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INNOVATIVE AND SMART TECHNOLOGIES IN LOGISTICS

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Abstract and Figures

Technology and Innovation are key factors of business competition in all sectors, including logistics. Innovation gives companies the chance to adapt to the environment they are in. Also more importantly it allows them to identify and control change in the external environment, which is crucial for the operator to achieve long-term competitiveness. Innovation can achieve firm's short term outputs such as increased financial performance and market share, creation of new markets, reduction of production costs. Technology has an important role in financial innovations, Technology contributes to the design and pricing of new instruments, and facilitates the identification, measurement and monitoring of risks in portfolios containing complex instruments. It reduces trading costs in international markets, and has the effect of widening the market for new instruments to an international dimension. The technology offers digital platforms for social media, big data analytics, cloud computing, artificial intelligence, smartphones, mobile services and logistics also. Blockchain technology has the potential to launch a new era characterized by global payment systems, digital assets, decentralized management and even decentralized legal systems). Blockchain technology is based on a decentralized book structure and on the basis of mutual agreement of the parties (consensus protocol). This technology allows the creation and sharing of a distributed digital account book among computers on a network. The notebook can not be owned or controlled by a central authority or company, and can be viewed by all users on the network (Underwood, 2016).Blockchain will also change many things in logistics. Technology has been applied in the logistics to help improve safety and efficiency. Intelligent Transport Systems aims to provide innovative services in relation to different modes of transport and traffic management. The ultimate goal is to enable users to be better informed and promote a safer, more coordinated and 'smarter' use of transport networks. There are considerable opportunities for better transport management and new services far from exhausted within the Internet of Things (IoT) in data integration and logistics. As these technologies continue to carve out their role in the global logistics industry, World is likely to see previously unimagined levels of optimization throughout the supply chain-from manufacturing to warehousing to delivery.
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INNOVATIVE AND SMART TECHNOLOGIES IN LOGISTICS
Murat AKKAYA
1
, Hakan KAYA
2
Abstract Technology and Innovation are key factors of business competition in all sectors, including logistics.
Innovation gives companies the chance to adapt to the environment they are in. Also more importantly it allows
them to identify and control change in the external environment, which is crucial for the operator to achieve
long-term competitiveness. Innovation can achieve firm’s short term outputs such as increased financial
performance and market share, creation of new markets, reduction of production costs. Technology has an
important role in financial innovations, Technology contributes to the design and pricing of new instruments,
and facilitates the identification, measurement and monitoring of risks in portfolios containing complex
instruments. It reduces trading costs in international markets, and has the effect of widening the market for new
instruments to an international dimension. The technology offers digital platforms for social media, big data
analytics, cloud computing, artificial intelligence, smartphones, mobile services and logistics also. Blockchain
technology has the potential to launch a new era characterized by global payment systems, digital assets,
decentralized management and even decentralized legal systems). Blockchain technology is based on a
decentralized book structure and on the basis of mutual agreement of the parties (consensus protocol). This
technology allows the creation and sharing of a distributed digital account book among computers on a network.
The note-book can not be owned or controlled by a central authority or company, and can be viewed by all
users on the network (Underwood, 2016).Blockchain will also change many things in logistics. Technology has
been applied in the logistics to help improve safety and efficiency. Intelligent Transport Systems aims to provide
innovative services in relation to different modes of transport and traffic management. The ultimate goal is to
enable users to be better informed and promote a safer, more coordinated and ‘smarter’ use of transport
networks. There are considerable opportunities for better transport management and new services far from
exhausted within the Internet of Things (IoT) in data integration and logistics. As these technologies continue
to carve out their role in the global logistics industry, World is likely to see previously unimagined levels of
optimization throughout the supply chain from manufacturing to warehousing to delivery.
The aim of this study is to examine the latest innovations and smart technologies in logistics and to introduce
the latest products and services. In this respect, it is a theoretical and field study. Recent developments and
products in the world will be examined.
Keywords Innovation, Smart technologies, Blockchain, Logistics
1. Introduction
Technology is developing at a dazzling pace, the point reached every day is no longer surprising people as much
as before. Technological fields in the globalization process are genetic technology, information systems
technology, bio technology, nano technology and logistics and transportation technologies. These technologies
also develop, innovate and change the sectors in which they are involved in a multifaceted, multidimensional
and in-depth manner. Technology allows the centralization of information, shortening delivery times and
reducing batch sizes.
1
Murat AKKAYA, T.C. İstanbul Arel Üniversitesi, İİBF, Uluslararası Ticaret Finans Bölümü (İngilizce), İstanbul, Turkey, muratakkaya@arel.edu.tr
2
Hakan Kaya, Yeditepe Üniversitesi, Uluslararası Ticaret ve Lojistik, İstanbul, Turkey, hakankaya@arel.edu.tr
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It enables to increase the flow of information, to reduce uncertainty and to reach a more profitable structure.
This partnership is based on mutual contacts and institutional agreements. Exchange of information is a very
important issue in coordinating the movements of the units. New business practices and information
technologies make this coordination even easier.
All of the innovative solutions and approaches that come with Industry 4.0 greatly change the logistics and
supply chain business processes. Operational processes carried out by manpower are rapidly being replaced by
autonomous vehicles and robots. The logistics sector is not only a local market but also a global market where
there is global competition. The logistics sector is heavily affected by all developments. Making the right
investments and the results of the investments being effective is of great importance.
Logistics innovation means the ability to apply or create new ideas about logistics activities. These ideas can be
developed to make existing products or services more useful or more efficient, or to solve unresolved problems
and to meet unmet needs. With logistics innovation ability, it becomes possible to reach a logistics ability that
is very difficult to be copied by competitors and this provides a sustainable competitive advantage. Businesses
care about developing this ability and invest in research and development (Bakan & Şekkeli, 2016). Newly
produced knowledge is transformed into a holistic benefit process that focuses on innovation and innovation on
the customer (value and benefit creation), technology (logistics technology, information systems, etc.),
economic (profit, competitive advantage, etc.), social (management, conditions, etc.) and psychological
(attitude) basis.
2. Innovation In Logistics
Each of the logistics processes is restructured together with technological innovations. The most important
factor for the logistics companies to achieve sustainable growth, profitability and competitive advantage is not
only the general principle of the company, but also all employees must be solution, improvement and innovation
oriented. Industry 4.0, which is developing rapidly in the world and making big investments in order to be able
to place it in all its lines, is a major factor in achieving all these targets. Industry 4.0 (Figure 1) is the fourth
industrial revolution based on cyber-physical systems and the Internet of objects technologies. The purpose of
Industry 4.0 is to enable intelligent production of these objects to communicate with each other and people, and
to accelerate decision-making.
Figure 1. Industry 4.0 environment (Galindo, 2016)
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Each of the logistics processes is being restructured with technological innovations triggering Industry 4.0. In
other words, Industry 4.0 has started to shape the future of the logistics sector with the applications of Logistics
4.0. Logistics 4.0 is the development of labor saving and standardization with the evolution of the Internet of
Things technology in logistics.
Logistics 4.0 includes several sub-headings: Integrated logistics planning and implementation, intelligent
storage, autonomous and B2C logistics, logistics analytics and intelligent logistics. All of these subsystems are
interrelated and there are technologies that stand out in this digital transformation. Some of the technologies
used in logistics change processes that do not require human operation. In Logistics 4.0 (Figure 2) the goal is to
achieve the perfect balance between automation and mechanization (Galindo, 2016).
Figure 2. Evolution of Logistics (Galindo, 2016)
Logistics 4.0 includes autonomous automation systems, such as Industry 4.0, with self-employed intelligence.
Logistics 4.0, also called smart logistics, can be defined as a new logistics system where flexibility increases
much more, adaptation to market changes increases, costs decrease and customer needs are met most and quickly
(Şekkeli & Bakan, 2018). Logistics 4.0 consists of autonomous subsystems where the behavior of individual
actors depends on other actors. These autonomous systems interact with each other both to achieve their
individual goals and to ensure that the parties concerned achieve their goals (Timm and Lorig, 2015).
Technologies such as robots and automatic machines are replacing processes requiring operation and
determination by human labour. They aim the perfect equilibrium between the automation and the
mechanization (Galindo, 2016). Technologies involved in Logistics 4.0 is shown on Figure 3.
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Figure 3. Technology involved in Logistics 4.0 (Galindo, 2016)
The technologies within Logistics 4.0 are Internet of Things, Wearable Technology, Cloud Technology,
Blockchain, Big Data, Augmented Reality, Robot Technologies and Automation, Autonomous vehicles, Aerial
Vehicles (Drone), 3D Painting, Simulation and Digital Identifiers.
Internet of Things:
The internet of Things provides the opportunity to see, hear, think and talk with each other by sharing
information with each other, such as embedded devices, sensor networks, communication protocols and so on
and the transformation of basic technologies from a traditional system to an intelligent system (Aktaş et al,
2016). The Internet of Things (IoT) allows physical elements to connect to Internet-enabled devices and
systems. With IoT, logistics processes and applications have been moved to a completely intelligent
environment. As a result, information and communication exchanges, smart searches, identity, location,
monitoring, tracking and management applications have been used in all areas. The IoThas established more
connections between products, places such as warehouses and stores as well as businesses. Thus, an important
potential can be provided by internet and network connection at supply chain points such as storage and freight
transportation (Bayuk & Öz, 2017). The logistics industry uses IoT in a variety of ways, from temperature and
humidity sensors that monitor supply chain quality control to testing with IoT technologies that can detect when
a package is interfering. With the presence of the right IoT solutions, companies can connect their devices to a
central cloud platform, share critical data and gain real-time forward vision in their operations.
Wearable Technology:
Wearable technology is all the technology and technological tools that can be used by wearing or attaching to
the human body. Wearable technology products have come to life by the idea of producing the smallest of the
tools available by high-tech manufacturers and producing technological solutions that people can carry with
them at any time. Many brands shrink their products in order to offer their products to users in different product
ranges and turn them into technologies that can be worn on the human body. Wearable technology is a
combination of visuality and technology (Raj & Bookshire, 2015). It is possible to come across wearable
products that can be used in many areas from health to sports or from jewelry to clothing.
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The widespread use of these devices allows us to keep track of all the jobs with the mobile phones used in daily
works and facilitate the execution of the works. The quick completion of the works saves the user time.
This technology, which is also being used in the logistics sector, increases efficiency and saves time. For
example, an employee loading a lorry can use the device as a wristband or glasses to locate the product to be
loaded, process the stock and perform the loading process in no time. For companies, this leads to savings in
costs and an increase in customer satisfaction. In the meantime, the use of both hands in terms of mobility in
terms of obstruction is very convenient.
Cloud Technology:
Cloud technology is a system that integrates potentially billions of sensors, cameras, displays, smart phones and
other smart communication devices end-to-end in cloud data centers (Georgakopoulos et al., 2016). Cloud
computing provides many advantages such as cost effectiveness, unlimited storage, backup and recovery,
automated software integration, easy access to information, faster deployment, easier service scale and new
services. When companies use cloud platforms, they provide instant access to local logistics IT professionals
and access global markets more easily.
Blockchain:
Blockchain is a distributed database on multiple computers at the same time (Swan 2015). For each new record
added to the blockchain database, the day and time of the transaction date are processed. In addition, the newly
entered information is linked to a previous information by a digital link. Thus, by linking the continuously
increasing records to each other, a chain record is formed and the block chain name is already there. All new
records added to the Blockchain database are encrypted with a special method. Only authorized users who have
a private encryption key can add a new record to a particular chain. As long as password information is protected,
unwanted persons cannot intervene in the records. One copy of the blockchain records on each computer in the
network is updated by mathematical methods called cryptography.
Particularly with the established Blockchain platforms, logistics companies and customers doing business in
specific areas make smart contracts based on Blockchain technology and automate the commercial transactions
during the freight shipment.
With the support of digital products and integration services such as smart containers, it is aimed to reduce
transportation costs, eliminate inefficiencies arising from paper processes and increase traceability in container
transportation. Blockchain system has been used especially in supply chain operations which are the most
important components of the logistics process. In this application; in order to minimize the loss of time due to
human error and practices, the company automates commercial and administrative transactions in the process
of making smart contracts, freight and shipments.
Big Data:
Big data is thedata sets that are too large to be analyzed and managed by traditional data processing tools. Big
data is data with increasing volumes and greater diversity, reaching faster speeds than ever before. There are 5
components in the formation of Big Data. These components are respectively; variety, velocity, volume,
verification and value (Akkaya, 2019).
Big data is a term used to describe data sets beyond the storage, management, and processing capacity of
commonly used programs.
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The combination of the enormous dimensions of big data and the complexity of the analysis needed to benefit
from it has led to the development of new class technologies and tools to manage them.
In fact, big data generally describes both the type of managed data and the technology used to store and process
it. Most of these technologies such as Google, Amazon, Facebook and LinkedIn have developed for themselves
while dealing with incredibly large social media data. These companies, by their very nature, value low-cost
hardware and open-source software (Cackett 14).
The logistics sector has recently begun to position itself to make better and more efficient use of big data. The
big data in logistics is used in operational efficiency (Route Optimization, Address Verification, Shift Planning,
Real Time Analysis), risk planning and customer experience.
Augmented Reality:
Artırılmış gerçeklik, gerçek dünyadaki çevrenin ve içindekilerinin bilgisayar tarafından üretilen ses, video,
grafik ve GPS verileriyle zenginleştirilerek meydana getirilen canlı, doğrudan veya dolaylı fiziksel
rünümüdür (Reif ve Walch, 2008). Augmented reality technology is a combination of 4 different peripherals:
firstly the camera, secondly the computer infrastructure, thirdly a marker and finally the real world. Augmented
reality can be seen as the positioning of these four different units in the real world in 3D.
The aim of optimizing logistic processes has led the industry to new searches. The Augmented Reality in
logistics are used in warehousing, shipping, order preparation and so on. In many processes, time and employee
motivation factors are used to improve the design.
Robot Technologies and Automation:
Robots and robotic systems are only the product of the last few years. Nowadays, robots are being used with
increasing speed in almost all fields including mines, education and production from surgical intervention. With
the advancement of technology, more advanced and functional algorithms become learning organisms and gain
autonomous character. Unlike automated machines, robots are designed to perform several tasks at the same
time. Autonomous robots are devices that do not have human intervention and interaction and are programmed
to perform tasks. In the increasingly complex field of study, activities are carried out by highly flexible and
cognitively powerful robots with new sensor systems, artificial intelligence methods and computer performance
required for these systems (Hohenstein and Wagner, 2017). Autonomous robots are capable of achieving more
consistent levels of quality and productivity, and performing tasks that people cannot, should or should not do.
Autonomous robots can test, select, pack, sort, install, inspect, or transport materials of different sizes and
weights faster and more efficiently than humans (Fitzgerald and Quasney, 2017.
Automation offers a variety of solutions for the logistics industry, from the use of data-driven software to
improve operational efficiency in machines, the elaboration of package labeling to the flattening of warehouse
classification systems.
Autonomous vehicles:
Autonomous vehicles are automobiles that can go on the road without the intervention of the driver by detecting
the road, traffic flow and environment without the need of a driver thanks to the automatic control systems.
Autonomous vehicles can detect objects around them by using technologies and techniques such as radar, lidar,
GPS, odometry, computer vision. In autonomous vehicles, systems such as sensor data, extensive data analysis,
machine learning and the M2M machine-to-machine communication system are essential for the successful
implementation of the Internet of Things philosophy. Autonomous vehicles will be more cost-effective than
existing delivery vehicles, saving more fuel. Since autonomous delivery will receive support from computer
networks and artificial intelligence, consumers' orders will be completed more effectively than now. In addition,
there will be no separate cost item for the labor force of the delivery companies.
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Aerial Vehicles (Drone):
UAVs (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles) for the first time in the early 1980s are used for commercial purposes in
Japan. Many potential new applications have emerged in the agriculture, infrastructure, security, transport,
media and entertainment, telecommunications, mining and insurance sectors. The application of drone
technologies in existing business processes allows companies in these sectors to create new business and
operation models. Unmanned aerial vehicles and drones are being used in a wide range of transportation
activities from e-commerce to package delivery, transportation of medicines, fleet management and spare parts
delivery, and even food delivery on the same day. Unmanned aerial vehicles and drones provide speed,
accessibility and low operating costs.
3D Printing:
Three-dimensional printing is the process of printing an object of any shape designed in 3D in solid form in a
computer environment. By using 3D printers in production, the final configuration of the products can be
optionally achieved, resulting in shorter delivery times for highly individualized products. Due to the use of 3D
printers for fully selected parts instead of traditional manufacturing, a company may need to carefully evaluate
its impact on supply chain strategy, planning and implementation (DHL Logistics Trend Radar Report, 2016).
Simulation:
In these virtual models prepared using real-time data, virtual reality of the physical world is created with
machines, products and people. In this way, it is expected that operators will have the opportunity to test virtually
before setting the machine parameters for the product on the production line, shortening machine installation
time and improving product quality (Çolak et al, 2016).
Digital Identifiers:
Digitalization aims to accelerate all logistics processes and make them more efficient and effective. New
technologies and biometric devices such as barcodes and QR codes have been adopted in more precise
identification of objects and even people. It facilitates the collection and storage of information in the supply
chain.
3. Conclusion
As a result of many changes such as technological advances, smart technology and competition, it encourages
logistics companies to research and develop different models and technologies. In addition, they have to use
new technological approaches and practices to improve logistics operations and functions, accelerate and
minimize costs. It has become compulsory for logistics companies to learn and apply new global logistics trends
and technological applications.
The new approaches used in the logistics sector are presented in Table 1 (Tekin et al, 2018).
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Table 1. Logistics Trends
Source: Tekin, et.al (2018)
REFERENCES
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LOGISTICS TRENDS
Trend
Effect
Time
Multi-purpose
Networks
Low
Less
than 5
year
Multi-purpose networks can use the network or city infrastructure to transport and store
especially heat-sensitive goods. This is possible with shipping, packaging and real-time
supply chain innovations.
Omni-channel
Logistics
High
Less
than 5
year
The new generation of retail requires logistics networks tailored to the needs of each
channel. This would require logistics providers to maintain an integrated view with
dynamic distribution of all customer channels and inventory, and require uninterrupted
customer service with options to fulfill.
On-demand
Delivery
High
Less
than 5
year
There will be no restrictions on delivery times and places of delivery by companies. The
latest on-demand mileage delivery concepts leverage the power of the crowd and flexible
courier workforce to enable customers to make purchases where and when they need
them.
Shareconomy
Logistics
Medium
Less
than 5
year
The social shift from ownership to ownership sharing has been one of the most prominent
trends of recent years. Everything from cars to driveways can be shared on platforms. In
addition to these end-to-end sharing networks, logistics providers can share available
resources to save more cost and time.
Smart Energy
Logistics
Medium
Less
than 5
year
The shift towards renewable energy sources brings along electrical mobility solutions in
logistics. It also provides opportunities for logistics solutions that facilitate new energy
supply chains. Innovative energy collection, storage and distribution concepts can also
be used to reduce confidence in the grid.
Supergrid
Logistics
High
More
than 5
year
Beyond 4PL logistics, super-network logistics will unveil a new generation of logistics
companies that focus on the coordination of global supply chain networks that bring
together the majority of different manufacturing businesses and logistics providers.
Tube Logistics
Low
More
than 5
year
Due to technological advances in driving systems and traffic congestion in megacities,
there is growing interest in the use of existing and new tube infrastructures in cargo
transport. New innovations such as Hyperloop (tube-based rapid transport) can one day
provide fast cargo transit networks within and between cities.
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October 17-18, 2019, Istanbul, Turkey
Çolak, A., Acar, A.İ., Orel, O. (2016). Tarım@Endüstri 4.0. 30.Tarımsal Mekanizasyon ve Enerji Kongresi, Tokat. 9.
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https://www.logistics.dhl/content/dam/dhl/global/core/documents/pdf/glo-core-trend-radar-widescreen.pdf
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Georgakopoulos, D., Jayaraman, P.P., Fazia, M., Villari, M., Ranjan, M.R. (2016). Internet of Things and Edge Cloud
Computing Roadmap for Manufacturing. IEEE Computer Society. 64.
Hohenstein, F. & Wagner, O. (2017) Robots in Picking Logistics, Miebach Consulting Research Report, München.
Reif, R., & Walch, D. (2008). Augmented & Virtual Reality applications in the field of logistics. The Visual Computer,
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ve İdari Bilimler Sempozyumu, Alanya-Türkiye
Timm, I. J., & Lorig, F. (2015, December). Logistics 4.0: a challenge for simulattion. In Proceedings of the 2015 winter
simulation conference (pp. 3118-3119). IEEE Press.
... They are the best substitutes in dangerous tasks or the one should not be performed by a person. Akkaya and Kaya (2019) They are indispensable in industries due to its reliability in performing tasks with precision and high speed. For example, in welding, assembly, painting and material handling. ...
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Lojistik Koordinasyon Yeteneği, Lojistik İnovasyon Yeteneği Ve Müşteri İlişkileri (Miy)
  • İ Bakan
  • Z Şekkeli
Bakan, İ. & Şekkeli, Z. (2016). Lojistik Koordinasyon Yeteneği, Lojistik İnovasyon Yeteneği Ve Müşteri İlişkileri (Miy)
Tarım@Endüstri 4.0. 30.Tarımsal Mekanizasyon ve Enerji Kongresi
  • A Çolak
  • A İ Acar
  • O Orel
Çolak, A., Acar, A.İ., Orel, O. (2016). Tarım@Endüstri 4.0. 30.Tarımsal Mekanizasyon ve Enerji Kongresi, Tokat. 9. DHL Logistics Trend Radar Report, (2018).
Using Autonomous Robots to Drive Supply Chain Innovation
  • J Fitzgerald
  • E Quasney
Fitzgerald, J. & Quasney, E. (2017) Using Autonomous Robots to Drive Supply Chain Innovation, Deloitte Research Report, New York.
The Challenges of logistics 4.0 for the SDupply chain management and the Information Technology
  • L D Galindo
Galindo, L. D. (2016). The Challenges of logistics 4.0 for the SDupply chain management and the Information Technology (Master's thesis, NTNU).
Robots in Picking Logistics
  • F Hohenstein
  • O Wagner
Hohenstein, F. & Wagner, O. (2017) Robots in Picking Logistics, Miebach Consulting Research Report, München.