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PROBLEMS FACED BY ENGINEERING STUDENTS ON INTERNSHIP TRAINING PROGRAM

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Abstract : Getting a job is not at all easy in today’s scenario. Employer is expecting more from their employees. Many graduates especially Engineers are left unemployed today because of lack of work exposure. Thus Internship bridges the gap and helps to convert graduates to employees by providing practical work experience. The major objective of this study is to identify the problems in Internship Training Program faced by engineering students of selected Engineering colleges in Sivaganga District in Tamilnadu, India. The researcher has adopted the convenience sampling method to identify the students of the present study. For the study both primary and secondary data has been used. The researcher has used simple percentage analysis and the weighted average for the study. The major findings of the study are most of the respondents experienced the problem of short internship timings and afraid to ask questions. Key words: Internship, Training, Employment, Engineering Colleges, Problems.
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PROBLEMS FACED BY ENGINEERING STUDENTS ON INTERNSHIP
TRAINING PROGRAM
TR.Gurumoorthy
Dean, Professor and Head
Department of Commerce
Alagappa University, Karaikudi
S.Nachammai
Doctoral Research Scholar
Department of Commerce
Alagappa University, Karaikudi
A.Thangam
Doctoral Research Scholar
Department of Commerce
Alagappa University, Karaikudi
Abstract
Getting a job is not at all easy in today’s scenario. Employer is
expecting more from their employees. Many graduates especially Engineers are
left unemployed today because of lack of work exposure. Thus Internship
bridges the gap and helps to convert graduates to employees by providing
practical work experience. The major objective of this study is to identify the
problems in Internship Training Program faced by engineering students of
selected Engineering colleges in Sivaganga District in Tamilnadu, India. The
researcher has adopted the convenience sampling method to identify the
students of the present study. For the study both primary and secondary data has
been used. The researcher has used simple percentage analysis and the weighted
average for the study. The major findings of the study are most of the
respondents experienced the problem of short internship timings and afraid to
ask questions.
Key words: Internship, Training, Employment, Engineering Colleges,
Problems.
1. INTRODUCTION
Nowadays every employer needs an employee who is excellent in all
professional skills. Getting a degree is not enough for a degree holder,
especially engineer. In addition to that they need industrial experience also.
There comes the need for Internship. It is strongly advised that students and
graduates should take the opportunity to complete an Internship Training
Program to ensure that they have a competitive advantage over their peers. An
internship is a period of training offered by an employer to give the students
exposure to the working environment, often within a particular industry, which
relates to their field of study. Duration of Internship can be as short as a week or
as long as 12 months. They can be paid or unpaid. Internships can be done in a
range of sectors, including sales, marketing engineering, graphic
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design, management, I.T. and many, many more. An increasing presence of
multinational companies, rapid economic growth, globalization, individual’s
aspirations, urbanization have influenced the role and desirability of internships.
Throughout an internship, an intern will be able to develop a variety of soft
skills, including communication skills, personal effectiveness, presentation
skills, creative problem solving and influencing skills. ‘On-the-job’ experience
is more valuable than class studies. Students will be able to understand what a
job is all about only if they have worked in that environment. Internships
provides great opportunities to speak directly to people who have experience in
the role, the students aspire to; and their knowledge of the job and working
environment will give the interns a greater understanding of what it is all about
and what student need to do to progress. An internship can award the students a
real insight into the world of work, allowing them to build on the theory they
learned at colleges and helping them to gain practical skills that will help
strengthen your CV and make the students more employable. Internships offer
the students, chance to test their skills in real-life situations, explore their career
options and gain an insight into an organisation or career path. Many employers
use internships as a trial period and will already have plans to recruit on a
permanent basis. Therefore, it is vital that interns make a good impression; turn
up on time, be enthusiastic and show their flexibility, adaptability and
commitment. This study analyses the Problems of engineering students on
Internship training programs.
2. OBJECTIVES
1. To study the socio – economic factors of engineering students.
2. To investigate the Engineering Students regarding problems of Internship
Training Program (ITP).
3. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Most of the engineering students are left unemployed because of
lacking industrial skills and exposure. Internship Training Program is the most
preferred activity for mutual benefit and growth of industries as well as
institutions. Interns get both opportunities for their career building and
challenges through Internship. This study identifies the problems of internship
training program for engineering students from the selected Engineering
Colleges.
4. SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The major scope of this study is that internship training provides the
best platform for Engineering students to learn the best practices, latest work
related technological advancements, and their implementation and impact on
the industry. In addition to this institution and industry linkage promotes
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industry experts to participate in curriculum design which plays a significant
role in preparing the students ready for the industry. Because of this linkage
students will be benefited a lot and be ready to face the working environment
even before completing their degree.
5. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
In this study, Sivaganga District in Tamilnadu has been purposively selected by
the researcher. For the study the samples are taken from 5 engineering colleges
in Sivaganga District; they are Sri Raaja Raajan College of Engineering and
Technology, A.C. college of Engineering and Technology (autonomous), Kit &
Kim Technical Campus, Madurai institute of engineering and technology and
St. Michael College of engineering and technology. The researcher has adopted
convenience sampling method to identify the students of the present study. For
the study researcher has collected both primary and secondary data. Interview
schedule is used to collect primary data from the sample respondents. The
researcher has selected engineering college students of Sivaganga District.
6. SAMPLE SIZE
The table shows that the researchers identify the sample size of the
present study
S.No
Name of Engineering Colleges (Sivaganga
District)
Students
1.
Sri Raaja Raajan College of Engineering and
Technology
15
2.
A.C. college of Engineering and Technology
(autonomous)
15
3.
Kit & Kim Technical Campus
15
4.
Madurai institute of engineering and
technology
15
5.
St. Michael College of engineering and
technology
15
Total
75
7. REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Internship was facing many challenges included lack of adequate
guidance and support to students during the internship, lack of adequate funds
and so on. Internship should be planned and implemented as a valid learning
experience (Gashaw 2019). Based on the study of two aspects of demographic
characteristics, age and gender among UIC scholars, and their effect on
scholars’ UIC motivation as potential enhancements to improve UIC
performance, it is revealed that specific categories of UIC performance depend
on a scholar's specific type of UIC motivation (Ching-Ying 2019). Interview
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participants believe internships are important for students with regard to three
areas: enabling career discovery, providing opportunities for development of
career skills and helping students with full-time job acquisition (Matusovich
2019). The role of universities as knowledge collation, creation and
communication hubs and their linkage to society had evolved significantly over
the last few decades due to the acceleration in technological changes and
diversity in the technological landscape (Phani 2018). Business environment,
motivation (pull/push), training and skill development, networking and market
information, socio–cultural and financial are the dimensions reflecting
perception of women entrepreneurs on performance. Psychometrically
properties of the proposed scale were tested and the model fitness was
established through CFA (Pooja Jha 2018). The encouragement of university
students, teachers and researchers for the industrial visits was the most effective
mechanism. The role of government as a policy-maker and fund provider for
research, in the triple helix model seems to be very weak (Arabella Bhutto
2018). An effective learning experience depends on students’ developing
competence in their ability to implement a strategic intervention, which is
better acquired through hands-on experience rather than a classroom setting
(Maria 2018). The outcomes of U–I interactions of 4 universities in Santa
Catarina, Brazil, pointed to non-linearity in the evolution of U–I interplay and
show that most of the relationships among universities and companies are
focused in traditional and services channels (Lemos 2017 ). While accessing the
current status, identify problems and propose promotional measures for
university - industry interaction works in Ethiopia, The study revealed that
university -industry linkage is at its infant stage in the country and the common
types of interactions are limited to student internship program, consultancies
and training programmes ( Ayenew 2017). Accelerators facilitate the
development and assessment of entrepreneurial competencies in
entrepreneurs through the process of creating a start-up venture
Accelerators take in nascent entrepreneurs and work to create start-ups.
This activity develops the participants’ entrepreneurial competencies and
facilitates authentic self-reflection (Morgan 2017). Though research and
policy relating to technical fields have emphasized professional
competencies such as teamwork, communication, and professionalism, this
analysis suggested that the internship postings greatly emphasized technical
skills at the expense of general competencies (Charles 2017). The
significant salary penalty at 3.5 years after graduation compared with those
going straight into paid work or further study, but also that graduates from
higher socioeconomic status have an advantage in accessing internships while
being significantly insulated from their negative effects (Holford 2017).
Intellectual benefits and academic results were important drivers to research
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groups to collaborate with industry and transactional barriers represent
important obstacles to academic research groups to interact more with firms
(Garcia 2016). The researcher found that women entrepreneurship can be
motivated by a wide range of factors, including: Own Interest, Family Business,
Ideas from friends and Relatives, Previous Experience, Business opportunities,
Desire to be Independent, Situation of Factor, To Prove Oneself (Thangam
2016). The intern rights movement had been sparked by youthful energy, high
levels of education, technological and social media savvy, and growing
resentment toward an employment practice that can be exploitative and
exclusionary (Yamada 2016). The individual, organizational and institutional
factors were identified as determinants and establishing multidisciplinary
research centers with industry and student internship , job placement programs,
leadership commitment are keyed out as best practices for effective university-
industry linkage ( Abebe 2016). The power of implementation of policies in
connection with university-industry linkage is very poor in national and
university level, the leadership commitment to creating linkage with industry
doesn’t get priority attention by the university and the industry owner as well
(Aschalew 2016). There was a policy shift that favored indigenous state led
technology transfer to private partnership in technology transfer in India and
two models of technology transfer in university-industry were proposed. The
type I model was a technology push process that results in an IPR based regime
where as the type II was a business pull model that favors university spin offs (
Kuriakose 2016). Techno-parks that provide opportunities for industry and
university cooperation had many deficiencies in terms of efficiency and
effectiveness. Additionally, many countries established vocational qualification
systems to realize the qualification requirements and provided a full spectrum
education system to meet industrial requirements ( Demirel 2015). The industry
should provide contemporary skills by training and establish networks with
TVET institutions for minimizing the gaps. The collaboration can be made the
highway to bridge the gap and to enhance employability skills of TVET people
in Bangladesh (Raihan 2014). The students of Higher Education are not getting
desired practical benefits of education and this is equally applicable to the
students of technical education also (Gandhi 2014). The Industry should make
some efforts to take academics through various ways like Entrepreneurship
Development Program, Management Development Program, sponsoring R&D
activities at institutes which will in turn benefit industry to get skilled
manpower & support in solutions of industrial problems . On other hand
academic institutions can develop the model of courses in such manner which
give wide exposure to the students in the areas which are required by industries
(Untawale, S.P. 2014).
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8. TOOLS
The researcher has used simple percentage analysis and weighted
average methods.
DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
9. SOCIO ECONOMIC FACTORS OF ENGINEERING STUDENTS
Socio Economic Factors includes gender of the respondents, studying year,
department, internship training attended and arrangement of internship training.
TABLE 1
SOCIO ECONOMIC FACTORS OF ENGINEERING STUDENTS
S.No Gender Number of Respondents Percentage
1 Male 45 60
2 Female 30 40
Total 75 100
S.No Year Number of Respondents Percentage
1 I Year 15 20
2 II Year 18 24
3 III Year 18 24
4 IV Year 24 32
Total 75 100
S.No Department Number of Respondents Percentage
1. Civil Engineering 16 21.3
2. Electrical and Electronics
Engineering 20 26.7
3. Electronics & Communication
Engineering 15 20.0
4. Information Technology 10 13.3
5. Mechanical Engineering 14 18.7
Total 75 100
S.No No. of Internships attended Number of Respondents Percentage
1. One 19 25.3
2. Two 28 37.3
3. Three and more 28 37.3
Total 75 100
S.No Arrangement of Internship Number of Respondents Percentage
1. College 32 42.7
2. Self 43 57.3
Total 75 100
Source: Primary Data
Inference
Majority of 45 respondents are Male (60%) and 30 respondents are Female
(40%).
Majority of 24 respondents are fourth year students (32%) followed by 18
students of second and third year (24%) and 15 respondents of first year
students.
Majority of 20 respondents are Electrical and Electronics Engineering
department (26.7%) followed by 16 Civil engineering students (21.3%), 15
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Electronics & Communication Engineering students (20%), 14 Mechanical
Engineering Students (18.7%) and 10 Information Technology students
(13.3%).
Majority of 28 respondents attended two internships (37.3%) and three and
more internships (37.3%) followed by 19 respondents attended an internship
(25.3%).
Majority of 43 respondent’s internships are arranged by themselves (57.3%)
and 32 respondents are arranged by the college (42.7%).
10. PROBLEMS FACED BY ENGINEERING STUDENTS IN
INTERNSHIP TRAINING PROGRAM
The engineering students are facing some problems during Internship Training
Program. The problems are uncomfortable timings, unresponsive officials, work
is not used, too much work, afraid to ask question, short internship time to grasp
practical works and other problems.
TABLE 2
ACTUAL SCORE OF PROBLEM FACED BY THE ENGINEERING
STUDENTS IN INTERNSHIP TRAINING PROGRAM
S.No
Particulars
5
4
3
2
1
Total
1.
Uncomfortable timings
6
15
39
15
0
75
2.
Unresponsive officials
5
29
24
9
8
75
3.
Your work is not used
3
15
41
16
0
75
4.
Too much work
6
28
24
10
7
75
5.
Afraid to ask questions
15
24
21
15
0
75
6.
Short internship time to
grasp practical works
9
24
42
0
0
75
7.
Others
7
39
20
9
0
75
Source: Primary Data
Table 2 deals with the actual score gained for the each statement of
problem. The researcher has given the actual score as per the descending order
from 5-1 (5-Strongly Agree, 4- Agree, 3- Neutral, 2- Disagree, 1- Strongly
Disagree).
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TABLE 3
WEIGHT SCORE OF PROBLEM FACED BY THE ENGINEERING
STUDENTS IN INTERNSHIP TRAINING PROGRAM
S.No
Particulars
Weight
5
4
3
2
1
Tot
al
Weight Score
1.
Uncomfortable timings
30
60
11
7
30
0
237
2.
Unresponsive officials
25
11
6
72
18
8
239
3.
Your work is not used
15
60
12
3
32
0
230
4.
Too much work
30
11
2
72
20
7
241
5.
Afraid to ask questions
75
96
63
30
0
264
6.
short internship time to grasp
practical works
45
96
12
6
0
0
267
7.
Others
35
78
60
18
0
191
Source: Primary Data (Computed Table)
Table 3 reveals the weight score of problem faced by the Selected
Engineering college students. The researcher has give weight from actual score
on to basis of descending order from 5-1 (5 for Strongly Agree, 4 for Agree, 3
for Neutral, 2 for Disagree and 1for strongly Disagree).
10.1 MEAN SCORE OF PROBLEMS FACED BY THE ENGINEERING
STUDENTS IN INTERNSHIP TRAINING PROGRAM
Mean score of problems faced by the Engineering Students in
Internship Training Program
Mean Score = Total Weight Score
Total Respondents
Table 4 shows that the mean score and rank of the problems faced by
the Engineering Students in Internship Training Program
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TABLE 4
MEAN SCORE AND RANK
S.No
Particulars
Total
Scor
e
Mean
Rank
1.
Uncomfortable timings
237
3.16 V
2.
Unresponsive officials
239
3.18 IV
3.
Your work is not used
230
3.06 VI
4.
Too much work
241
3.21 III
5.
Afraid to ask questions
264
3.54 II
6.
Short internship time to grasp practical
works
267
3.56 I
7.
Others
191
2.54 VII
Source: Primary Data (Computed Table)
Table 4 shows the mean score and rank of problems faced by the
Engineering Students in Internship Training Program. Majority of the
engineering students faced short internship timing as a serious problem as it
stood first, followed by the second problem – afraid to ask questions. The third
problem is too much work, the fourth problem is unresponsive officials, fifth is
uncomfortable timings, sixth is their work is not used and the seventh is other
problems.
Conclusion
Internships play a vital role in the choices engineering students make
about future career pathways. Internship Training Program comes with both
advantages and disadvantages. As this study centered on problems of Internship
Training Program (ITP), it is found that among five engineering colleges, the
students are facing the problem of short internship timings and afraid to ask
questions as their major problem since it rank 1 and 2. Besides these problems
they are also facing the problems of uncomfortable timings, unresponsive
officials, work is not used, too much work and other problems. All these
problems are more or less solvable only. It is suggested that both Educational
institutions and Industry should take necessary measures to overcome this
problem in the period ahead.
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... It is suggested that both Educational institutions and Industry should take necessary measures to overcome this problem in the period ahead. (Gurumoorthy, 2019) Internship was dealing with many challenges that covered lack ofreasonable guidance and guide to college students all through the internship, lack of adequate finances and so on. Internship has to be planned and carried out as a legitimate learning experience (Gashaw 2019). ...
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An internship is an agreement between interns and the organization for a fixed period of time, where interns agree to work for them and organization agree to provide mentorship and job related training, which will provide good work exposure. The purpose of the study was to study the problems faced by management students on Internship Training program. The study aims to find out the role of demographic factors influencing the problems of Internship Training program faced by management students. The data was collected through the structure questionnaire method which was prepared through an extensive review of literature. The data were analyzed using techniques such as percentage analysis, Ranking through Weighted average. The major findings of the study are in internship training program, Students of Faculty of Management in Alagappa University students face a lot of problems like Lot of work, Timing Problem, Strict officials, Hard Procedures, Lack of support, Lack of understanding the work methods, Finance problem, Uncooperative supervisor and other problems.
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An internship is an agreement between interns and the organization for a fixed period of time, where interns agree to work for them and organization agree to provide mentorship and job related training, which will provide good work exposure. The purpose of the study was to study the problems faced by management students on Internship Training program. The study aims to find out the role of demographic factors influencing the problems of Internship Training program faced by management students. The data was collected through the structure questionnaire method which was prepared through an extensive review of literature. The data were analyzed using techniques such as percentage analysis, Ranking through Weighted average. The major findings of the study are in internship training program, Students of Faculty of Management in Alagappa University students face a lot of problems like Lot of work, Timing Problem, Strict officials, Hard Procedures, Lack of support, Lack of understanding the work methods, Finance problem, Uncooperative supervisor and other problems.
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Purpose The aim of the study is to conceptualize, develop and validate a scale reflecting performance dimensions of women entrepreneurs. The study intends to address the important aspects of women entrepreneur such as - identifying factors influencing performance of women entrepreneur in emerging economies such as India, and to develop a reliable and valid scale for measuring performance from women entrepreneurs’ perspective, which will help to explain the phenomena of entrepreneurship among women by using a holistic approach. Design/methodology/approach In-depth literature review was conducted to identify manifest item measuring the latent scale dimensions. Semi- structured interview with women entrepreneurs also contributed towards item generation. A total of 1032 valid and usable questionnaires were used for the final statistical data analysis. EFA also conducted to confirm factors-item composition considered for the study. Findings A final scale comprising of six dimensions of entrepreneurial performance has been developed. These dimensions are Business Environment, Motivation (pull/push), Training and Skill development, Networking and Market information, socio-cultural, and Financial. Dimensions are reflecting perception of women entrepreneurs on performance.Psychometrically properties of the proposed scale were tested and the model fitness was established through CFA. Research limitations/implications The proposed scale will be beneficial for both existing and nascent entrepreneurs towards gaining awareness as to what accounts for their performance enhancement in respective venture undertaken. At the same time, the finding carries implications for regulatory bodies and policy makers as well, which are engaged in drafting guidelines catering to the development of women entrepreneurship in respective economies. Originality/value The author believe that the proposed scale offers superior ability to explain the factors which are affecting the performance of women entrepreneurs in emerging economies like India.
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University–industry interaction (U–I) acquires relevance to countries to the extent that they identify how scientific knowledge produced within universities enhances technological development in firms and facilitates innovations. Universities are invigorated by the possibility of new scientific investigations that these relationships provide. The objective of this article is to analyze the establishment and development of U–I interactions in Santa Catarina, Brazil, of four universities through evolutionary phases, forms of interaction, benefits, and barriers. A total of 38 in-depth interviews were conducted during the data collection stage. To support the analysis and presentation of results, the qualitative data analysis software Atlas/ti, version 7.1.3 was used. The results pointed to non-linearity in the evolution of U–I interaction and demonstrate that most of the relationships between universities and firms are concentrated in traditional and services channels. Moreover, their interaction intensity is evident in the short term with the flow of knowledge being directed from universities to firms. With regard to benefits and barriers, the research results expand on the avenues outlined in the literature, which reflects some characteristics of this interaction type in Brazil, whose relationships are still new and do not yet have a solid trajectory.
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Purpose Internships play an important role in the choices engineering students make about future career pathways though there is little research about the messaging students receive regarding internships from academics. This messaging is important because it can contribute to the expectations students set for internships which in turn influences the interpretation of the experience and sense of appropriateness of that particular career pathway. Situated in Expectancy X Value theory, the purpose of this paper is to examine the beliefs and behaviors of the academics with whom engineering students interact as related to internship experiences. Design/methodology/approach The authors conducted and analyzed interviews with 13 career center employees and 14 academic advisers/faculty members across six demographically and geographically diverse schools. Interviews were coded, and within and across case patterns developed. Findings Across all six schools, interview participants believe internships are important for students with regard to three areas: enabling career discovery, providing opportunities for development of career skills and helping students with full-time job acquisition. However, participants describe few direct actions associated with these beliefs. The lack of recommended actions for making the most of the internship experience, despite a strong belief in their importance, is a major finding of this paper. Originality/value This study is original in that it examines an important perspective that is not often a focus of research related to internships: academic advisors, faculty or career center personnel. The multi-institution sample enhances the value of the study as commonalities were seen despite variation in schools, enabling recommendations useful to a variety of contexts.
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This paper applies a demographic characteristics perspective to understand the internal contingencies of the relationship between university-industry collaboration (UIC) motivation (commercialisation, learning, accessing the resources, and teaching) and UIC performance (number of publications, number of patents, commercial products, and number of business cooperation cases). The paper focuses on two aspects of demographic characteristics, age and gender among UIC scholars, and their effect on scholars’ UIC motivation as potential enhancements to improve UIC performance. We collected data from 376 scholars with UIC experience in Taiwan, and the proposed hypotheses were empirically tested. Our results extend the literature by showing that specific categories of UIC performance depend on a scholar's specific type of UIC motivation. We also specify the moderating effect of demographic characteristics on the relationship between specific subconstructs of UIC motivation and UIC performance. The study’s implications and future research directions are discussed.
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Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine how female entrepreneurs navigate complex and challenging institutional environments. It draws on institutional theory and the concept of response strategies to institutional pressures to explore the institutional barriers that female entrepreneurs encounter and highlights the strategies women employ to overcome them. Design/methodology/approach This paper builds on a case study of female entrepreneurs engaged in food processing in Tanzania. It draws on semi-structured interviews with nine female entrepreneurs, one focus group discussion with six female entrepreneurs and two semi-structured interviews with representatives from women’s business associations (WBAs). Findings This paper reveals a repertoire of active strategies enacted by women entrepreneurs, including advocacy through WBAs, bootstrapping, semi-informal operations, co-location of home and business, spouse involvement in the business, downplay of gender identity, reliance on persistence and passion and networking through WBAs. While these strategies involve various degrees of agency, the findings indicate that collective efforts through WBAs offer women the most promise in terms of influencing institutional structures. Originality/value While there is a growing body of literature examining how institutions influence female entrepreneurs, there is a dearth of knowledge on how women experience institutional complexities and actively react to institutional barriers, complexities and contradictions. This paper shows the value of analytical attention to female entrepreneurs’ agency by highlighting women’s active responses and documenting a repertoire of strategies.
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Purpose The purpose of this study is to addresses the role accelerators as an authentic learning based entrepreneurial training programs. Accelerators facilitate the development and assessment of entrepreneurial competencies in nascent entrepreneurs through the process of creating a start-up venture. Design/methodology/approach Survey data from applicants and participants of four start-accelerators is used to explore the linkages between accelerators and the elements of authentic learning. Authentic learning processes are then mapped onto the start-up processes that occurs within the accelerators. Findings Accelerators take in nascent entrepreneurs and work to create start-ups. This activity develops both the participants’ entrepreneurial competencies and facilitates authentic self-reflection. Research limitations/implications This study explores how accelerators can be useful as authentic learning platforms for the development of entrepreneurial competencies. Limitations include perceptual measures, and the inability to conduct paired sampling. Practical implications Entrepreneurship training is studied through the lens of authentic learning activities that occur within an accelerator. Participants develop and assess their mastery of and interest in entrepreneurship through tasks, exposure to experts and mentors, peer-learning, and assessments such as pitching to investors at Demo-Day. Originality/value This paper reports on the authentic learning processes and its usefulness in competency development and self-appraisal by accelerators participants. The opportunity for competency development and self-appraisal by nascent entrepreneurs before escalating their commitment to a start-up may be an accelerator’s raison d'être.