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An increasing number of adults learn more than one foreign language simultaneously. While the cognitive benefits of using multiple languages from birth have been studied extensively, little is known about possible cognitive benefits of learning multiple languages simultaneously in adulthood. Among the cognitive abilities which play a role in language learning, language aptitude (LA) and working memory (WM) are argued to be crucial. Traditionally considered relatively stable, recently they are advocated to be changeable. For example, one could imagine that learning new sounds, words, and structures in a language might both enhance the ability to temporarily hold and manage information (WM) and improve the ease with which subsequent languages are learnt (LA). Therefore, this study investigates whether LA and WM change while learning languages, and whether language learning intensity, i.e. learning one versus two foreign languages simultaneously, modulates this effect. Participants consisted of first-year and second-year Chinese university students majoring in English or English & Japanese/Russian. Data were collected twice with an interval of one academic year. The results show that all learners improved in certain aspects of LA and WM, and that among the first-year students, the two-foreign-languages learners outperformed their counterparts in WM improvement. The implications are discussed.
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International Journal of Bilingual Education and
ISSN: 1367-0050 (Print) 1747-7522 (Online) Journal homepage:
The impact of second- and third-language learning
on language aptitude and working memory
Ting Huang, Hanneke Loerts & Rasmus Steinkrauss
To cite this article: Ting Huang, Hanneke Loerts & Rasmus Steinkrauss (2020): The impact of
second- and third-language learning on language aptitude and working memory, International
Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, DOI: 10.1080/13670050.2019.1703894
To link to this article:
© 2020 The Author(s). Published by Informa
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Published online: 04 Jan 2020.
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The impact of second- and third-language learning on language
aptitude and working memory
Ting Huang , Hanneke Loerts and Rasmus Steinkrauss
Center for Language and Cognition (CLCG), University of Groningen, the Netherlands
An increasing number of adults learn more than one foreign language
simultaneously. While the cognitive benets of using multiple languages
from birth have been studied extensively, little is known about possible
cognitive benets of learning multiple languages simultaneously in
adulthood. Among the cognitive abilities which play a role in language
learning, language aptitude (LA) and working memory (WM) are argued
to be crucial. Traditionally considered relatively stable, recently they are
advocated to be changeable. For example, one could imagine that
learning new sounds, words, and structures in a language might both
enhance the ability to temporarily hold and manage information (WM)
and improve the ease with which subsequent languages are learnt (LA).
Therefore, this study investigates whether LA and WM change while
learning languages, and whether language learning intensity, i.e.
learning one versus two foreign languages simultaneously, modulates
this eect. Participants consisted of rst-year and second-year Chinese
university students majoring in English or English & Japanese/Russian.
Data were collected twice with an interval of one academic year. The
results show that all learners improved in certain aspects of LA and WM,
and that among the rst-year students, the two-foreign-languages
learners outperformed their counterparts in WM improvement. The
implications are discussed.
Received 8 May 2019
Accepted 4 December 2019
L2 and L3 learning; language
aptitude; working memory
The process of second language (L2) learning is determined by complex and multifaceted factors
(Dörnyei and Skehan 2003). Of these factors, language aptitude (LA) has often been considered as
a set of abilities crucial for L2 learning (Skehan 2015). Traditionally, it has been argued that there
are four components of LA, namely phonemic coding ability, associative memory, grammatical sen-
sitivity, and inductive language learning ability (Carroll 1965). However, recently a new understanding
of working memory (WM) triggered a discussion on the conceptualization of LA (Granena 2013; Wen
2016), and WM has been argued to be a part of LA (e.g. Miyake and Friedman 1998;Li2013; Wen and
Skehan 2011; Wen 2015,2016,2019). Originally proposed by Baddeley and Hitch (1974), WM refers to
a memory system that both provides temporary storage and enables the manipulation of the infor-
mation necessary for complex cognitive tasks such as language comprehension, learning, and
reasoning (Baddeley 1992,2003).
© 2020 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group
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original work is properly cited, and is not altered, transformed, or built upon in any way.
CONTACT Ting Huang;
This article has been republished with minor changes. These changes do not impact the academic content of the article.
Been considered as a relatively stable trait of language learners (Carroll 1981) for decades, LA has
been viewed from a dynamic perspective by a growing number of researchers lately (e.g. Eisenstein
1980; Grigorenko, Sternberg, and Ehrman 2000; Sáfár and Kormos 2008; Singleton 2014; Singleton
2017; Thompson 2013). They argue that LA is not necessarily an unchangeable trait, instead, it is prob-
ably malleable according to the language learning experience and the language instruction a learner
receives. Similar to LA, WM has been viewed as a constant trait (Klingberg 2010), but recent studies
(e.g. Jaušovec and Jaušovec 2012; Klingberg 2010; Kogetsidis 2012; von Bastian and Oberauer 2013)
have shown that it may be improved through training. While most of the studies investigating the
changeability of LA focus on language learning eects, only few of the studies exploring the change-
ability of WM have examined the impact of language learning. Even fewer studies have examined the
impact of language learning intensity, i.e. the number of languages being learnt or have been learnt,
on the development of LA and WM jointly.
The current study tries to ll this gap and sets out to investigate, rst, whether LA and WM are
changeable and, second, to what extent the number of languages being learnt have an eect on
LA and WM development. We assume that LA and WM are not stable as traditionally considered,
but that they can develop during intensive foreign language learning. Moreover, we assume that
learning one vs. two foreign language(s) simultaneously may lead to dierences in LA and WM
The denition and components of LA and WM
The recognition of an individuals LA as a factor for L2 learning may be traced back to Carroll, who
dened foreign LA as an individuals initial state of readiness and capacity for learning a foreign
language, and probable degree of facility in doing so(Carroll 1981, 86). LA consists four components,
namely phonemic coding ability, associative memory, grammatical sensitivity, and inductive
language learning ability (Carroll 1965). Phonemic coding ability is the capacity to discriminate
sounds and analyze foreign sounds; associative memory is the ability to make connections
between stimuli and target responses in memory; grammatical sensitivity refers to the ability to ident-
ify the functions of words in sentences, and inductive language learning ability is the skill to recognize
linguistic regularities in the input. This proposition that LA is not a monolithic construct has had a
profound inuence on subsequent LA research (Skehan 2002). While Carrolls four-factor model of
LA still seems valid today, as Skehan (1991) pointed out, each of the factors might still benet
from a revision by taking into account recent developments in related disciplines. For example,
when the classic LA test MLAT (Modern Language Aptitude Test) was developed by Carroll and
Sapon (1959), associative memory was regarded as the dominant form of memory. However, the per-
spectives on memory have changed radically since, characterized by the importance now attached to
WM (Skehan 2012). Following this trend, Skehan (2012) included WM into the LA repertoire. This is
very much in line with Robinsons suggestion to integrate WM measures into aptitude subtests
(Robinson, 2001,2002,2005), and with Wens Phonological WM/Executive WM model (Wen 2015,
WM is a memory system involved in many complex cognitive tasks, such as language comprehen-
sion, learning, and reasoning, during which the system temporarily stores and manipulates the infor-
mation needed (Baddeley 1992;2003). According to Baddeley and Hitch (1974) and Baddeley (2000),
WM comprises an attentional control system, the central executive, and three subsidiary slave
systems: the phonological loop, the visuospatial sketchpad, and the episodic buer. While the pho-
nological loop stores verbal and verbal-acoustic information, the visuospatial sketchpad holds visual
and visuospatial information. The episodic buer, a limited-capacity temporary storage system, inte-
grates this auditory and visuospatial information and is linked to long-term memory. The central
executive, which controls the three subsystems, retrieves, manipulates, and modies information
(Baddeley 2000). Each component of WM capacity is related to language learning in its own way. The
phonological loop has been argued to play an important role in vocabulary learning in both the L1
(Baddeley, Gathercole, and Papagno 1998) and L2 (e.g. Service 1992; Atkins and Baddeley 1998)as
the phonological loop is closely linked to verbal long-term memory (Baddeley 2015). The role of
the visuospatial sketchpad and the episodic buer in language learning is yet uncertain (Baddeley
2015), but it could be argued that they play a role in L2 reading and in the integration of auditory
and visual information, respectively. The central executive is relevant to general learning mechan-
isms, and has been argued to be involved in shifting between and inhibiting languages (Green
and Abutalebi 2013)arguably, the more so the more languages need to be managed.
The eect of LA and WM on language learning
The study of LA in SLA research can provide important insights because LA partly predicts language
learning success (Skehan 1991). Therefore, recent years have witnessed a substantial amount of
studies investigating how and to what extent LA can predict L2 development. LA has repeatedly
been found to have a specically powerful impact on L2 learning outcomes when compared to
other factors. Those factors include age of onset, length of residence (Granena and Long 2012),
rst language skills, and L2 aect, such as motivation and anxiety (Sparks et al. 2009). The impact
of LA on L2 learning becomes more prominent when it comes to adult L2 learning, especially in
language analysis ability (e.g. Harley and Hart 1997), and for those individuals who attain native-
like prociency (e.g. Abrahamsson and Hyltenstam 2008). Similarly, LA, as measured by the High
Level Language Aptitude test (Hi-LAB), has been argued to be the strongest predictor for high
levels of achievement in language learning after puberty (Doughty et al. 2010; Linck et al. 2013).
Still other studies demonstrated that the power of LA to predict L2 learning depends on L2 learn-
ing stages and language instruction methods (Li 2015), and that dierent LA components showed
dierent predictive powers for dierent aspects of L2 learning (Li 2016). For example, phonemic
coding ability, as measured by the LLAMA-D test, especially impacted learners at the early stages
of L2 learning (Artieda and Muñoz 2016). In the same vein, Lis(2015) meta-analysis showed that
LA, as measured by traditional aptitude tests such as MLAT, was more relevant to initial stages of
explicit L2 learning. In sum, these studies thus show a positive eect of (components of) LA for
dierent L2 learning methods at dierent stages.
Also, WM argued to be an important aspect of LA by some scholars (e.g. Miyake and Friedman
1998; Wen and Skehan 2011; Wen 2015,2016), has increasingly drawn the attention of L2 researchers.
Studies have examined which subsystem of WM is a predictor of L2 prociency, or how the WM sub-
systems aect learner groups with dierent levels of L2 prociency. For example, executive WM as
measured by complex span tasks has been found to be a stronger predictor for L2 prociency
than WM as measured by simple span tasks (Linck et al. 2014). And executive WM and phonological
WM, as assessed by an operation span task and a digit span task respectively, both tend to benet
learners with lower L2 prociency (Serani and Sanz 2016).
Another set of studies explores the relationship between WM and dierent L2 skills, such as speak-
ing and writing. Bergsleithner (2010), for example, found that WM, as measured by means of an L1
operation-word span test, showed a signicant positive correlation with L2 writing performance in
terms of accuracy and complexity. L2 learners with higher WM also have a higher tendency to
modify their oral production (Mackey, Adams, and Staord 2010). Similar results were found by
Payne and Ross (2005), in which the WM capacity was measured by a reading span and a non-
word repetition task.
The above studies have found sucient evidence that LA and WM play important roles in L2 learn-
ing. However, most of these studies (apart from Serani and Sanz 2016) measured LA and WM only
once, usually in the beginning of the period under investigation. As the stability of both constructs is
increasingly being questioned, the question is whether LA and WM may be trained and changed in
the process of L2 learning, given the critical roles that these abilities play in L2 learning. As laid out in
the following section, various studies have demonstrated that the number of languages spoken by a
person is related to their scores in abilities related to WM and LA, suggesting that there might be a
training eect of learning and speaking several languages.
Eects of multiple languages learning on LA and WM
As argued by de Bot (2012), it may be possible that multilingual learners suer from disadvantages in
certain language learning situations, because they have the same resources, such as memory capacity
and attention, but more languages to cope with. However, it is also plausible that multilingual lear-
ners are equipped with more and/or better resources, because they have learnt to cater to more lin-
guistic systems, and are richer in language learning experience. Given the general view that LA and
WM are important resources aecting language learning, it might be asked whether there is a bi-
directional relationship between language learning on the one hand, and LA and/or WM on the
other (Linck et al. 2014). This possible bi-directional relationship between L2 prociency and LA
and/or WM could be compared with the bi-directional relationship between muscle strength and
running speed in sprinters: while gaining muscle strength will lead to faster running, running
faster at the same time trains the muscles and leads to greater strength. Similarly, it might be ima-
gined that intensive language learning will not only improve a learners language prociency, but
also their LA and/or WM capacity simply by actively using and hence potentially training these cog-
nitive resources. And this potential eect might increase with the number of languages as WM and LA
are both more challenged by and trained by using several languages.
Research into this question is scarce, but positive correlations between the number of languages a
participant had learnt and their LA and WM were discovered in previous studies. For example, Ma,
Yao, and Zhang (2018) found that bi-foreign-language learners scored higher than one-foreign-
language learners in the LLAMA test (Meara 2005). Similarly, Grigorenko, Sternberg, and Ehrman
(2000) found a positive correlation between the number of languages that the participants used
and LA scores as measured by the CANAL-F test (Grigorenko, Sternberg, and Ehrman 2000). Regard-
ing WM, Morales, Calvo, and Bialystok (2013), for example, found that bilingual children performed
signicantly better than monolingual children in WM tasks, especially in those tasks demanding
executive functioning. The results of this study were corroborated by a comprehensive meta-analysis
conducted by Grundy and Timmer (2017), which revealed that bilinguals enjoy a greater WM capacity
than otherwise comparable monolinguals.
There are thus some indications that the number of languages learnt or spoken impacts WM and
LA in a positive way. However, of course, all of the ndings cited are correlational in nature, and
should, therefore, be interpreted with caution, because they do not necessarily reveal underlying
causal relations (Grigorenko, Sternberg, and Ehrman 2000). Sound evidence from empirical studies
supporting a positive eect of the intensity of language learning on LA, and more so on WM, is
still lacking. At the same time, to assume that LA and WM can be aected by language learning
also means that one assumes these two abilities to be changeable. As discussed in the following
section, recent research indeed suggests this to be the case.
LA and WM as changeable cognitive abilities
Both LA and WM have increasingly come to be considered changeable traits in recent years. While LA
is traditionally thought of as a relatively stable language learner trait that is immune to training
(Carroll 1965,1981), a growing number of researchers such as Singleton (2017), who agrees with
Wens(2016) proposal of viewing WM as an important part of LA, have started to question the stab-
ility of LA. Following this line of thought, recent empirical studies involving a pre-test/post-test design
have provided some evidence for the changeability of LA. For instance, in Sáfár and Kormos (2008)
study, students in an intensive language instruction program gained signicantly more in LA scores
than their peers in a regular language instruction program. Likewise, foreign LA as measured by the
MLAT (Carroll and Sapon 1959) could be signicantly improved through a language training program,
even among students with an identied learning disability (Sparks et al. 1996).
Similar to LA, the exibility of WM has long been discussed. Furthermore, Serani (2017) proposed
to investigate the dynamic nature of WM under the Dynamic System Theory framework (DST;
Cameron and Larsen-Freeman 2007; de Bot, Lowie, and Verspoor 2007; de Bot and Larsen-
Freeman 2011), to broaden and deepen our understanding(384) of the cognitive aspects of L2 learn-
ing and their possible interactions.
Several meta-analyses on the trainability of WM have emphasized the inconsistent results con-
cerning the presence of a training eect, the potential size of the eect, the eect of dierent training
tasks, and the transfer eects to broader cognitive systems (e.g. Karbach and Verhaeghen 2014;
Melby-Lervåg and Hulme 2013; Sala and Gobet 2017; Soveri et al. 2017). Despite these inconsisten-
cies, some studies have demonstrated that WM is not immune to training, but rather changeable
under certain interventions or treatments (Jaušovec and Jaušovec 2012; Klingberg 2010; Kogetsidis
2012; von Bastian and Oberauer 2013).
Klingberg (2010) investigated the neuroscientic reasons for the trainability of general WM
capacity, and pointed out its remediating intervention function for individuals who suer from
poor academic performance resulting from lower WM capacity. Holmes, Gathercole, and Dunning
(2009) trained the WM of 22 children with learning diculties for a period of ve to seven weeks.
Results showed that the children improved their WM scores substantially, with regard to verbal
short-term memory, visuospatial short-term memory, verbal WM, and visuospatial WM. These
improvements in WM in return ameliorated those childrensdecits and associated learning dicul-
ties. Hayashi, Kobayashi, and Toyoshige (2016) argued for an insight into the dynamic nature of WM.
Their study showed that the combination of language training and WM training resulted in a signi-
cant improvement in WM scores and these gains were maintained three months later. WM training
was found to be eective among elderlies as well (Carretti et al. 2013), and this WM training eect
transferred to language ability and was likewise maintained at the 6-month follow-up test.
To look into the changeability of LA and WM under the circumstance of language learning, a setting
where a comparison between dierent language learning intensity groups can be made and where a
pre-test-and-post-test design can be applied is needed. Bi-foreign-language programs in China oer a
quasi-experimental condition suited for such an investigation. They are a new type of program for teach-
ing foreign languages at the university level where the bi-foreign-language majors learn English and an
additional foreign language (AFL) simultaneously, while their peers in the English major learn English
only. In spite of this, both groups have exactly the same curriculum for English instruction. In the rst
two years of university, for learners from both groups, the courses are focused on training listening,
reading, writing and speaking. The English majors are trained in English language skills, while the bi-
foreign-language majors are trained in English and in the other foreign language.
The current study aims at exploiting this unique context to investigate the following issues: the
potential changeability of LA and/or WM, and the possible language learning intensity eect on
LA and/or WM. The research questions are:
First, do foreign language learners improve in LA and WM after one academic year?
Second, do bi-foreign-language learners outperform one-foreign-language learners in LA and WM development?
According to previous ndings suggesting that LA and WM are changeable abilities (Sáfár and
Kormos 2008; Klingberg 2010; Holmes, Gathercole, and Dunning 2009), and that LA and WM can
be inuenced by language experiences (Ma, Yao, and Zhang 2018; Morales, Calvo, and Bialystok
2013), we hypothesize that:
First, our participantsLA and WM scores will improve after one academic year of foreign language learning.
Second, dierent language learning groups will dier from each other in LA and WM improvement, with the bi-
foreign-language learners outperforming oneforeign-language learners.
To investigate the potential eects of the number of languages being learnt on the development of
LA and/or WM, the present study compared subjects from three dierent language learning con-
ditions (English, English/Japanese, and English/Russian majors) from two dierent cohorts of subjects
(rst- and second-year students). Using a pre/post-test design, each subject was tested twice on both
LA and WM with an interval of 9 months (one academic year).
The study was carried out in a Chinese university belonging to an elite group of National Key Uni-
versities. To be admitted to the foreign language programs in this university, the applicants need
to gain a certain total score in the China National Higher Education Entrance Examination
(Gaokao), and also score above the cutoscore for the English test. Even though socio-economic
status was not examined in the present study, these entry requirements warrant a comparable
level of general intelligence and academic aptitude among all participants. None of the students
suered from a learning disability.
The participants consisted of English majors (henceforth L2 learners), who study English only,
and bi-foreign-language majors (henceforth L2 + 3 learners),
who study English and another
foreign language simultaneously. Of the 79 participants, 71 were female and the average age
was 18.63 (SD = 0.89). All had started to learn English at around the age of 9 years and all the
L2 + 3 majors started to learn the additional foreign language upon entering the university
(around the age of 18). Although all participants had been learning English for 9 years before
enrolled in university, their English prociency was not yet developed up to an advanced level.
English prociency was therefore assessed and also compared between groups to ensure that all
participants started with a comparable level, and actually still continued learning English while at
The participants were recruited from the rst-year and second-year cohorts. Each cohort con-
sisted of L2 learners and L2 + 3 learners. Within the L2 + 3 learnersgroup were two sub-groups:
one English/Japanese learner group and one English/Russian learner group. In the second-year,
the students who had been English majors (L2 learners) in the rst year also started to learn an
additional foreign language for four hours per week (see Table 1), Since these learners were still
mainly learning English and received comparatively little instruction in their additional language,
they are labeled L2+ learners to distinguish them clearly from the L2 + 3 learners who, as bi-
foreign language majors, received about equally much English and additional language instruction.
See the details in Table 1.
As shown in Table 1,rst-year L2 learners and L2 + 3 learners had the same amount of English
instruction, but L2 + 3 learners had 8 hours of instruction for the second foreign language.
Second-year L2+ and L2 + 3 learners had the same amount of English instruction, but while the
L2 + 3 learners received 10 hours of AFL instruction per week, the L2+ learners only received 4
hours of that in their AFL.
Table 1. Participant groups and the type and amount of instruction.
Participants First year Second year
Groups L2 learner L2 + 3 learner L2+ learner L2 + 3 learner
Sample Population 12 21 16 9 12 9
E: 16 E:16 E:16 E:12 E:12 E:12
J:8 R:8 FL:4 J:10 R:10
Note: *E/J: English/Japanese learners; E/R: English/Russian learners; E: English; J: Japanese; R: Russian; FL: foreign languages, includ-
ing Japanese, Russian, German and French.
LA test
The LLAMA test (Meara 2005) was chosen to assess LA for its attested validity and reliability (e.g.
Granena 2013; Rogers et al. 2017), and its free accessibility and convenience of administration
(Rogers et al. 2017). The test was administered on computers using the LLAMA software, which
is free to download ( Loosely based on the MLAT
(Carroll and Sapon 1959), the LLAMA test consists of four subtests, namely LLAMA-B, LLAMA-D,
LLAMA-E and LLAMA-F (Meara 2005). All tests include a learning phase and a testing phase,
and use stimuli based on an articial language. LLAMA-B is a vocabulary learning task, which
measures the ability to learn vocabulary in a relatively short time. LLAMA-D is a sound recognizing
task, which measures the ability to recognize short sound patterns in spoken language. LLAMA-E
is a sound-symbol correspondence task, testing the subjectsability to work out the relationship
between recorded syllables and their corresponding transliteration. Finally, LLAMA-F is a gramma-
tical inferencing task. It requires the subjects to match pictures with corresponding descriptions in
the articial language.
WM span task
The Operation Span task (OSP) was used to measure WM capacity. Although WM is recognized as
a system comprising both domain-general executive functions such as information updating,
switching and inhibition, and domain-specic storage mechanisms for verbal and visuospatial
information (Wen 2016; Williams 2012), domain-general WM tasks enjoy higher validity and
reliability than domain-specic WM tasks (Sanchez et al. 2010). The OSP is a complex domain-
general WM span task which measures both the ability to maintain information and the ability
to manage and manipulate the information. It diers from other complex domain-specic span
tasks, such as the reading span task and the speaking span task, in that it is language indepen-
dent (Wen 2016), which makes the OSP task particularly suitable for L2 learning research (Wil-
liams 2012).
An automatic version of the OSP task published by Unsworth et al. (2005) (see Figure 1) created in
E-Prime 2.0 (Schneider, Eschman, and Zuccolotto 2002) was used in the present study. The partici-
pants need to remember letters they have been shown after judging whether a math equation is
correct or not. After three to seven math problems and letters shown, the subjects are asked to
recall the letters in the order they were shown. In this way, both the memory span (how many
letters were remembered correctly) and the ability to maintain information while focusing on a
dierent task, i.e. solving a math problem, are assessed.
Figure 1. The automatic version of operation span task.
English language prociency assessment
The English prociency was represented by the participantswriting and speaking prociency.
Writing prociency was assessed by writing tasks from the comprehensive English course. All of
the writing texts were rated holistically following Hou, Verspoor, and Loertss(2016) CAFIC model,
covering complexity, accuracy, uency, idiomaticity and coherence. The mean scores of the rst
two and the last two writing samples served as pre-test and post-test writing prociency scores
respectively. Speaking prociency was assessed by adjusted Student Oral Prociency Assessment
(SOPA) interviews (Thompson, Kenyon, and Rhodes 2002) developed by the Center for Applied Lin-
guistics. The participantsinterviews were rated using the SOPA Rating Scale which evaluates oral
prociency in four dimensions: oral uency, vocabulary, grammar, and listening comprehension.
Each dimension has nine sublevels, ranging from junior novice low to junior advanced high. The
prociency score used for analysis was the total score of the four sub-measures.
The LLAMA test and OSP task were administered at the beginning (September 2017) and at the
end of the academic year (June 2018). The LLAMA test was carried out in a multimedia room, in
which 20 participants took the test simultaneously. Before the test, written instructions in the partici-
pantsL1 were provided. During the test, a technician and the rst author of the present study were
present, ready to help. The test took half an hour on average. The OSP task was administered in a
well-prepared quiet room with two computers, where two participants did the test simultaneously.
The task per se is language-neutral, but a written instruction was provided in the participantsL1.
A technician always introduced the task to the participants before the test began.
The writing texts used for the analysis of English writing prociency were collected for one aca-
demic year, but in the current study, only the rst and last two texts were analyzed to assess the pro-
ciency at the beginning and the end of the academic year. These texts were collected in the same
period when the LA and WM tests were administered. The adjusted SOPA interviews were taken
at the same day as the WM test, in a separate room where the participants took the interview in pairs.
The aims of the current study were to examine (1) whether LA and WM are changeable, and (2) if so,
whether there is a language learning intensity eect.
Before answering these two research questions, a preliminary analysis on the participantsL2 English
prociency was carried out to ensure that the L2 learners and L2 + 3 learners started with comparable
levels of prociency continued learning the L2. This analysis was conducted in order to avoid a possible
interference of English prociency with the ndings on LA and WM, and to conrm that the partici-
pantsL2 English was still under development at the time of observation. Independent-samples t-
tests were used to compare the L2 and L2 + 3 initial English scores, and paired-samples t-tests were
run to compare each learner groups pre- and post-scores for English, both written and oral.
To answer the main research questions, the two cohorts were analyzed separately. The rst
research question was investigated by a repeated-measures ANOVA analysis on the scores of all
the dierent tests, with one within-subject factor with two levels, pre-test score vs. post-test score.
The second question was investigated by an ANCOVA analysis on each test. In this analysis, the
post-test scores of each test were taken as the dependent variable. Language group was taken as
axed factor and pre-test scores were taken as a covariate factor.
The dependent variable used in all analyses was the score of the respective test. For LA, this was
LLAMA subtests scores (LLAMA-B/D/E/F), each ranging from 0 to 100 (Meara 2005). For WM capacity,
this was the absolute score for the OSP task, which is the sum of all perfectly recalled sets (Unsworth
et al. 2005). This score ranged from 0 to 75. Regarding the rst research question, a signicant main
eect of testing time on test scores would indicate that LA and WM are changeable. Regarding the
second question, a signicant eect of learning one vs. two languages on post-test scores while con-
trolling for the pre-test scores would point to a language learning intensity eect on the change in LA
and WM.
The preliminary analysis of English prociency
No signicant dierences were found between L2 learners and L2 + 3 learners in their initial English
prociency level. The results also demonstrate that both groups were still in the process of learning
English as an L2, as they increased signicantly from pre- to post-test in both writing and speaking
prociency. An exception was the second-year L2 learners which however showed a strong trend
towards signicance (p= 0.065) regarding their gains in writing prociency. Table 2 shows the
details of the groupsEnglish writing prociency and Table 3 provides an overview of their English
speaking prociency.
Changeability of LA and WM
The main eect of testing time, indicating the changeability of LA and WM, was found for the OSP
task scores and the LLAMA subtest scores, but the eect varied for dierent cohorts (see Table 4
for details). While descriptive statistics show an improvement of all participants on all tests, not
every dierence was signicant. Table 4 shows the details for the rst-year students and Table 5 sum-
marizes the results for the second-year students.
Unlike the rst-year students, whose improvement only reached signicance in the LLAMA-D and
LLAMA-E scores, the second-year students signicantly improved in LLAMA-B and LLAMA-F. Both
cohorts signicantly improved on the OSP task, however, with the eect size being large in the
rst-year students and medium in the second-year students.
Table 2. Initial status and development of writing prociency.
Writing prociency
Independent Sample T-
Test for pre-scores
Paired Sample T-Test for
pre-scores and post scores
First year t(47)
L2 0.61 / 6.52*** 0.79
L2 + 3 9.79*** 0.72
Second year t(28)
L2+ 0.39 / 2.13 /
L2 + 3 2.78* 0.28
Note:*The dierence is signicant at the 0.05 level; ***the dierence is signicant at the 0.001 level.
Table 3. Initial status and development of speaking prociency.
Speaking prociency
Independent Sample
T-Test for pre-scores
Paired Sample T-Test for pre-
scores and post scores
First year t(47)
L2 0.37 / 3.43** 0.52
L2 + 3 12.65*** 0.82
Second year t(28)
L2+ 0.36 / 1.64 /
L2 + 3 4.78*** 0.53
Note: **The dierence is signicant at the 0.01 level; ***the dierence is signicant at the 0.001 level.
Language learning intensity eects on LA and WM
As can be seen in Table 6, a main eect of language learning intensity (one- vs. two foreign
languages) was only found for the OSP task scores among the rst-year students. Descriptive statistics
show that the L2 + 3 learners scored higher than the L2 learners in the OSP task.
This eect was not
found for other tasks or cohorts. The details are shown in Table 6.
This study sought to investigate the changeability of LA and WM in the context of foreign language
learning by testing dierent foreign language learning groups twice, with an interval of 9 months.
The results revealed an improvement in LA and WM for all groups as well as a dierence between
dierent learning groups in WM capacity improvement.
The preliminary analysis on English prociency conrmed that the L2 and L2 + 3 learners started
from a similar prociency level, which implies that any dierence in gains in LA and WM found cannot
be inuenced by a dierence in their initial English prociency level. Similarly, our analysis showed
that the L2 + 3 learners (and rst-year L2 leaners) were not merely consolidating their English but
improving signicantly, ensuring that any dierence between L2 and L2 + 3 learners may be
related to actively learning 1 vs. 2 foreign languages, i.e. to language learning intensity.
The improvement in LA and WM
The rst research question investigated the changeability of LA and WM. The results showed, as was
hypothesized, a signicant increase between pre- and post-test scores. This indicates that LA and WM
Table 5. Results for main eect of testing time for the second-year students.
Descriptive statistics Repeated measures ANOVA
M(SE)F(1,29) η
Pre Post
LLAMA-B 49.33(4.19) 59.50(4.26) 7.27*0.20
LLAMA-D 39.50(2.09) 41.83(3.58) 0.59 /
LLAMA-E 76.50(3.27) 79.83(3.26) 0.71 /
LLAMA-F 49.33(4.29) 63.83(4.58) 8.35** 0.22
OSP 50.40(2.02) 54.97(2.43) 6.39*0.18
Note: *The eect is signicant at the 0.05 level; **the eect is signicant at the 0.01 level.
Table 6. ANCOVA results and descriptive statistics for language learning intensity eect on WM among the rst-year students.
ANCOVA Descriptive statistics
F(2,45) η
Group nObserved Mean (SD) Adjusted Mean(SE)
OSP task 7.39* 0.14 L2 12 49.42(12.35) 50.65(2.98)
L2 + 3 37 60.32(9.85) 59.92(1.66)
Note: *The eect is signicant at the 0.05 level.
Table 4. Results for main eect of testing time for the rst-year students.
Descriptive statistics Repeated measures ANOVA
M(SE)F(1,48) η
Pre Post
LLAMA-B 49.08(2.56) 53.47(2.98) 2.26 /
LLAMA-D 29.29(2.14) 37.55(2.26) 12.01** 0.20
LLAMA-E 62.45(3.72) 72.04(3.67) 5.90*0.12
LLAMA-F 50.10(2.72) 54.69(3.06) 1.20 /
OSP 45.88(1.90) 57.65(1.63) 35.27** 0.42
Note:*The eect is signicant at the 0.05 level; **the eect is signicant at the 0.01 level.
are changeable, and is line with the previous studies reporting a changeability of LA (Sáfár and
Kormos 2008; Sparks et al. 1996; Ma, Yao, and Zhang 2018) and WM (Klingberg 2010; Holmes, Gath-
ercole, and Dunning 2009).
Regarding the LLAMA scores, students of both cohorts improved on all subtests, but the increase
became signicant for dierent subtests in the dierent cohorts. This nding disproves the concern
that the improvement in LLAMA scores could be a testing eect. If the improvements would consti-
tute a testing eect, i.e. if the participants had developed strategies in taking the LLAMA test and
improve because of those, then the rst- and second-year students should have improved in the
same LLAMA subtests. This is, however, not the case and the improvement thus more likely results
from a development in language aptitude.
While the rst-year students signicantly improved in the sound recognition and sound-symbol
correspondence abilities (LLAMA-D and -E), the second-year students signicantly improved in voca-
bulary learning and grammar inference abilities (LLAMA-B and -F). This result resonates with Artieda
and Muñozs(2016) study, which demonstrated that the impact of each LA component on L2 pro-
ciency diers per prociency level. In their study, the ability to recognize new short sound patterns in
a new language, as measured by LLAMA-D, had a larger impact on beginning L2 learners, while the
grammatical inferencing ability, as measured by LLAMA-F, had a greater eect on intermediate L2
learners. We see the same pattern as a training eect in our participants.
While LLAMA-D measures rather implicit cognitive processes, LLAMA-B, E, and F tap into more
explicit processes (Granena 2013). Cross-cutting this division, the LLAMA-D and LLAMA-E subtests
which the rst-year students signicantly improved on share the similarity of involving sounds.
That the rst-year students improved in LLAMA-D and LLAMA-E while the second-year students
did not may suggest that intensive language learning initially trains learnersability to deal with unfa-
miliar sounds, both in terms of recognizing them and associating them with symbols. This seems
plausible given that learners of a new language rst have to deal with the new sounds, and learn
how to read and write them specically in an instructional setting as in the current study where
the students were exposed to not only spoken but also written language from the beginning, and
where the L3 learnt (Russian/Japanese) involves learning a new writing system. In that sense,
sound recognition and sound-symbol corresponding abilities are heavily involved and trained
from the start. This demand may also lie at the base of Serani and Sanz (2016)nding that it is
especially in lower L2 levels that phonological WM shows a relationship with L2 prociency.
The second-year students improved in the other two abilities, i.e. vocabulary learning and
grammar inferencing (LLAMA-B and -F), while the rst-year students did not. This may indicate
that rote memory and grammar analytical abilities, which require more explicit cognitive processes,
are relatively more stable, but still changeable, although this change plays out only later.
The improvement in those aspects of LA measured by LLAMA-B, E, and F could also be related to
an enhancement in meta-linguistic awareness. According to Jessner (2014), meta-linguistic aware-
ness is the ability to focus on linguistic form as well as switch the focus between form, function
and meaning. Consequently, the development of meta-linguistic awareness is linked to explicit
and implicit learning. As Hofer and Jessner (2019) found, bilingual learners benet from higher
meta-linguistic awareness in additional language learning, compared to monolingual learners. This
may suggest that learning a second/foreign language trains learnersmeta-linguistic awareness
because of the constant exposure to new linguistic forms and the need to associate new forms
with meanings, which might be a reason for the participantsbetter performance in rote learning,
explicit associative learning, and analytic ability found in our rst- (LLAMA-E) and second-year
(LLAMA-B and -F) students.
Regarding the WM scores, both cohorts signicantly improved, but the two cohorts improved to
dierent degrees. The improvement was more pronounced among rst-year students, as revealed
both by the mean scores and the eect sizes. The nding that participants in dierent cohorts
and language learning groups improved in OSP scores to dierent degrees dispels the doubt
whether the improvement in WM scores is merely a test-retest eect.
Previous research had already shown that the relationship between L2 prociency level and WM
capacity, as measured by the OSP task, is stronger in lower level L2 learners (Serani and Sanz 2016).
This suggests that WM is more actively engaged in the beginning stages of learning a new language.
The result in the current study is compatible with this nding in that WM is activated more, and
trained more, in the early stages of learning a new language.
The eect of learning two foreign languages simultaneously on WM
Previous studies showed evidence of a positive impact of WM on the L2 learning process and out-
comes, but whether this relationship is bi-directional, and if so, what types and durations of L2 experi-
ence will contribute to an improvement in WM remained unclear (Linck et al. 2014). The second
question, therefore, addressed the eect of learning two foreign languages simultaneously on LA
and WM. Such an eect was found for WM, but not for LA. Moreover, the eect was only found
among the rst-year learners, not the second-year learners. We may thus conclude that starting to
learn an additional foreign language aords more benets to WM than merely continuing to learn
one foreign language does.
The improvement in L2 + 3 learnersWM might be due to the intensive cognitive demands placed
on them. The WM capacity measured by the OSP task in the present study is executive WM, according
to Wens Phonological WM/Executive WM model (PWM/EWM model; 2015,2016,2019). EWM encom-
passes executive functions such as information updating, switching and inhibition, which regulates
control processes and attention monitoring in language learning (Wen 2019; also see Miyake and
Friedman 2012). Learning two languages simultaneously demands that the learners not only
process a substantial amount of new information, which is taxing for WM capacity, but also that
they inhibit, or in a broader sense manipulate the already existing linguistic information and integrate
it with the new knowledge of the other language. More specically, the simultaneous language lear-
ners need to shift between similar sets of linguistic representations depending on the language
context, and inhibit goal-irrelevant linguistic representations, and this part is largely dependent on
EWM. These processes may lead to a WM training eect for language learners.
An analogous line of argumentation has been pursued in the literature on what is sometimes
called the bilingual advantagewhere some authors have found evidence of an enhanced WM in
bilinguals, particularly of those WM aspects involving executive functioning (e.g. Morales, Calvo,
and Bialystok 2013). This has been explained with the assumption that executive functioning is
engaged in sustaining and retrieving information for undergoing cognitive activities such as
language use, and may be also deployed to inhibit goal-irrelevant responses elicited by the environ-
ment (Kane et al. 2007). Our nding, however, goes beyond these earlier results by demonstrating
that the enhancement of WM found for long-time bilingual speakers might already occur at the
very rst stages of intensive multilingual language processing.
This interpretation of our ndings is supported by the lack of a dierence in WM improvement
between the second-year English/Russian learners and English/Japanese learners on the one hand
and the L2+ learners on the other: since the English majors also started to learn an additional
language in their second year, they were simultaneous language learners as well albeit to a
lesser extent than the L2 + 3 majors which could mean that this leads to a similar increase in
WM capacity in all second-year learner groups, removing the advantage of the L2 + 3 over the
English majors regarding WM training.
Our nding also contributes to answering de Bots(2012) question whether multilinguals have the
same amount of resources at their command as monolinguals, or whether they have more resources.
In the rst case, the resources (such as memory capacity, LA, available time and attention, among
others) would need to be distributed across dierent languages, leaving fewer resources for each,
while in the second scenario language learning would be facilitated. For WM as a resource, our
results suggest that learning multiple languages does not result in less of that resource for each
individual language. Instead, multilingualsresources, in this case, WM, were enhanced among rst-
year L2 + 3 learners.
Conclusion and limitations
The present study investigated whether LA and WM are changeable under the circumstance of
foreign language learning and whether there is an eect of learning two foreign languages simul-
taneously on these two cognitive abilities. The results revealed that both LA and WM are change-
able, and there is a positive eect of learning two foreign languages as opposed to just learning one
language on WM development at the early stages of learning a new language. This could be the
result of the constant and intensive learning of two foreign languages simultaneously, which
calls for not only taking in and maintaining new information, but also manipulating and selecting
between old and new information. Our results not only add to the small but growing body of lit-
erature that both LA and WM are not unchangeable, as traditionally was assumed, but also demon-
strate that the relationship between LA and WM on one hand and language learning on the other
hand is bi-directional: LA and WM not only aect language learning, but language learning also
aects LA and WM, with bi-foreign language learning exerting an especially benecial eect on
WM capacity.
A question that arises from these results and that is amenable for future studies is what amount of
simultaneous language learning experience is needed for an extra eect of WM capacity enhance-
ment. In this respect, it is interesting to note that the L2 + 3 learners studied by Ma, Yao, and
Zhang (2018) performed better than L2 learners on some aspects of LA by the time they had had
60 hours of L3 instruction, which is substantially less than what our subjects had received after
one academic year (224 hours for the rst-year students, and 288 hours for the second-year students).
Apart from the above ndings, there are also some limitations of the present study which could
inform future research. Firstly, some groups have a limited sample size, which may have aected the
power and eect sizes. Secondly, from our data, it is unclear whether the language learning eect on
WM is the result of learning two foreign languages simultaneously, or the result of learning a new
foreign language per se. Thirdly, as the second-year English majors also started to learn a new
foreign language, albeit to a very limited extent, the data do not allow a conclusion of whether
this dierential eect on WM between learning one or two foreign languages found in the rst
year might have extended into the second year. Fourthly, LA and WM were measured only with
the LLAMA test and the OSP task, respectively. Future studies might consider using even more com-
prehensive measures such as, for example, a dedicated digit span task to test phonological WM.
Lastly, the relationship between LA and WM is of growing interest to researchers in the eld, but
the current study did not address this issue and focused solely on the changeability of the two sep-
arately. Future studies might focus on the relationship between the two and, especially, the degree to
which WM can be considered as a part of LA.
1. For all of our participants, English and if applicable the other foreign language were the rst- and second-
foreign language learnt, both in an instructional context and with very little extramural exposure. We have there-
fore labeled the English majors and bi-foreign-language majors as L2 and L2+3 learners, respectively. We would
like to acknowledge however that some participants might also have been growing up speaking a dialect next to
2. An ANOVA test was further carried out to conrm that rst-year English/Japanese learners and English/Russian
learners did not show any signicant dierence in WM gain scores.
Disclosure statement
No potential conict of interest was reported by the authors.
This work was supported by the China Scholarship Council.
Notes on contributors
Ting Huang (MA) is a PhD student in the Faculty of Arts, University of Groningen.
Hanneke Loerts is an assistant professor in the Faculty of Medical Sciences and the Faculty of Arts, University of Gronin-
gen. Her expertise is in Psycholinguistics, AppliedLinguistics, Research Methodology, Basic Statistics, Eye Tracking, Event-
Related Potentials.
Rasmus Steinkrauss is an assistant professor in the Faculty of Arts, University of Groningen. His expertise is in L1 and L2
development and Usage-based/CognitiveLinguistics.
Ting Huang
Hanneke Loerts
Rasmus Steinkrauss
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... Overall, previous studies have yielded ambiguous findings regarding the relationship between language experience and FLA, resulting in calls to further demonstrate the effect of additional language learning, especially multilingualism, on different components of language aptitude (Cox et al., 2019;Ma et al., 2018;Huang et al., 2020). In addition, relatively few studies have been undertaken on how the relationship between language experience and FLA is affected by other individual cognitive differences. ...
... In addition, relatively few studies have been undertaken on how the relationship between language experience and FLA is affected by other individual cognitive differences. Therefore, more research is required to examine not only whether language experience is predictive of FLA but also how language experience and cognitive abilities interact in accounting for individual differences in FLA (Cox et al., 2019;Huang et al., 2020). In response, this study seeks to uncover more about the nature of FLA by investigating how multilingual learning experience and WM are jointly and interdependently associated with FLA. ...
... This research finding is of great importance in that the underlying intermediate link between multilingualism and language aptitude has been uncovered. A possible explanation for this result may lie in a recent study by Huang et al. (2020), who argued that multilingual learners are equipped with better cognitive resources (such as WM, processing speed, attention, etc.) at their command than monolinguals because they have learned to switch and cater to more language systems. More resources in WM capacity would, in turn, facilitate language learning, which is reflected in language proficiency and language aptitude. ...
While the relationship between language experience and foreign language aptitude (FLA) has been studied extensively, little is known about the underlying intermediate link between them. This study investigates whether multilingual learning experience is correlated with FLA and whether working memory (WM) mediates this relationship. A total of 93 accomplished bilingual or trilingual learners aged 18–25 years from Chinese universities participated in this study. Results showed significant differences in the performance of implicit language aptitude (ILA) (measured by LLAMA D) between L2 and L3 learners. Critically, further mediation analysis demonstrated that WM acted as a partial mediator between the multilingualism – ILA association. Taken together, these findings highlight the partial indirect effect of multilingual learning experience on FLA through WM, which contributes to the understanding of the underlying mechanism between language experience and FLA as well as the extent to which WM affects their relationship.
... (2012) found an advantage for both bilingual and trilingual children (5-8 years) over monolinguals in inhibitory and attentional control tasks (but no difference between the multilingual groups), and Heidlmayr et al. (2014) found that the bilingual advantage in inhibitory control was reinforced by L3 use among bilingual adults. Students learning a L2 and L3 gained more in WM capacity than those learning only a L2, suggesting a differential effect of learning two additional languages, as opposed to one (Huang, Loerts et al., 2020). ...
... This contrasts with significant inter-correlations between verbal WM and proficiency in the language of assessment observed elsewhere (Chiat, 2015;Thorn et al., 2002), particularly in cases of lower proficiency (Huang, Loerts et al., 2020). ...
... We found that multilingual balance significantly predicted verbal WM, in contrast with previously observed disadvantages in verbal tasks (Bialystok, 2017 (Huang, Loerts et al., 2020), albeit not in the domain-general way suggested by some researchers (Bialystok, 2017;Green, 2018;Valian, 2015 Notes. r 2 = square of semi-partial correlations; Language interact.: interaction between BLB in proficiency and speaking a L3. ...
This study investigated the relationship between balanced multilingualism and working memory. Specifically, it reports on the relationship between balanced proficiency in speaking, reading and comprehension (across three languages), and verbal and visuospatial working memory in young South African adults. Information about participants’ language experience and proficiency in up to three languages was used to create variables capturing the extent of balance among languages spoken. Participants also completed a comprehensive working memory test battery (tapping verbal and visuospatial storage and processing). While effect sizes were small across all regressions, balanced proficiency among languages had a significant effect on verbal (but not visuospatial) working memory, after controlling for socioeconomic status. The results suggest that multilingualism may lead to domain-specific working memory advantages when processing verbal content. The absence of any domain-general effects supports the scepticism surrounding a bilingual effect on working memory (and executive function more generally). The implications of these findings for theories of working memory are discussed.
... A significant and recurrent obstacle that stands in the way is the diversity of learning profiles inherent among these students [11]. Nevertheless, the numerous benefits in the linguistic domain [12][13][14][15][16][17]; cognitive and metacognitive domains [18][19][20][21]; sociocultural domain [22][23][24]; and socioemotional dimension [25][26][27] have been reported in the literature. Furthermore, as stated in the Salamanca Agreement [28], the European Commission [29] and by other researchers [19,23,30], any student has the right to receive a good quality education and equal educational opportunities from an ethical and legal point of view. ...
... Similarly, they are related to the student's aptitude toward language learning based on her performance in the classroom. Thus, the linguistic, (meta) cognitive, social, cultural or affective benefits obtained from learning an FL by the MID student are brought to bear on prevailing theories in the field [12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24]31]. Regarding these, we have perceived that the stakeholders have mainly been centered on the (meta) cognitive benefits, such as autonomy and self-determination, as well as the social-affective benefits, namely the self-esteem and self-concept of the MID student. ...
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In this qualitative study, we aim to gain insight into the stakeholders’ perspectives around the inclusion of a mild intellectual disability (MID) student of perinatal origin in the foreign language (FL) classroom, and their perspectives on the student’s working conditions, and the support needed to effectively develop this student’s basic FL skills. The research hypothesis holds that the stakeholders face numerous technical, contextual, and formative challenges which hinder the MID student’s learning conditions in the FL classroom. The study was carried out in a state secondary school of the metropolitan area of Granada (Spain). Different stakeholders participated in this study. As an instrument of research, we designed an in-depth interview with open questions. The data were perused, sifted, and interpreted by means of a content analysis methodology. The main results confirm the research hypothesis since stakeholders’ perspectives are positive towards the theoretical bases of inclusive education. Conversely, we observe that these perspectives are negative when it comes to the real and effective practice of inclusive education in the FL classroom, which would allow them to tailor their teaching methodology to the real needs of the MID student and the rest of students with special educational needs (SEN).
... Whilst some research has been carried out on the difference of mono-vs. bilinguals, there have been few empirical investigations into the role of verbal fluency tasks on third language acquisition and on gender differences (Huang et al., 2020). Moreover, a considerable amount of literature has been published on the effect of verbal fluency tasks. ...
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Recent developments in the field of multilingual processing have led to a renewed interest in exploring the effect of verbal fluency tasks from a new perspective (Shishkin & Ecke, 2018). This Hungarian case study intends to investigate the effect of verbal fluency tasks on multilingual participants" language proficiency with special attention to gender differences and educational background. Six participants were recruited to take part in the study: three males and three females. Respondents" first language (L1) was Hungarian while their two foreign languages include English (L2/ L3) and German (L2/ L3). Data for this study were collected by using verbal fluency tasks, namely phonological and semantic fluency tests. Data management and analysis were performed using SPSS 22. The results suggest that students outperformed their graduate peers. The majority of the participants obtained better scores in English in terms of semantic fluency meanwhile most of the subjects achieved greater results in German as for the phonemic category. Female participants outperformed males both in the majority of phonemic and semantic tasks.
... On the day following the last training session (Day 4), participants came to the computer lab for the posttest and also took the aptitude tests later during the subsequent week. Because aptitude may improve with extensive linguistic experience (Huang et al., 2020), the aptitude measures should have been taken prior to the experimental treatment (e.g. before Week 1). ...
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The purpose of this intervention study is to reveal the extent to which memory-related aptitudes are implicated in the second language (L2) fluency development fostered by task repetition. English L2 learners are engaged in oral narrative tasks three times per day under two different 3-day task repetition schedules: blocked (Day 1: A-A-A, Day 2: B-B-B, Day 3: C-C-C) versus interleaved (Day 1: A-B-C, Day 2: A-B-C, Day 3: A-B-C). Their phonological short-term memory (PSTM), attention control, and associative memory were used as predictors of fluency changes measured through speed, breakdown, and repair fluency behaviors. Results showed that while the articulation rate change was not explained by any of the examined predictors, breakdown and repair fluency were predicted by different memory components. Specifically, PSTM was associated with mid-clause pause decrease during the training phase, while associative memory was linked to the increase in clause-final pauses in the posttest. Attention control, as well as PSTM, was related to greater repair frequency in the posttest, indicating increased learners’ attention to speech monitoring. Furthermore, PSTM and associative memory contributed to reducing breakdown fluency in the blocked repetition condition only, suggesting that learners can capitalize on their memory for improving oral fluency by engaging in blocked practice.
... Past research with a similar design has shown positive transfer effects on tasks that measure cognitive flexibility (Javan and Ghonsooly 2017), but not inhibition (Nicolay and Poncelet 2013;Puric et al. 2017). Research has also shown that language training can improve working memory capacity (Huang et al. 2020;Takeuchi et al. 2020). We administered Flanker and Stroop tasks as the standard tasks to measure conflict resolution and response inhibition. ...
This study investigated whether a short training (8 weeks) in the second-language (English) has any facilitative effect on components of executive functions in young adults. A pre-post design was used with two groups of participants: one group (experimental group) of students received English language training for eight weeks, and another group (control group) matched on age and background did not. Executive function tasks (Flanker, Stroop, and color-shape switching task) along with the object naming and working memory tasks were administered before and after the training. We observed that the experimental group demonstrated significant improvement in task switching, working memory capacity, and language skills. Findings from the study provide evidence that short training in second-language can enhance some components of executive functions besides improving language skills in young adult students. This finding contributes to a better understanding of language training and executive function among young adult bilinguals.
... The main reason is that, in two related studies, we found a differential impact of these two conditions on WM, and on variability patterns over time. The E/R learners gained significantly more than the English learners in WM after one academic year (Huang, Loerts, & Steinkrauss, 2020), and showed more variability in L2 writing development than their English-only counterparts (Huang, Steinkrauss, & Verspoor, 2020). Therefore, in the current study, the language learning group was also considered as a potential factor affecting the final L2 writing proficiency and L2 writing gains. ...
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Lowie and Verspoor (2019) had an unexpected finding in their work Individual Differences and the Ergodicity Problem: The main predictor for proficiency gains in 22 beginning Dutch learners of English over one year was not traditional individual difference (ID) factors, but the degree of variability that occurred over time. We speculate that variability might stand for “investment” as students might strive for an excellent product at one time, but are not able to reach quite the same level the next time. The current paper sets out to see whether the findings can be replicated with a different population and finer-tuned measures. The English writing proficiency of 22 L1 Chinese adults at the university level was measured with 12 texts scored holistically over one academic year. The degree of variability in L2 writing was operationalized as the coefficient of variation (CoV), which was calculated as the standard deviation divided by the mean of the L2 writing holistic scores. ID factors measured were motivation, language aptitude, and working memory. The findings were as follows: None of the ID factors predicted the final L2 writing proficiency nor the L2 writing proficiency gains, but the CoV did. The implications of these findings are discussed.
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This article reports on a study that used the online MULTITEACH questionnaire to examine the relationship between the multilingual pedagogies 111 language teachers, employed in upper-secondary schools in Norway and Russia, reported implementing, their beliefs about how multilingualism benefitted students and teachers, and their self-assessed ability to teach language aspects and skills. The study also investigated whether sociobiographical variables and participants’ language habits outside of work affected their beliefs about multilingualism benefitting their students and implementation of multilingual pedagogies. The findings revealed that participants utilized multilingual pedagogies least frequently when teaching in first language contexts and that those who used foreign languages outside of work applied such pedagogies more frequently than participants who did not. Moreover, their beliefs about multilingualism benefitting their students were positively predicted by their beliefs about multilingualism benefitting teachers and negatively predicted by their support of the monolingual approach to language learning and teaching.
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This study aimed to determine the relationship between socio-demographic, classroom code-switching, and vocabulary acquisition strategies of first year students at the Visayas State University-Tolosa campus. Moreover, it aimed to evaluate the relationships between code-switching and the socio-demographic profile of the respondents; vocabulary acquisition strategies and socio-demographic profile; and code-switching usage and vocabulary acquisition strategies. Respondents were randomly selected-10 and 15 participants-from the two blocks (per program) and the survey was done through two sets of questionnaires sent through a Google form. The socio-demographic profile data, code switching usage, and vocabulary acquisition strategies were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Chi-square and Spearman's rho correlation were used to test relationships among the variables. Results showed that students basically "agree" with the items written under classroom code-switching, and "often" they do vocabulary acquisition strategies. Further, results revealed that there are no significant relationships between socio-demographic profile and code-switching usage, and socio-demographic profile and vocabulary acquisition strategies regardless of the respondents' age, sex, Mother Tongue and type of school attended. Although the use of either of the two techniques such as code-switching and vocabulary acquisition strategies seemed effective based from several studies, the present study revealed that there is no significant relationship between them. This would mean that students still learn the English language in any of the two ways. Thus, perceived with no positive trait by schools and the language teachers, all educators were advised to take lead in establishing some restrictions on code-switching to achieve mastery in language learning.
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Chapter 10 WORKING MEMORY AS LANGUAGE APTITUDE: THE PHONOLOGICAL/EXECUTIVE MODEL Zhisheng (Edward) Wen To be published in Wen, Z., Skehan, P., Biedron, A., Li, S. & R. Sparks (2019) Language aptitude: Advancing theory, testing, research and practice. Routledge. Abstract: This chapter examines the proposal of “working memory (WM) as language aptitude”. Specifically, it summarizes how the multiple components and functions of WM contribute to essential aspects of second language (L2) acquisition, processing, and development in two distinct albeit closely related ways. First, the sound-based phonological WM (PWM) underlies the chunking process of novel sounds and linguistic sequences, thus subserving the acquisitional and long-term developmental aspects of L2 knowledge of lexical items, multi-word units, and morphosyntactic constructions. Second, the domain-general executive WM component (EWM) and its associative functions serve to coordinate the attentional resources implicated in online and offline language processing activities during L2 comprehension and production. Overall, it is argued that the Phonological/Executive WM perspective on language aptitude affords new possibilities for advancing theory construction and assessment procedures.
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This study draws on conceptual and methodological insights afforded within a dynamic systems perspective to explore shifting interrelationships between cognitive capacity and motivational resources in instructed adult second language (L2) learners of Spanish at increasing proficiency. Relationships that emerged showed both stability and fluctuation over a semester of instruction and varied by learners' stage of development. Findings support previous calls to improve upon mainstream approaches to conceptualizing and investigating learner individual differences (IDs) by adopting a holistic, non modular view of the L2 developmental system in general and learner IDs in particular (e.g., Dörnyei,; Dörnyei & Ryan,; Larsen–Freeman, ,). To further align with DST principles (see Hiver & Al-Hoorie,), future studies should endeavor to carry out longitudinal case studies with multiple data points in order to reveal intra-individual complexity in the group-level patterns seen here.
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The traditional definition of language aptitude sees it as “an individual’s initial state of readiness and capacity for learning a foreign language, and probable facility in doing so given the presence of motivation and opportunity” (Carroll, 1981, p. 86). This conception portrays language aptitude as a trait, in the sense of exhibiting stability over long periods of time and being immune to training. The trait view of language aptitude tends towards the notion that it is innate, and indeed language aptitude has often been associated with the popular notion of a “gift for languages” (cf. Rosenthal, 1996, p. 59). The view of language aptitude as an innate trait has, however, long been questioned (see e.g., Neufeld, 1978). Recently, this questioning has intensified (see Singleton, 2014), especially since the development of a widespread consensus that working memory needs to be recognized as an important component of language aptitude (see Wen, 2016). Working memory was also once thought of as a trait, but is now recognized as susceptible to the influence of experience and instruction (see e.g., Williams, 2012). The present paper will track the trajectory of the above theoretical discussion and will explore the implications of the stage it has now reached.
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The putative effectiveness of working memory (WM) training at enhancing cognitive and academic skills is still ardently debated. Several researchers have claimed that WM training fosters not only skills such as visuospatial WM and short-term memory (STM), but also abilities outside the domain of WM, such as fluid intelligence and mathematics. Other researchers, while acknowledging the positive effect of WM training on WM-related cognitive skills, are much more pessimistic about the ability of WM training to improve other cognitive and academic skills. In other words, the idea that far-transfer – i.e., the generalization of a set of skills across two domains only loosely related to each other – may take place in WM training is still controversial. In this meta-analysis, we focused on the effects of WM training on cognitive and academic skills (e.g., fluid intelligence, attention/inhibition, mathematics, and literacy) in typically developing (TD) children (aged three to 16). While WM training exerted a significant effect on cognitive skills related to WM training (g ̅ = 0.46), little evidence was found regarding far-transfer effects (g ̅ = 0.12). Moreover, the size of the effects was inversely related to the quality of the design (i.e., random allocation to the groups and presence of an active control group). The results suggest that WM training is ineffective at enhancing TD children’s cognitive or academic skills and that, when positive effects are observed, they are modest at best. Thus, in line with other types of training, far-transfer rarely occurs and its effects are minimal.
Based on the dynamic and emerging nature of language aptitude, the paper reports an empirical study investigating the relationship between multilingual learning experiences and language aptitude through comparative analyses of language aptitude between second language (L2) and third language (L3) learners. Eighty-seven Chinese students who majored in English participated in this study. Among them, 41 participants were L2 English learners without additional foreign language learning experiences and 46 participants were L2 English learners with additional French or Japanese learning experiences. The findings showed that L3 learners outperformed L2 learners on the language aptitude measure and significant differences were found on explicit language analytical abilities. Furthermore, within-group analyses of the L3 learners found that L3 Japanese learners performed better on the vocabulary learning task and cross-linguistic similarities may help to interpret the finding. Further investigations of students’ perceived language interaction indicated that students’ perceptions of cross-linguistic interaction were consistent with the hypothesised interaction. Future research directions are also discussed in accordance with the current research findings.
The efficacy of working memory (WM) training has been a controversial and hotly debated issue during the past years. Despite a large number of training studies and several meta-analyses, the matter has not yet been solved. We conducted a multi-level meta-analysis on the cognitive transfer effects in healthy adults who have been administered WM updating training with n-back tasks, the most common experimental WM training paradigm. Thanks to this methodological approach that has not been employed in previous meta-analyses in this field, we were able to include effect sizes from all relevant tasks used in the original studies. Altogether 203 effect sizes were derived from 33 published, randomized, controlled trials. In contrast to earlier meta-analyses, we separated task-specific transfer (here untrained n-back tasks) from other WM transfer tasks. Two additional cognitive domains of transfer that we analyzed consisted of fluid intelligence (Gf) and cognitive control tasks. A medium-sized transfer effect was observed to untrained n-back tasks. For other WM tasks, Gf, and cognitive control, the effect sizes were of similar size and very small. Moderator analyses showed no effects of age, training dose, training type (single vs. dual), or WM and Gf transfer task contents (verbal vs. visuospatial). We conclude that a substantial part of transfer following WM training with the n-back task is task-specific and discuss the implications of the results to WM training research.