions Commonly Used in Credit and Counterparty Risk Modeling Poisson Processes Estimation Techniques Finance Background and Regulatory Framework: Basic Definitions Banking Regulation Before the Crisis The Financial Crisis of the XXI-st Century Credit Risk Regulation After the Crisis Credit Risk Modeling Essentials: Probability of Default (PD) Loss Given Default (LGD) Other Credit Risk Components and Portfolio Risk Model Validation and Audit Counterparty Risk Modeling: EAD Modeling EAD-Related Issues Correlation-Driven Issues Portfolio Credit Risk Management Applications: Credit Risk Models Sector Analysis Estimating PD and LGD for Modeling Non-Performing Loans: The Case of Italy The Case of Italy Credit Default Swap (CDS) Systemic Risk Implications: Diversifying the Economy for Systemic Risk Reduction: The Case of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) Systemic Risk Regulation Appendices: Financial Engineering: Coding in R Financial Engineering: Coding in Matlab Dataset Used for Modeling Non-Performing Loans Readership: Academics and practitioners interested in modern financial engineering. We recommend
... The foundation of the IAD is the goods taxonomy from Table 21.1. [Ostrom and Ostrom (1977)] first introduced it. The idea is to map all the goods (or bads) into a two-dimensional space. ...
... The foundation of the IAD is the goods taxonomy from Table 21.1. [Ostrom and Ostrom (1977)] first introduced it. The idea is to map all the goods (or bads) into a two-dimensional space. ...
... This type of co-production finds its scholarly origins in the public sector. It is often attributed to Nobel Prize winner Elinor Ostrom (1996) and other economists from the 1970/80s who studied relationships between public institutions and citizens, with a particular focus on the role citizens play in service provision (Carr 2018;Ostrom and Ostrom, 1977;Ostrom et al. 1978;Parks et al. 1981). That work highlighted that whilst public services were traditionally viewed as best produced by public service staff and delivered via a one-way process from provider to user, to some extent public services are inevitably co-produced in a two-way process between provider and user. ...
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There is growing interest in co-production in the sport, exercise, and health sciences. That includes from researchers in sport and exercise physiology, public health, sports medicine, sport sociology, sport and exercise psychology, sport management, physical education, sport coach- ing, leisure studies, geography, and occupational therapy. Despite the disciplinary spanning interest, academic resources in our field dedicated to the complex problem of comprehensively detailing the co-production of research and taking it forward are lacking. This paper is a modest attempt to do this. Rationales outlining the need for a resource are first presented. What is meant by co-production is then attended to. An original typology is developed to illuminate different ways co- production is defined and put to use. In the typology three differing types of co-production are described: Citizens’ Contributions to Public Services; Integrated Knowledge Translation; and Equitable and Experientially-informed Research. Why researchers co-produce research, along with various challenges involved with doing it, are then offered. It is suggested that generally university structures and academic norms tend not to facilitate co-production processes. Next, working principles to promote co-production as a means to advance a participatory turn in sport, exercise, and health research are introduced. We also highlight practical options for how to co-produce research and advance various criteria for judging the quality of it. Throughout it is highlighted why qualitative researchers are well prepared to do high quality co-produced research and should be considered important collaborators for research- ers without qualitative expertise intending to co-produce research. The paper closes with future directions.
... Despite these critiques, PV theory was the first well-developed strand of PAM that attempted to shift the NPM's emphasis on public service organizations (PSOs) and their markets and to public services' external impacts on society (dos Reis & Gomes, 2022;Osborne et al., 2021a). It has also paralleled the exploration of collective benefits compared to individual ones in public service delivery (e.g., Nabatchi et al., 2017;Ostrom & Ostrom, 2019;Sorrentino et al., 2018). Both literature agree that public/collective value is different from public goods: "the former includes the outcomes made possible by the latter (Bryson et al., 2014: 451)". ...
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Public services do not always create value. Rather, when poorly organized and/or delivered, they can destroy value and make service users’ lives worse. However, such ‘value destruction’ is presently weakly conceptualized in public management theory. Consequently, this paper is devoted to the empirical examination of value destruction and hence its conceptualization. At the heart of the paper, we recognize the multiplicity of public value and private value objectives in complex public service environments and the dyadic tension between these two value constellations. Drawing upon qualitative data derived from public carbon reduction projects, we establish a conceptual framework. This framework accounts both for the types of value destruction and for the tension between public and private value. Subsequently, the framework disentangles the value destruction concept into four categories: value ignorance, value disproportion, value backlash and value exploitation. Finally, the implications of this new conceptual framework for public management theory and practice are explored. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... Transportasi berdasarkan kepemilikannya dibagi menjadi dua jenis yaitu transportasi publik dan transportasi pribadi. Transportasi publik diklasifikasikan pada kategori public goods yang artinya barang publik, Ostrom et al., (2019) mendefinisikan barang publik sebagai barang yang dapat dikonsumsi atau dinikmati bersama dan tanpa pengecualian. ...
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This article aims to find out and analyze the effectiveness the non-cash payment method program uses the Quick Response Code Indonesian Standard (QRIS) on Suroboyo Bus. Suroboyo Bus was first launched in 2018 using plastic bottle waste as a payment method, but since the statute of Surabaya’s Major through Peraturan Walikota Number 56 Year 2021, there has been a change in the status of the Unit Pelaksana Teknis Dinas Pengelolaan Transportasi Umum (UPTD PTU) which is the implementing unit of Suroboyo Bus under the Dinas Perhubungan Kota Surabaya has become a Badan Layanan Umum Daerah(BLUD), making Suroboyo Bus financial management more flexible, making it possible to use non-cash payment methods using QRIS. The problem is focused on using QRIS as a non-cash payment method on Suroboyo Bus. In order to approach this problem is using the theory program’s effectiveness by Budiani, which consists of 1. The accuracy of program targets; 2. Program socialization; 3. Program Objectives; and 4. Program Monitoring. The data were collected through interviews, observations and documentation and analyzed with qualitative methods. This study concludes that the use of QRIS is quite effective, but the public's interest in using QRIS is still low so it needs to be socialized and adjusted to the conditions of the society.
... It is the collision of coherence with diversity. The situation is similar to the prisoner's dilemma (Ostrom and Ostrom, 2019;Słodowa-Hełpa, 2015). ...
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The aim of the study was to identify the mesoeconomic determinants of regional development in Poland based on intermunicipal cooperation. The research used analytical methods, including the local development index, determined for Polish local government units (municipalities) in 2008-2014, subsequently evaluated in 2015-2019. Moreover, in programming the intermunicipal cooperation model, the method of diagnostic survey, comparative and descriptive analysis was applied. There is need for a way of regional development modeling based not only on competitiveness indicators (such as the aggregate Local Development Index), but also on a paradigm of partnership and differentiated cooperation conditions in functional areas. The Local Development Index can provide a starting point for programming alternative developments in the functional areas. At least two local development roadmaps can be used in practice. First, the idea of homogeneous areas development, programming the growth of socio-economic cohesion at territorial meso-level. Second, the idea for areas with natural spatial and settlement diversity, conscious maintenance of diversity. In this study, on the case of Polish municipalities, selected quantitative and qualitative factors of local development were assessed. It was confirmed that the influence of "traditional" competitiveness factors is decreasing. However, the development potential of municipalities and functional areas increases when the important role of intermunicipal cooperation factors and the partnership paradigm is recognized. The partnership model has a specific format, unique for each functional area or municipality, therefore it needs to be programmed, applied and evaluated.
... When resources are neither excludable nor rival in consumption they are classified as public goods (Samuelson, 1954). When commons are non-excludable but subtractable they are classified as common pool resources (Ostrom, and Ostrom, 1977) (see Table 1). Both public and common-pool resources are difficult to exclude, and thus are subject to the free-rider problem. ...
... Different formal and informal institutions that lead the way people see and use water have developed in diverse societal contexts (Babidge, 2016). Water in nature can be regarded as a common-pool good (Ostrom and Ostrom, 1977). Nevertheless, different rights and property regimes, as well as technical and physical barriers, make it possible to treat water as private good to different extents (Doorn, 2014). ...
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The recovery of resources, including water reuse, has been presented as a solution to overcome scarcity, and improve the economic and environmental performance of water provision and treatment. However, its implementation faces non-technical challenges, including the need to collaborate with new stakeholders and face societal acceptance issues. Looking at the prominence of the circular economy in current policy developments and the challenges to resource recovery, exploring these issues is urgently needed. In this work, we reviewed a broad range of literature to identify societal values relevant to the recovery of water and other resources from wastewaters, particularly urban and industrial wastewater and desalination brines. We discuss tensions and uncertainties around these values, such as the tension between socioeconomic expectations of resource recovery and potential long-term sustainability impacts, as well as uncertainties regarding safety and regulations. For addressing these tensions and uncertainties, we suggest aligning common methods in engineering and the natural sciences with Responsible Innovation approaches, such as Value Sensitive Design and Safe-by-Design. To complement Responsible Innovation, social learning with a Sustainability Transitions or Adaptive Governance perspective is suggested.
... The first is non-excludability-whether people may be excluded from consumption. Ostrom (2009) mentions it is more correct to call the second dimension "subtractability" rather than "rivalry," as first used in Ostrom and Ostrom (1977). This second dimension means someone might be detached from simultaneous good utilization (consumption, production). ...
Article
Es probable que la pandemia de 2020 resulte en incumplimientos crediticios masivos. Los reguladores nos aseguran que los bancos son suficientemente estables. Sin embargo, los opositores afirman que la regulación es laxa que debe ser más estricta y que se necesita de manera vital un regulador supranacional. Para resolver este debate, volvemos a los fundamentos del sistema bancario moderno. Analizamos la evolución de la regulación micro y macroprudencial, en especial el riesgo sistémico. Encontramos la solución en la intersección de la teoría del requisito de reserva total para depósitos a la vista de von Hayek (1929) y la teoría de policentricidad de Ostrom (2009), que resulta más eficiente para utilizar de manera óptima los recursos comunes. Desarrollamos las recomendaciones basadas en cuencas hidrográficas de Selmier (2016) para gobernar los mercados financieros y las extendemos a una analogía de flujo de tráfico. Concluimos con recomendaciones operativas para la revisión de la regulación bancaria prudencial existente. Proporcionamos una justificación adicional para la necesidad de un sistema completo de reserva. Esto permite abandonar los sistemas estatales de seguro de depósitos con déficits presupuestarios crónicos.
... The concept of polycentricity is pivotal to the Ostrom school of institutional economics, pioneered by the work of Vincent and Elinor Ostrom [4,99,103,104]. V. Ostrom adopted the term 'polycentricity' to describe the governmental fragmentation in U.S. metropolitan areas, arguing that political units could achieve greater efficiency in the production of public goods and services if they "take each other into account in competitive relationships, enter into various contractual and cooperative undertakings or have recourse to central mechanisms to resolve conflicts" [104]. Later, E. ...
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As online social platforms increasingly impact society, scholars and activists have criticized the centralized and unaccountable nature of many of their governance structures. In response, some have proposed governance that can represent a broader range of stakeholders through the creation of multiple centers of power, with nested communities governed by customized rules set by local community managers. However, this multi-level governance structure, where inputs can come from both a centralized and a decentralized governance system, already has implementations on many platforms, including Reddit, YouTube, and Twitter, albeit in very different forms. In this work, we characterize the landscape of different multi-level governance structures in online social platforms, drawing from extensive literature on taxonomies of multi-level offline institutions, including administrative hierarchy, federalism, and polycentricity. Focusing on the middle levels that sit between end users and a centralized governance system, we describe how middle level units, such as subreddits, YouTube channels, and Twitter blocklists, interact with one another and with levels above and below. As not all aspects of offline institutions translate directly to the online realm, we discuss challenges unique to online governance and lay out a research agenda for the future study of multi-level governance design in online social platforms.
... Other than a host that can supply the technical resource and management requirements already discussed thus far, considerations from the perpective of best arranagement to provide cyber-security as a common/public service needs to be further studied. It is a topic that can greatly benefit from the learnings and lessons from the field of collective good/services policies [32]. ...
... Figure 1 illustrates the range of energy and water services that multipurpose hydropower projects can provide. These services encompass different types of goods and resources according to whether consumption by a person or group affects consumption by others (rivalrous or nonrivalrous) and whether or not consumption can be restricted (excludable or non-excludable) (see Ostrom & Ostrom, 1977;McNutt, 1999): (i) private goods where consumption is rivalrous and excludable (e.g., water supply for irrigation); (ii) club goods where consumption is excludable but non-rivalrous (e.g., electricity grid reliability); (iii) common-pool resources where consumption is non-excludable and rivalrous (e.g., fisheries or recreation in public spaces); and (iv) public goods where consumption is non-excludable and non-rivalrous (e.g., navigation). ...
Article
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Multipurpose hydropower reservoirs are regularly framed as water security and climate change solutions. Although multipurpose projects can and do deliver a range of water services, ‘win-win’ outcomes are not guaranteed. Emerging water and energy risks are altering the net benefits from operating reservoirs to deliver hydropower generation, water supply, flood control, or other purposes. This paper shows that new hydropower governance approaches are needed to efficiently and fairly reallocate water under risks. We demonstrate that dynamic water reallocation is fundamental to the resilience of multipurpose reservoir systems and examine three potential reforms: periodic relicensing, water tariffs, and hydropower sustainability performance bonds.
... Ecological approaches recognize that interrelated online groups may share resources with one another in ways that constrain their growth and survival. Rival resources like participant's time, attention, and efforts raise the possibility of competition because they become unavailable to others when used by one group [7,58,66,72]. RDT suggests that declines in online participation can be explained in terms of competition over important rival resources [84]. ...
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Platforms often host multiple online groups with highly overlapping topics and members. How can researchers and designers understand how interactions between related groups affect measures of group health? Inspired by population ecology, prior social computing research has studied competition and mutualism among related groups by correlating group size with degrees of overlap in content and membership. The resulting body of evidence is puzzling as overlaps seem sometimes to help and other times to hurt. We suggest that this confusion results from aggregating inter-group relationships into an overall environmental effect instead of focusing on networks of competition and mutualism among groups. We propose a theoretical framework based on community ecology and a method for inferring competitive and mutualistic interactions from time series participation data. We compare population and community ecology analyses of online community growth by analyzing clusters of subreddits with high user overlap but varying degrees of competition and mutualism.
... opportunistic behaviors, Ostrom (1975) justifies the choice of cooperation as a strategy to maintain long-term gains. ...
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The new attempts to implement green transformations of the economy aimed at sustainability coexist with the passage from the Fordist to the post-Fordist era, contributing to create profound territorial transformations throughout the world. Although the current economic crisis is slowing the process of energy transition at the global level, the definition of the future economic structure of territories will be strictly connected to the spatial effects of energy transitions and their intensive land use processes, given the low-power nature of renewable energy sources. Urban centres are the places where these changes are reflected most quickly and clearly, being the centres of major economic activities. In this regard, urban areas experiencing progressive economic marginalisation with consequent depopulation, face sustainability issues regarding energy use and maintenance of the existing infrastructure. With the aim of clarifying the role of shrinking cities within these transformations, a theoretical contribution is presented considering different approaches to co-production of energy transition processes in them.
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Given the gaps between EU ambitions regarding energy community development and the current reality of clean energy communities in Europe, we explore a research framework enabling viable multi- and interdisciplinary research into new clean energy communities. We offer a definition of new clean energy communities, discuss their potential for wider dissemination and identify four factors that contribute to the current mismatch between ambitions and reality in energy community development. As a broader framework for interdisciplinary research into the field of new clean energy communities, we propose polycentric governance theory, considering the fact that the area of community energy systems is essentially multi-scalar, and that the rules of engagement in such systems are of great significance. This opens up four avenues for research on energy communities, which we outline in terms of enabling institutional contexts, potential for learning and transferability, business models and value propositions, and evaluation of outcomes and processes.
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Homelessness is an issue that impacts more than half a million people in the United States every day. Nonprofits are often on the front lines of efforts to aid individuals without homes. In this study, we focus on an area underexplored in the nonprofit literature, stigma, to explore the nonprofit’s role as a critical catalyst in managing stigma within and among client beneficiaries. Based on our interpretive analysis of interviews and observations of the nonprofit Running for Change (RFC), we delineate how RFC created conditions under which beneficiaries without homes could resurrect former identities and append new identities for themselves as part of the stigma management process. Our work carries implications for prior research on nonprofit organizing related to constituent participation and beneficiary empowerment and opens up new pathways for nonprofit partitioners to think about the agentic capacities of beneficiaries.
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On August 15, 1962, an agreement was signed by the representatives of the Red Flag Canal users from two counties in China. Since then, it has enabled people from both counties to share canal benefits, and as such ably become a cornerstone for a peaceful canal culture between the two peoples. The agreement and its making process were both initiated by Yang Gui (杨贵), the top leader of one of the two counties who masterminded the Red Flag Canal project. In explaining his motivation, Yang Gui stated, “We are building the Red Flag Canal for posterity; we must do everything we can to save posterity the trouble.” However, just what “the trouble” he perceived was, who the troublemaker he thought would be, and why he was confident that a bilateral agreement could serve the noble goal “to save posterity the trouble”, Yang Gui did not say, neither did he leave any record. In this article, we report our aspiration and endeavor to fill this knowledge gap, and present fresh discoveries and insights we derived from examining this instance through a CPR lens—an eclectic collection of economic constructs of common-pool resources (CPRs). The article is the fourth in a mini-series on the Red Flag Canal, one of the best kept secrets in the history of socio-ecological practice.
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Este livro parte de um diagnóstico crítico sobre a dupla insustentabilidade que tem caracterizado a dinâmica do desenvolvimento das sociedades contemporâneas: a crise ambiental e o aumento das desigualdades. Tais condições têm revelado um déficit de solidariedade tanto na relação dos seres humanos com a natureza, quanto na relação das pessoas entre si. É assim que o livro funda sua reflexão num paradoxo importante relativo ao lugar da solidariedade nas sociedades atuais: nunca antes houve tanta necessidade de fortalecê-la, tanto no plano nacional quanto internacional, e a reflexão a seu propósito jamais foi tão eludida, tão desconhecida, para não dizer tão desacreditada. Após salientar como a solidariedade foi invisibilizada na construção do conhecimento sobre as organizações e a gestão, o livro explora a emergência de práticas organizacionais inovadoras visando responder aos dilemas dessa dupla insustentabilidade. São os desafios e potencialidades contidos numa outra economia que nos convida a refletir sobre uma outra gestão.
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This Element explores the role of public managers as designers. Drawing from systems-thinking and strategic management, a process-tracing methodology is used to examine three design processes whereby public managers develop strategies for adapting to climate change, build the requisite capabilities and evaluate outcomes. Across three cases, the findings highlight the role of managers as 'design- oriented' integration agents and point to areas where additional inquiry is warranted. This title is also available as Open Access on Cambridge Core.
Article
The provision of ecosystem services (ES) in agricultural landscapes depends, inter alia, on agricultural production, and can therefore be influenced by governance. To capture the impacts of governance on ES via agriculture, we proposed and tested an analytical framework – based on agricultural location theory – to describe possible agricultural impact pathways. These pathways show how different governance approaches (e.g. hierarchical, market-based, collaborative, and their hybrids) influence site and farm conditions, which in turn influence agricultural production practices and thus ES provision. The framework was applied to three European case study regions in the Netherlands, Germany, and Austria. The sub-objectives were: i) to identify regional governance approaches and assess how well they reflect the regional specifics, as a basis for applying the framework; and, by applying the framework, to: ii) investigate how these governance approaches then differ in their agricultural impact pathways and thus effects on agriculture; and iii) evaluate their respective influence on ES provision. The governance approaches were compiled and analysed from several sources, e.g. legal documents and grey literature from regional sources, regional workshops, and consultation with stakeholders. The analyses showed that different governance types indeed differ in how well they accommodate regional specifics in their agricultural impact pathways, and thus in their influence on agriculture and ES provision. Overall, the analytical framework is suited to highlighting the agricultural perspective in the ES concept and to exploring the constraints and opportunities for farmers to adopt agricultural production practices that favour the provision of ES as environmental public goods.
Article
La reintroduzione in Italia di un meccanismo di finanziamento pubblico dei partiti politici, la cui entità venisse collegata direttamente e in via almeno prevalente a una percentuale significativa degli utili generati dalle partecipazioni statali, potrebbe determinare da parte dei leader politici una maggiore propensione alla scelta di management capace e l'adozione di un efficace sistema di verifica delle procedure di gestione di questo patrimonio pubblico. Si potrebbe ridimensionare drasticamente per questa via la piaga apparentemente endemica e cronica del clientelismo dei colletti bianchi di alto livello e realizzare contestualmente una gestione della proprietà pubblica più efficiente, di tipo finalmente privatistico, se proprio vogliamo assegnare a questa categoria una valenza cogente. Le riforme di politica economica introdotte negli ultimi decenni dai governi dei paesi più industrializzati sono state fortemente condizionate dalla dottrina del New Public Management, un approccio radicale, capace di compromettere l'integrità strutturale ed etica del settore pubblico subordinando la giustizia sociale all'efficienza economica, una trasformazione caratterizzata dal taglio della spesa pubblica che ha travolto anche un fondamentale istituto del sistema democratico, i partiti politici. Purtroppo i trascorsi delle imprese pubbliche hanno fortemente agevolato quelle riforme, in quanto per un certo periodo storico queste hanno mostrato una tendenza cronica alla bassa produttività, rispetto alle imprese private, anche a causa delle politiche clientelari e dell'uso intensivo del fattore lavoro. Poiché elementi di servizio pubblico ed elementi di business convivono soprattutto nel settore delle public utilities, potenzialmente capace di generare reddito, le imprese pubbliche possono rappresentare un'utile e prudente forma di diversificazione dei ricavi per la finanza pubblica, in grado di ridurre sensibilmente i rischi di liquidità, ancor di più in un contesto storico di crisi finanziarie ed economiche internazionali ricorrenti. Il finanziamento pubblico dei partiti politici è stato introdotto nel 1974 con la L. 195/1974 per contrastare le collusioni con i grandi poteri economici, già sorte negli anni precedenti. È stato completamente abolito con D.L. 149/2013, convertito in L. 13/2014, lasciando spazio ad una crescente attività di lobbying e finanziamento indiretto ai partiti. La domanda a cui questo elaborato cerca di rispondere è: può l'azienda pubblica essere gestita in modo efficiente dallo Stato, produrre entrate e servizi per la comunità, senza dare luogo a risultati di gestione cronicamente negativi e contribuire a finanziare il diritto costituzionalmente garantito di organizzarsi in partiti politici, finanziando il loro meccanismo?
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More than 50 years after the seminal studies of Elinor Ostrom, the concept of water service “coproduction” is of interest due to its ability to achieve a delicate balance of governance in the sector. This novel analysis applies a systematic literature review to the water coproduction policies to identify the factors that promote their successful development. The results show that knowledge is the decisive element for newly shared governance. From this study, implications for water management and research are derived.
Chapter
Commons beschreiben gemeinschaftliche Formen der Verwaltung, Steuerung und Schaffung von Gütern und Ressourcen. Traditionell auf lokale Systeme der Bewirtschaftung von erschöpfbaren natürlichen Ressourcen wie Weiden oder Wälder begrenzt, beziehen sich die ‚Neuen Commons‘ auf ein breites Anwendungsfeld wie Wissen, Bildung, globale Umweltgüter, Kulturgüter und Nachbarschaftsinitiativen. Der Beitrag gibt einen Überblick über Konzeptionen, Wertebasis und Gestaltungsprinzipien für traditionelle sowie Neue Commons und diskutiert ihre Rolle für eine gesellschaftliche Nachhaltigkeitstransformation.
Article
This paper examines the retail water service market introduced in England in 2017, which allows non-domestic consumers to choose their water retailer. Market competition was intended to motivate service improvement and enhance water-use efficiency. Interview and survey data on the responses of incumbent water companies and the impact on consumers reveal varied strategic responses but no significant change in service quality or bills. High transaction costs linked to market complexity, incompetent data management, asymmetric information, and regulatory restrictions account for the limited impact of market opening. Finally, contrary to expectation, the retail market does not appear to affect water-use efficiency uptake significantly.
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Resumen La reconfiguración social de las tecnologías, así como la de los sis-temas sociales e institucionales que permiten su surgimiento y uso, es indispensable para la sostenibilidad. El presente trabajo profun-diza los procesos de transición energética urbana mediante la adop-ción de sistemas autónomos/descentralizados de energía renovable, en el contexto de las dinámicas de cambio urbano. El avance de este proceso resulta fuertemente dependiente de la competencia entre los actores participantes del proceso de planificación energética urba-na. Se utiliza una metodología basada en la revisión de la literatura con el fin de proponer un aporte teórico. Palabras clave: dinámicas de cambio urbano, producción des-centralizada de energía, planificación territorial, energías renovables, gobernanza energética, democracia energética. ORCID: https://orcid.org/ 0000-0001-6353-0293 Nota del autor: Este artículo deriva del proyecto "Reviving shrinking cities: Innovative paths and perspectives towards livability for shrinking cities in Europe", con financiación del programa marco de la Unión Europea para investigación e in-novación Horizon 2020 (Acuerdo Marie Sklowdowska-Curie, 813803).
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An organisation's performance suffers when employees are not adequately skilled in certain job areas. This article sought to investigate whether training and development affected the delivery of citizen-centric services in a government department in South Africa. The study adopted a mixed research methodology and a non-experimental research design. The data was collected via 20 open-ended interviews and 130 structured questionnaires. The study results indicated that shifting the government's focus to citizen-centricity would improve efficiency and service delivery. One of the significant findings suggests that training in service delivery requirements awareness could positively improve and motivate public officials' performance to remain relevant to the needs of citizens.
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Mentoring has been a subject of study for 50 years. Most studies of mentoring programs evaluate the effect of the program on the participants but do not evaluate if different mentors have different effects on mentees. Open-source software (OSS) is software with a license that allows it to be freely used by other people. Such software has become foundational to the world economy. However, many OSS projects get abandoned by their creators. Various nonprofit organizations have arisen to help OSS projects become sustainable. One of the key services offered by many of these nonprofit organizations is a mentorship program where experienced OSS developers advise nascent projects on how to achieve sustainability. We use data from the Apache Software Foundation Incubator program where 303 mentors have mentored 286 projects, with most mentoring more than one project, to address this question: Is who a project has as a mentor associated with variation in project success? Who a project has as a mentor accounts for 45% of the variation in project outcomes, with some mentors being associated with positive and some with negative outcomes. These mentors could offer insights into how to improve the mentoring program. This result also demonstrates, more broadly, that the nature of specific mentoring relationships may be important to understanding how mentors impact outcomes in other mentoring programs.
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This article is an exploratory essay on the possibility of governance of financial systems beyond the opposition between market and state to improve financial stability. Financial system governance is a set of rules and practices that should allow sustainable organization and management of markets. It closely relies on financial regulation in force. This article assumes that the monetary/financial system is a core institutional framework whose stability is of utmost importance and requires specific collective action to face social dilemmas that result in systemic concerns. Two analytic perspectives are used to frame a relevant collective action model: polycentric governance à la Ostrom and Ostrom, that fits the cases of common-pool resources, and Minskian institutionalist perspective that fits the analysis of endogenous instabilities. A distinction criterion between these two perspectives is then suggested: If an issue has a global character (societal criticalness of public goods), it would fit well with a “power-over” coordination framework whereas more local elements (the commons) could be governed through polycentric “power-with” mechanisms. The rationale for macro-prudential regulation against systemic failures is then put forward under the supervision of extra-market public agencies in charge of global coordination over local regulatory institutions in order to increase the flexibility and the speed of responses to growing instabilities.
Conference Paper
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SPECIFIC ISSUE: Financial (in)stability is a central concern for the smooth working of market-based economies. Recurrent systemic crises call for alternative sustainable models of financial regulation. RESEARCH AREA: Public vs private regulation provides the traditional conceptual frame of such an issue. This article questions the relevance of another perspective, the co-regulation for financial stability between decentralized private-interest view and centralized public-interest vision. METHODOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE: The article liberally draws upon polycentric governance à la Ostrom & Ostrom as a collective regulatory action mechanism. A holistic institutionalist perspective is also suggested on the Minskian problem of what might be the possible palliative therapy to mitigate capitalism’s tendency to produce systemic financial disasters.
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Progressives the world over cherish high hopes in the development of institutions for collective actions. Among these institutions, commons have a long history in western Europe. While a new institutional economics emerged in the 1960s, commons were not taken seriously in postwar economics before the seminal work of Elinor Ostrom in the late 1980s. How can we explain this belated integration of commons in economics? In this paper, we trace some of the origins of the neoclassical comparative institutional analysis. By advocating an institutional comparison in terms of the costs or the value of production under alternative allocations of property rights, Ronald Coase contributed to the narrow theoretical approach taken by new institutional economists. In the late 1960s, neoclassical economists who came to be interested in environmental questions dismissed commons as inefficient solutions to allocation problems. Within this narrow framework, the private enterprise system more often than not was hailed as the best alternative. © 2022 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.
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The Moroccan education system is faced with the difficulty of instituting good governance to improve the quality of academic services and pursue a sustainable sector performance. Unfortunately, the challenge has become more complicated with the adoption of online education as a response to the COVID-19 crisis. This chapter is primarily grounded on the tracks of improvement of the educational system governance by grounding on its literature (theoretical and empirical), clarifying the regulatory and institutional framework of the educational system, and presenting the stakes of the MASSAR system as well as the mechanism that it exerts in the approximation and the bringing together of the stakeholders. Finally, the authors give attention to the governance of the Moroccan education system in the era of online education. The results show that the educational governance is far from being completed and that the COVID-19 crisis has reinforced pre-existing inequalities, thus questioning the effectiveness of the governance system in the education sector.
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This research paper explores the role of citizen and community engagement in climate mitigation projects, particularly related to climate infrastructure development in the Irish context. A change is needed with relation to the way in which institutions interact with community groups and citizens in order to effectively go about implementing the necessary measures to expedite the transition to a low-carbon energy system. Within this research we implement a co-production approach to the investigation of community engagement practices within public bodies, moving from framings centred on social acceptance towards social acceptability. The 2020 OECD report stressed the importance of co-production in transdisciplinary approaches to sustainable development, climate action and the Sustainable Development Goals. We develop a range of good practice guidelines for community engagement that seek to connect, build and improve current mitigation measures and on from this suggest policy measures for their implementation. The paper sets the foundations for developing a co-production framework for climate related infrastructure developments between citizens, communities and public bodies.
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Objective - The explosion of the covid-19 pandemic has led to the need for all world governments to redefine the way in which they provide health services. This is particularly true for Italy, as the hospital-centric emergency response model adopted in the first pandemic wave to contain and combat the health crisis and to treat affected patients proved ineffective. The purpose of this work is to highlight how the model of co-production, based on the enhancement of territorial services and 3T strategy (Tracing, Testing e Treating), may be the most appropriate paradigm to address the emergency. Methodology - Through an in-depth analysis of co-production model emerging from the scientific literature, we highlight the critical success and enabling factors that make the model applicable in healthcare in the Covid-19 emergency context and the advantages of the paradigm. Findings - The nature of the emergency could incentivize citizens to spontaneously participate in co-production activities, provided a favorable social and legislative context. Co-production could allow to implement the 3T strategy effectively and efficiently.
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Commons such as forests, pastures, fisheries, irrigation, and others play a vital role in sustaining the livelihoods of the poor. These are open access resources that can be easily over-consumed resulting in their depletion. Often commons property regimes exist where institutions frame formal rules along with informal codes to regulate access to the resource. Empirical studies show that higher levels of local enforcement are associated with sustainable outcomes measured as better health of commons and livelihood benefits. In many long enduring commons, the state adopts a proactive role to provide strategic support, without appropriating ownership or decision-making rights. While there is a lot of optimism associated with community-based management, in reality, it is complex and raises questions of social difference, conflicting concerns, power structures, etc. As a result, practical implementation of community management is challenging and has not always been successful. A polycentric management of the commons where the state provides strategic investment without participating in ownership of the commons or its management has the best chance of achieving sustainable outcomes. Considering the significant contribution of the commons in sustaining the livelihoods of the poor, we opine that they deserve greater attention in the policies directed towards ending poverty and hunger.
Article
Gerald Gaus was one of the leading liberal theorists of the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries. He developed a pioneering defence of the liberal order based on its unique capacity to handle diversity and disagreement, and he presses the liberal tradition towards a principled openness to pluralism and diversity. This book brings together Gaus's most seminal and creative essays in a single volume for the first time. It also covers a broad span of his career, including essays published shortly before his death, and topics including reasonable pluralism, moral rights, public reason, and the redistributive state. The volume makes accessible the work of one of the most important recent liberal theorists. Many readers will find it of value, especially those in political philosophy, political science, and economics.
Article
Este artículo presenta los hallazgos del análisis de los registros de las sanciones por infracciones de los reglamentos gubernativos y de policía en el Municipio de Tampico en el periodo 2016-2020. La metodología consistió en una búsqueda y calificación de 11704 actas administrativas. Se trabajó en dos niveles: un análisis estadístico de la información y una caracterización de los patrones de las infracciones, la población asociada y la distribución espacial. Los resultados se presentaron a funcionarios públicos responsables de las áreas. Se concluye que es necesario un abordaje integral de largo plazo para establecer modelos de justicia cívica, para facilitar y mejorar la convivencia en la comunidad y evitar que los conflictos escalen a conductas delictivas o actos de violencia.
Community Control: The Black Demand for Participation in Large American Cities
  • Alan A Altshuler