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Investigating MentalUP Educational Games Application's Measurement and Improvement Capacity of Attention and Relevant Cognitive Skills

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The change in the industry, which started with the fourth industrial revolution, brought the idea of the educational support of the human brain to the forefront. The process that has influenced all institutions in society has laid the foundation for comprehensive advances in science and technology. Thus, it is important to educate people in accordance with 21st-century skills. The need for innovative individuals with problem-solving power has increased as a result of dynamic interaction of their mental structures, which will be able to follow technological developments by analyzing the needs of the present age. With the realization of digital transformation, it also required the exchange of educational tools that help students in their learning initiatives and increase their learning capacity. MentalUP Educational Brain Games Application which was developed based on the principles of “anytime, anywhere”, “personalized” and “continuous measurement”, which are among the criterias of education, 4.0 has become one of the game-based educational tools. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of MentalUP on attention and other cognitive skills The sample population of the study consists of 283 participants (140 girls and 143 boys) of a healthy student group, aged between 6 and 10. In the analysis of the data, MOXO d-CPT Child Version was applied to all participants as the pre and the post-test. After the first pre-test, participants were asked to use the MentalUP regularly at least for three months. At the end of this period, the effects of the program on attention and the other cognitive skills relying on attention were investigated by applying post-tests to the participants. The data collected in accordance with the objectives of the study were subjected to statistical analysis with SPSS v.21 program. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Shapiro-Wilk tests were used to determine whether the scores obtained from the data collection tools used in the study showed normal distribution before the data analysis was conducted. Kruskal Wallis and Mann Whitney U tests were used for intergroup comparisons, Spearman correlation analysis and Wilcoxon test were executed for related sample comparisons. As a result, it was concluded that test parameters were statistically significant and MentalUP Educational Mind Games Application improved students' attention and the cognitive skills relying on attention. Keywords: Education 4.0, Attention, Cognitive Skills, MentalUP Educational Mind Games, MOXO
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Investigating MentalUP Educational Games Application’s
Measurement and Improvement Capacity of Attention and
Relevant Cognitive Skills.
London, September 2019
ABSTRACT
The change in industry, which started with the fourth industrial revolution, brought the idea of
the educational support of the human brain to the forefront. The process that has influenced all
institutions in society has laid the foundation for comprehensive advances in science and
technology. Thus, it is important to educate people in accordance with 21st century skills. The
need for innovative individuals with problem solving power has increased as a result of dynamic
interaction of their mental structures, which will be able to follow technological developments
by analyzing the needs of the present age. With the realization of digital transformation, it also
required the exchange of educational tools that help students in their learning initiatives and
increase their learning capacity. MentalUP Educational Brain Games Application which was
developed based on the principles of “anytime, anywhere”, “personalized” and “continuous
measurement”, which are among the criterias of education, 4.0 has become one of the game-
based educational tools. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of MentalUP on
attention and other cognitive skills
The sample population of the study consists of 283 participants (140 girls and 143 boys) of a
healthy student group, aged between 6 and 10. In the analysis of the data, MOXO d-CPT Child
Version was applied to all participants as the pre and the post-test. After the first pre-test,
participants were asked to use the MentalUP regularly at least for three months. At the end of
this period, the effects of the program on attention and the other cognitive skills relying on
attention were investigated by applying post-tests to the participants. The data collected in
accordance with the objectives of the study were subjected to statistical analysis with SPSS
v.21 program. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Shapiro-Wilk tests were used to determine
whether the scores obtained from the data collection tools used in the study showed normal
distribution before the data analysis was conducted. Kruskal Wallis and Mann Whitney U tests
were used for intergroup comparisons, Spearman correlation analysis and Wilcoxon test were
executed for related sample comparisons.
As a result, it was concluded that test parameters were statistically significant and MetalUP
MentalUP Educational Mind Games Application improved students' attention and the cognitive
skills relying on attention.
Keywords: Education 4.0, Attention, Cognitive Skills, MentalUP Educational Mind
Games, MOXO
INTRODUCTION
Especially with the changes in the digital world, the educational support of the human brain
comes to the forefront. It is getting important for individuals to be observant, willing to learn,
being able to question the opinions, investigate, adapt to reality, be competent and innovative
to use technological infrastructure.
When the 21st century skills are reviewed, it is thought that the students change from how they
adapt basic skills to daily life to the competences in their approach to complex difficulties. An
understanding of generations that develops skills that can think creatively and critically,
assimilate, find solutions that meet the needs by using analysis and synthesis skills is
developing, not taking the information passively. This situation, which is not limited to the
educated human profile, also changes the educational tools in the system and affects the
structure of the education system and the teaching activities put into practice (Pala, 2006). Thus,
technology integration in education makes it inevitable.
MentalUP Educational Mind Games Application, that is developed as a game-based
personalized digital training tool with the aim of supporting students' cognitive developments,
improving thinking and learning skills, measures real time exercise scores, levels, accuracy
rates and response times. Also it creates continuous measurement and development reports for
each child.
Supporting the individuals by finding effective methods for developing and teaching in
educational technology (Varol, 1997) makes us realize that in recent technologies are at a point
where their importance and benefits are increasing every day. The subject of this study is to
prove or refute the claims of MentalUP about measuring and developing the relevant cognitive
skills.
METHOD
A literature review was performed to determine the most appropriate neuropsychological tests
for the skills measured and developed by MentalUP. MOXO Continuous Performance d-CPT
was determined to be the most consistent of the current modern attention tests. This study is an
analysis of the effect of the attention and relevant cognitive skills of MentalUp with the result
data of MOXO Continuous Performance d-CPT. The research scale was administered by
experts who were authorized to apply and report the test in a counseling and research centre
and written approval was obtained from the institution.
In the first step of the study, the subtest results of the game scores recorded by MentalUP were
associated with the MOXO Continuous Performance d-CPT results. In the second step, the
impact of the program on developing attention and relevant cognitive skills were evaluated.
MOXO Continuous Performance d-CPT was applied to the students in the test group. After the
tests, students were asked to use MentalUP regularly for at least three months. At the end of
this period, MOXO Continuous Performance d-CPT was repeated to the same sample group
and it was observed whether the related sub-skills developed in relation to the frequency of
MentalUP usage. The results were also evaluated for students who are 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10 years
of age and who do not use the MentalUP regularly.
A sample of 300 students from a healthy group of students aged between 6 and 10 years were
selected for the study. In the first stage, the pre-test MOXO Continuous Performance d-CPT
was attended by 148 female and 152 male students.
At the second stage, the post and final MOXO Continuous Performance d-CPT tests applied to
the same group consisting of 140 female and 143 male students. A total of 283 students
participated in the final test of the study. The data in the results section was evaluated according
to the students’ results in the last test group.
RESULTS
In this section, the statistical analyses applied to the data collected for the purposes of the
research are given. Firstly, the results of the Wilcoxon test were given in order to compare the
mean scores obtained from the MOXO Continuous Performance and Attention Pre and Post
Tests. Secondly, the results of Kurskal Wallis and Mann Whitney U tests were compared in
order to compare the mean scores of the participants in the post test according to participants’
usage frequency of MentalUP. Thirdly, correlations between the participants' attention, timing,
impulsivity and hyperactivity scores, which are the sub-dimensions of the MOXO test, are
given.
Table 1 shows the mean scores, standard deviations and related sample Wilcoxon test and
correlation analysis results obtained from the MOXO pre and post-tests .
Table 1: Mean scores, standard deviations and related sample Wilcoxon test and correlation analysis results
obtained from the MOXO pre and post- tests .
Pre Test
Post Test
n
MEAN
MEAN
z
p
r
Attention
80
-2.73
-3.10
-.872
.383
.598**
Timing
80
-4.78
-4.37
-1.367
.172
.677**
Hyperactivity
80
-7.57
-2.37
-2.612
.009*
.404**
Impulsivity
80
-4.49
-5.04
-1.425
.154
.740**
*p<.05; **p<.01
A significant difference was obtained between the participants' mean scores on the
hyperactivity subscale in the pre and post-tests (z = -2.612; p = .009). In the post-test, the mean
of hyperactivity (mean = -2.237) was significantly higher than the mean of the pre-test
hyperactivity (mean = -7.57). According to the measurement standards of this test, hyperactivity
score decreases as hyperactive responses increase. That is, the higher the score, the less
hyperactivity represents the response.
A significant positive correlation was obtained between the pre and post attention subscale
scores of the participants (r = .598; p = .000). The attention subscale scores of the participants
in the post-test increased compared to the scores in the pre-test.
A significant positive correlation was obtained between the pre and post timing subscale scores
of the participants (r = .677; p = .000). The timing subscale scores of the participants in the
post-test increased compared to the scores in the pre-test.
A significant positive correlation was obtained between the pre and post hyperactivity subscale
scores of the participants (r = .404; p = .000). The hyperactivity subscale scores of the
participants in the post-test increased compared to the scores in the pre-test.
A significant positive correlation was obtained between the pre and post impulsivity subscale
scores of the participants (r = .740; p = .000). The impulsivity subscale scores of the participants
in the post-test increased compared to the scores in the pre-test.
There was a significant difference between the mean scores of the participants in the attention
subtest according to exercise frequency [χ2 (2) = 9.391; p = .009]. To determine the source of
the difference, Mann Whitney U test was executed. As a result of this, the mean (mean = .9656)
of attention scores of the participants who use the application in high frequency was
significantly higher than the mean (mean = .3039) of the low frequent users (z = -2.765; p =
.006). The mean (mean = .9656) of attention scores of the participants who use the application
in high frequency was significantly higher than the mean (mean = .2930) of the mid frequent
users (z = -2.922; p = .003).
There was a significant difference between the mean scores of the participants in the
hyperactivity subtest according to exercise frequency [χ2 (2) = 9.743; p = .008]. To determine
the source of the difference, Mann Whitney U test was executed. As a result of this, the mean
(mean = 1.9552) of attention scores of the participants who use the application in high frequency
was significantly higher than the mean (mean = 1.5780) of the low frequent users (z = -2. 062;
p = .039). The mean (mean = .9656) of attention scores of the participants who use the
application in high frequency was significantly higher than the mean (mean = 1.0768) of the
mid frequent users (z = -2.921; p = .003).
There was no significant difference between the other means.
CONCLUSIONS
This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of MentalUP Educational Mind Games
Application on students' attention and relevant cognitive skills in the field of Education 4.0. It
is seen that there are not many studies on educational tools in the field of Education 4.0 and
there are few data in the literature. With the realization of digital transformation, differentiation
of education and training environment and the need for qualified talents, this study is thought
to make a significant contribution to the literature.
The data obtained from the participants in the sample of the study suggest that the MentalUP
Educational Mind Games Application improves attention and sub-skills of healthy individuals
when it is used regularly and frequently. In addition, increased hyperactive responses confirm
decreasing hyperactivity and provide evidence that it is effective and efficient in improving the
ability to cope with visual distractors.
When the participant’s statistical results are obtained from visual distractor sections of MOXO,
it has been seen that MentalUP increases the ability of competing with visual distractors in
terms of timing and attention.
As well this study shows that there are significant effects on improving attention when the
application is used regularly, another study can be performed to investigate the effect of
MentalUP on other cognitive skills as memory, verbal and math skills. In addition, another
study with MentalUP using a sample group of students with ADHD diagnosis and special
learning difficulties would be useful to understand the effects on improving attention and
decreasing contagions of these disorders.
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This book provides both a review of the literature and a theoretical framework for understanding the development of visual attention from infancy through early childhood, including the development of selective and state-related aspects in infants and young children as well as the emergence of higher controls on attention. They explore individual differences in attention and possible origins of ADHD.
Article
The contribution of perceptual processes to the correlation between measures of sustained attention and intelligence was investigated in considering computerized and paper–pencil tests of sustained attention. Perceptual processes were represented by tasks demanding signal detection and stimulus discrimination. A total of 117 participants completed two attention tests, as well as two tests that required signal detection and stimulus discrimination. Intelligence was measured by means of Advanced Progressive Matrices (APM) and Berliner Intelligenzstruktur-Test (BIS). Structural equation modeling showed that intelligence was best predicted by one independent latent variable, which included loadings of sustained attention, speed of signal detection, and of stimulus discrimination. The investigation of the structure of prediction revealed speed of stimulus discrimination and genuine sustained attention as major predictors of intelligence.
Book
Cambridge Core - Computing and Society - Human Attention in Digital Environments - edited by Claudia Roda