ArticlePDF Available

Development of Problem-based Blended Learning (PB2L) model to increase pre-service primary teacher's creative thinking skill

Authors:

Abstract and Figures

Problem-based learning is generally done with face-to-face interaction. This learning process, however, has not provided a lot of time for learners to find limitless and timeless information and learning resources. It still depends on the teacher as a source of information. Students are very dependent on the presence of lecturers during face-to-face interaction. This research aims to develop a Problem-based Blended Learning (PB2L) model to support student to improve their creative thinking skills. The method used in this research was R&D with ASSURE development model. Product validation was done through an expert's assessment by using the expert's validation sheet. The practicality of the product is tested with limited trials with college lecturers and some students with questionnaires and interviews. Product effectiveness was seen by implementing limited development testing to a particular class with a one group pretest-posttest design and the result was analyzed by using a Paired-Samples T-Test. The result of this research is a Problem-based Blended Learning (PB2L) valid, practical and effectively improves students' creative thinking abilities. The effectiveness of the learning model was also proven on the basis of Paired-Samples T-Test of students' pretest and posttest with sig. (2-tailed) 0.000. This learning gives students the opportunity to think systematically by beginning by criticizing the interesting contextual problems and ending with meaningful reflection with adequate learning resources both in face-to-face and online interaction.
Content may be subject to copyright.
Journal of Education and Learning (EduLearn)
Vol. 13, No. 3, August 2019, pp. 324~334
ISSN: 2089-9823 DOI: 10.11591/edulearn.v13i3.9907 324
Journal homepage: http://journal.uad.ac.id/index.php/EduLearn
Development of Problem-based Blended Learning (PB2L)
model to increase pre-service primary teacher’s creative
thinking skill
Wahyudi1, St. Budi Waluya2, Hardi Suyitno3, Sutriyono4, Indri Anugraheni5
1,4,5Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, Universitas Kristen Satya Wacana, Indonesia
2,3Mathematics Education, Universitas Negeri Semarang, Indonesia
Article Info
ABSTRACT
Article history:
Received Mar 8, 2019
Revised May 16, 2019
Accepted Jun 1, 2019
Problem-based learning is generally done with face-to-face interaction. This
learning process, however, has not provided a lot of time for learners to find
limitless and timeless information and learning resources. It still depends on
the teacher as a source of information. Students are very dependent on the
presence of lecturers during face-to-face interaction. This research aims to
develop a Problem-based Blended Learning (PB2L) model to support student
to improve their creative thinking skills. The method used in this research
was R&D with ASSURE development model. Product validation was done
through an expert’s assessment by using the expert’s validation sheet. The
practicality of the product is tested with limited trials with college lecturers
and some students with questionnaires and interviews. Product effectiveness
was seen by implementing limited development testing to a particular class
with a one group pretest-posttest design and the result was analyzed by using
a Paired-Samples T-Test. The result of this research is a Problem-based
Blended Learning (PB2L) valid, practical and effectively improves students'
creative thinking abilities. The effectiveness of the learning model was also
proven on the basis of Paired-Samples T-Test of students’ pretest and
posttest with sig. (2-tailed) 0.000. This learning gives students the
opportunity to think systematically by beginning by criticizing the interesting
contextual problems and ending with meaningful reflection with adequate
learning resources both in face-to-face and online interaction.
Keywords:
Creative thinking skills
Pre-service primary teacher
Problem-based Blended
Learning (PB2L)
Copyright © 2019 Institute of Advanced Engineering and Science.
All rights reserved.
Corresponding Author:
Wahyudi,
Faculty of Teacher Training and Education,
Universitas Kristen Satya Wacana,
Jl. Diponegoro 52-60 Salatiga, 50711, Indonesia.
Email: yudhi@staff.uksw.edu
1. INTRODUCTION
Creative is an important and competency for everyone to possess. One of the goals of Indonesian
education is to make human beings creative [1]. Creative is also one of the main components of 21st century
education [2] and is the highest level of competency in the latest Bloom taxonomy [3]. Therefore, the content
curriculum emphasizes the development of creative thinking skills for students [4, 5]. The ability to think
creatively will lead to the acquisition of new insights, new approaches, new perspectives, or new ways of
understanding a problem.
The creativity of students becomes something that needs to be developed in education. This is in
line with the results of the Dyers [6] study which states that 2
3 from the ability of one's creativity to be
obtained through education, 1
3 the rest comes from genetics. Conversely for intelligence abilities that apply 1
3
J. Edu. & Learn. ISSN: 2089-9823
Development of Problem-based Blended Learning (PB2L) model to increase pre-service (Wahyudi)
325
intelligence ability is obtained from education, 2
3 the rest is genetic. This means that we cannot do much to
improve one's intelligence but we have many opportunities to improve their creativity. Creativity is included
in the field of mathematics, especially the ability to think creatively. Thus the ability to think creatively in
the field of mathematics needs to be developed so that students have high creativity in solving
mathematical problems.
The real problem in learning, not all mathematics learning in schools provides opportunities for
students to develop creative thinking skills including in the field of mathematics. Learning is more oriented
to the amount of material given and the acquisition of academic values that focus on cognitive abilities.
Learning is only in the context of achieving the test score target and giving students less experience in
thinking, reasoning and solving problems [7]. This condition also occurs in learning mathematics in higher
education including prospective teacher students. Mathematics learning has not provided an opportunity for
students to improve reasoning skills and think creatively in solving problems [8, 9]. This situation finally
affected the learning pattern when they became teachers and taught in schools. Mathematics is often an
unattractive information so it is forgotten, does not last long in the student brain.
For this reason, packaging of the appropriate learning model is needed. Learning mathematics must
match the context of the reality of student life, thus mathematics is easy to remember, imagine, represented,
manipulated and assembled in a good map of cognitive maps [10]. This is in accordance with the paradigm of
learning mathematics today, where mathematics is close to humans, mathematics is part of human culture
[7, 11, 12] and is part of social reality [11, 13]. One model that can be applied is problem based learning.
Problem based learning provides opportunities for students to get used to managing problems and thinking of
many alternative solutions to problems properly and correctly. To get a solution to diverse and creative
problems, a large and extensive vehicle of information is needed regarding how to solve problems both from
the fluency aspect, flexibility, novelty, and elaboration with the help of technology and computational
modeling that makes it easy for them to learn abstract things. Learning models packaging like this requires
special skills for a teacher. Material (content) is not enough, or the ability to design learning (pedagogical)
wouldn't do but must be able to combine the two. Not only does it require special abilities, namely the use of
technology in learning (technological). By combining these three capabilities, learning in the classroom will
be more interesting, efficient and meaningful for students and packaged in problem-based face-to-face and
online learning (blended learning) with computational modeling. This learning will provide opportunities to
students to search for information related to problem-solving provided with new and creative solutions in
face-to-face activities or online. This learning which later would be named Problem Based Blended Learning
(PB2L). With this learning process, it will opportunities for students to obtain many sources and learn a lot
from other people thus it would give them inspiration in solving problems.
2. RESEARCH METHOD
2.1. Development method
The product generated from this research and development is blended learning based on problem
which later could support the improvement of thinking creatively by the students in mathematics. The
method used includes descriptive and evaluative methods. Descriptive method is used to collect the existing
condition in the field. Evaluative method is used to evaluate the feasibility of blended learning based on
problem model which is realized in the form of activities and learning guidelines. Through the product and
process of trial, it is expected that it could obtain inputs about advantages and deficiency of the product
developed. The idea of development for blended learning based on problem model is developmed based on
Borg and Gall model [14]. Based on the purpose and design of learning which not only limited to face-to-
face stage then the development stage is done with the stage of ASSURE stage. The ASSURE development
stages is done in 6 stages namely 1) analyze learners, 2) state objectives, 3) select strategy, technology,
media, and materials, 4) utilize media and materials, 5) require learner participation, 6) evaluated and revise
[15]. It is clearly seen in Figure 1.
ISSN: 2089-9823
J. Edu. & Learn. Vol. 13, No. 3, August 2019 : 324 334
326
Figure 1. Development model of ASSURE
2.2. Population and research sample
The population in this study was the PGSD FKIP SWCU class of 2017 students. The samples used
were 2 classes, namely class A and B. The reason for choosing the population and sample was when they
were taking a course in solving mathematical problems. This is precisely because the competencies to be
improved are the ability to think creatively in solving mathematical problems.
2.3. Data collection techniques and instruments
Data collection techniques used are expert tests, questionnaires, observations and tests. The expert
test is used to see the expert's perception of the feasibility of the product (valid) produced, the questionnaire
is used to see the response of students and teacher perceptions in implementing the model (practicality),
observation is used to see the implementation of the model syntax developed, and the test is used to see the
impact of learning done namely the ability to think creatively by students (model effectiveness). The
instruments used in this study were expert validation sheets, student and teacher response questionnaires,
learning observation sheets, and test questions.
2.4. Data analysis technique
Data from expert assessment test results (product validation) were analyzed using percentage
descriptive techniques and categorically to describe the feasibility of the model. Initially the score of the
measurement results using a closed questionnaire is summed and averaged between the results of the expert
score 1 with expert 2. Then the score is in percentage using the formula:
Actual Score
PN = --------------- x 100%
Ideal Score
Note
:
Percentage Number
:
Scores given by expert validators
:
Maximum score between the number of items
and the maximum score of each item.
Based on the percentage category above, the Problem Based Blended Learning (PB2L) model can
be said to be feasible to be tested if the minimum percentage rate reaches a high category (≥ 61%). The
practicality test is done by looking at the results of the response of colleagues and students when testing the
limited application of the model. The effectiveness test was done by comparative analysis, which compares
J. Edu. & Learn. ISSN: 2089-9823
Development of Problem-based Blended Learning (PB2L) model to increase pre-service (Wahyudi)
327
the results of the mathematics learning design before and after the application of the model for one class with
one group pretest-posttest design using creativity criteria which include aspects of flexibility, novelty and
elaboration. Based on the results of these three criteria then the final score is determined. Final scores before
and after the application of the model were compared with the Paired-Samples T Test with the help of
SPSS 23.
3. RESULTS AND ANALYSIS
3.1. Model development results
The development of models using the ASSURE model is carried out in 6 stages of development; a)
analyze learners; b) state objectives; c) select strategy, technology, media, and materials; d) utilize media and
materials; e) require learner participation; f) evaluated and revise [15]. The results of each stage of
development can be explained below.
a. Analyze learners
Subject characteristics are seen from the ability to think creatively in solving mathematical problems
and the ability to use IT and the internet for learning resources. This result is the result of a preliminary study
that will be the basis for developing the model. The results obtained are shown in Table 1, Table 2 and
Table 3.
Table 1. The results of the initial measurement of students' creative thinking abilities
Interval
Category
Frequency
Percentage
82 - 100
Very high
0
0
63 - 81
High
5
18
44 - 62
Moderate
10
36
25 - 43
Low
12
46
Total
27
100
Table 2. Categories of creative thinking abilities according to categories
No
Creative Thinking Ability (KBK)
Average
Category
1
Fluency
75
High
2
Flexibility
41
Low
3
Novelty
31
Low
4
Elaboration
50
Moderate
Table 3. The ability of students to use IT and the internet as a learning resource
Competence Category
Total*
Total
SB
B
KB
TB
Ability to use IT and internet
10
15
2
0
27
* SB ( Very Good), B (Good), KB (Low), TB (Not Good)
Based on the data in Table 2 and Table 3, obtained information that most students (82%) have
creative thinking skills in the medium and low categories. Judging from the 4 indicators of creative thinking
only the fluency indicator with a high category. Only the ability to use IT and internet in the category of very
good and good, namely 92% (25 students).
Based on the data obtained then classical interviews were conducted to get the initial picture that the
subject was getting was not like mathematics. They took majors that allowed them not to meet with much
mathematics such as social studies for high school and MA and to take vocational school. Thus the low
ability to think creatively is not solely because of their inability to apply the four aspects of creative thinking
but is caused by their lack of love for mathematics thus that feeling influences their creative thinking ability.
b. State objectives
After conducting an initial capability analysis, the next step is to determine competencies, make
a description and formulate the objectives of the lecture. The following is a description and example
of competencies and learning objectives that will be achieved in the Mathematics Problem Solving
Strategy course as shown in Table 4.
ISSN: 2089-9823
J. Edu. & Learn. Vol. 13, No. 3, August 2019 : 324 334
328
Table 4. Basic competence and description of strategies for solving mathematical problems subject
Subject Basic Competence
Subject Description
Students are able to understand the concept of problems and understand
problems in mathematics
Students are able to distinguish between routine and non-routine problems
in mathematics
Students are able to know the difference in problem solving strategies
according to Polya and Reys
Students are able to solve problems related to numbers
Students are able to solve problems related to arithmetic sequence and series
Students are able to solve related problems related to geometry problems
Students are able to solve related problems related to geometry problems
Students are able to solve related problems related to geometry problems in
building space
Students are able to solve related problems related to systems of linear
equations
This course aims to strengthen students' ability
to understand and solve mathematical problems
so that students have high creativity in
producing many problem solving with new and
diverse categories. This course discusses the
basic concepts of mathematical problems and
problem solving in elementary school, routine
and non-routine problems (open ended),
problem solving strategies according to Polya
and Reys, solving mathematical problems with
Polya and Reys strategies for material numbers,
arithmetic sequence and series, geometry of
building flat and building space, and problem
solving related to systems of linear equations.
Based on the formulation of competency and description of the course and the data on the initial
ability of students, then the learning objectives were formulated for each meeting both face-to-face and
online lectures. Details can be explained in the following Table 5.
Table 5. Examples of formulation of learning objectives of the constitutional court strategies for solving
mathematical problems
Examples of formulation of face-to-face learning objectives
Meeting
Formulation of Learning Objectives
1
Given the opportunity to examine the material and discuss with lecturers about several events related to the problem of
human life, students were able to formulate their own language the meaning of problems and problems in mathematics
6
Given the opportunity to observe several patterns of numbers in group work activities, students were able to solve
problems related to arithmetic sequences and series with collections and correct
7
Given the opportunity for group work with the help of pictures and videos as a source of problems, students were able
to solve problems related to geometry problems to construct flat sides with a flat and correct side.
Examples of formulas for online learning goals
Meeting
Formulation of Learning Objectives
1
Given the opportunity to watch videos about the pattern of odd numbers, students were able to find the equation to
determine the term n (Un) and the number of nth (Sn) terms carefully and correctly.
4
Given the opportunity for group work with the help of pictures and videos as a source of problems, students were
able to solve related problems related to geometry problems to build space with collections and correct.
5
Given the opportunity to observe videos about eating events in restaurants, students were able to solve related
problems related to systems of linear equations with collusion and correctness.
c. Select method, media, and materials
The third step in this development method was to establish methods, media, and teaching materials
that will be used both face-to-face and online learning. The results obtained were divided into two categories
of methods, media and teaching materials provided, namely for face to face and online. For face-to-face
methods used were discussion and group work with a problem based learning model and power point media
which contains motivation and activities that must be done to solve the mathematical problems given. For
online lectures activities were packaged in the form of problem solving with problem based learning with
activities and instructions provided in the online class, F-learning (flearn.uksw.edu).
d. Utilize media and materials
The designs that have been made in step 3 were then compiled in both face-to-face and online
learning plans. The tools needed include the Lecture Event Unit (SAP), Student Worksheets (LKM), Media
(power point, video, audio, images, and material in online classes). Devices that have been compiled, tested
by experts first include learning experts, media experts, and experts in teaching materials / materials to obtain
product validity. In detail the results of product validation are presented in Table 6.
Table 6. Expert assessment results for PB2L model
No
Indicator
Ideal
Score
Actual Score
Average
PN (%)
Category
Expert 1
Expert 2
1
Design of learning activities
60
56
55
55.5
91%
Very high
2
Instructional Media
30
24
22
23
73%
High
3
Teaching materials and learning resources
35
26
24
25
71%
High
4
Learning evaluation instruments
55
41
40
40.5
74%
High
J. Edu. & Learn. ISSN: 2089-9823
Development of Problem-based Blended Learning (PB2L) model to increase pre-service (Wahyudi)
329
Based on the feasibility criteria of the model developed the results are very high and high
(Percentage Number (PN) 61%) thus the model is feasible to use. The next step was to implement the
model on a limited scale to see the practicality of the model. Limited testing was carried out for one lecturer
with 8 students. The results obtained are shown in Table 7 and Table 8.
Table 7. Peer assessment (model practical test)
No
Indicator
Ideal Score
Actual Score
AP (%)
1
Design of learning activities
60
52
87%
2
Instructional Media
55
43
78%
3
Teaching materials and learning resources
30
24
80%
4
Learning evaluation instruments
35
28
80%
Based on the results of the assessment and implementation of the model by peers the value of the
learning design (face to face and online), the media and teaching materials developed in the category of very
high and high (AP value ≥ 61%) thus practical models are used. Based on the data in Table 8, it can be seen
that student assessment for 4 aspects, namely face-to-face and online learning, media and teaching materials
obtained 87.5% with very good and good categories thus practical and feasible models were used in further
learning in a broad test of one class.
Table 8. Response of limited test students (practicality test models)
No
Aspects responded
Students’ Response
TB
%
TB
%
CB
%
B
%
SB
%
1
Design of learning activities
0
0
0
0
1
12,5
4
50
3
37,5
2
Instructional Media
0
0
0
0
2
25
4
50
2
25
3
Teaching materials and learning resources
0
0
0
0
1
12,5
3
37,5
4
50
4
Learning evaluation instruments
0
0
0
0
1
12,5
5
62,5
2
25
Note.: STB (Very Bad), TB (Not Good), CB (Fair), B (Good), SB (Very Good)
e. Require learner participation
The next step was to involve students in one class in learning. Students must be actively involved in
learning to see the effectiveness of the model developed and the achievement of learning objectives. Because
the design used was Problem Based Blended Learning (PB2L), students are required to be independent. The
learning process was carried out according to a predetermined design both face to face and online. Learning
was done in 15 meetings. Examples of displaying online classes can be seen in Figure 2.
Figure 2. Display of online classes
In addition to attending online lectures and doing assignments and making products for each task,
students were also required to do formative tests that have been provided online. This test was intended to see
the progress of independent learning from each student so as to achieve mastery learning. To provide an
opportunity to produce several problem solving and creative products, students were also required to make a
creative product related to solving mathematical problems given. It was intended that students not only
imitate what the lecturers taught but have their own ideas in the form of problem-solving work made in
ISSN: 2089-9823
J. Edu. & Learn. Vol. 13, No. 3, August 2019 : 324 334
330
creative products. Here is an online display for creative products in the form of solving mathematical
problems as shown in Figure 3.
Figure 3. Display of formative tests and assignments for creative products solving mathematical problems
To see the effectiveness of the model, a trial was conducted for 1 class according to the sequence of
activities and principles of Problem Based Blended Learning (PB2L). Students who were selected as samples
will be given a pretest and posttest to see the ability to think creatively before and after the Problem Based
Blended Learning (PB2L) model was applied. The results of the pretest and posttest of students' creative
thinking abilities can be seen in Table 9, Table 10 and Table 11.
Table 9. Descriptions of results of the pretest and postes students' creative thinking ability
Category
Pre Test
Post Test
Mean
60.52
75.96
Std. Deviation
9.60
6.36
Minimum
45.00
68.00
Maximum
80.00
90.00
Based on the data in Table 10, the mean of the pretest and posttest results is 60.52 and 75.96 with
the standard deviation resulting in 9.60 and post 6.36 pretest with the standard error pretest 1.85 and posttest
1.22. These results indicate that the ability to think creatively in the posttest results is closer to the mean
value than the pretest. Thus the post-test value is smaller than the pretest results seen from the average
value (mean).
Table 10. The results of the categories and the level of pretest and post-ability of
students' creative thinking skills
Interval
Category
Pretest
Posttest
Total
Percentage
Total
Percentage
82 - 100
Very high
0
0
11
40.74
63 - 81
High
2
7.41
16
59.26
44 - 62
Moderate
19
70.37
0
0
25 - 43
Low
6
22.22
0
0
Total
27
100
27
100
Average
60.52
75.96
The pretest data shows that the initial ability of students before participating in learning with the
Problem Based Blended Learning (PB2L) model is in the medium and low category, which is 92.59% (25
people out of 27 people). Only 7.41% (2 people) are in the creative category. These results indicate that
students' creative thinking skills still need to be improved.
J. Edu. & Learn. ISSN: 2089-9823
Development of Problem-based Blended Learning (PB2L) model to increase pre-service (Wahyudi)
331
After participating in learning with Problem Based Blended Learning (PB2L), there was an increase
in the number of students who had creative and moderate categories. Creative category improvement from
7.41% (2 people) to 40.74% (11 people). The number of students with moderate and weak categories
decreased from 92.59% (25 people) which decreased to 59.26% (16 people). This shows an increase in the
ability to think creatively before and after participating in learning with Problem Based Blended
Learning (PB2L).
These results are also supported by observations when they were working on test questions.
Students worked on the problem independently with the stages of solving problems that have been directed
and produced several solutions even though they were not in accordance with the aspect of creative thinking
can be carried out optimally. The description of the results of the observations can be seen from Table 11.
Table 11. Observation results of student activities when working on the test
Aspect of BKM
Question Number
1
2
3
Fluency
20
20
22
Flexibility
18
16
15
Novelty
12
13
11
Elaboration
11
11
12
To further see the impact of applying Problem Based Blended Learning (PB2L) in learning, it is
necessary to test the effectiveness of the model by using statistical tests paired T tests. This was chosen
because the research design used quasi experiment with one group pre test post test design. There is a
weakness of this design because it only uses one class. The following are the results of paired T tests which
begin with the data normality test as seen in the data in Table 12.
Table 12. Results of normality test of creative thinking abilities and posttest
Kolmogorov-Smirnova
Shapiro-Wilk
Statistic
df
Sig.
Statistic
df
Sig.
Pre Test
.145
27
.150
.930
27
.068
Post Test
.153
27
.107
.932
27
.077
a. Lilliefors Significance Correction
The number of students taken as a sample was only 27 people so the results of normality taken were
the results of normality with Shapiro-Wilk. As per the data in Table 14 the value of Sig is obtained. The
pretest and posttest were 0.068 and 0.077 both were greater than 0.05 so the two data were normally
distributed. This result is a condition for the following steps, namely Paired Samples T Test. The results
obtained can be seen in Table 13.
Table 13. Paired samples T test results on creative thinking ability
Paired Samples Correlations
N
Correlation
Sig.
Pair 1
Pre Test & Pos Test
27
.777
.000
Table 14. Paired samples T test results on creative thinking ability
Paired Differences
t
df
Sig. (2-tailed)
Mean
Std. Deviation
Std. Error Mean
95% Confidence Interval
of the Difference
Lower
Upper
Pair 1
Pre Test - Pos Test
-15.44
6.14
1.182
-17.87
-13.01
-13.06
26
.000
Based on the data in Table 10 and Table 11, it is found that the sig value. 0,000 <0.05 and t count
(13.06)> t table (2.05), it was found that there were significant differences between the results of the pretest
and posttest. Where the posttest results are better than the pretest results. Thus, it can be concluded that the
application of Problem Based Blended Learning (PB2L) is effective in improving students' creative thinking
skills in solving mathematical problems.
ISSN: 2089-9823
J. Edu. & Learn. Vol. 13, No. 3, August 2019 : 324 334
332
f. Evaluated and revise
Based on the results of expert assessment and implementation of learning there are several online
facilities that must be improved. In online learning there needs to be detailed instructions for each online
activity to reduce the number of questions when students learn independently. There needs to be a real video
in mathematics learning related to mathematical problem solving so that students can learn independently to
achieve mastery learning.
In accordance with the description of the 6 steps of development that have been carried out, the
Problem Based Blended Learning (PB2L) model is declared valid, practical and effective. Thus it can be said
that the Problem Based Blended Learning (PB2L) model is effective to improve students' creative thinking
skills in solving mathematical problems. This can be seen from the Paired samples test with an average
pretest of 66.45 and posttest 83.06 with sig. (2-tailed) 0,000 meaning that there are differences before and
after the model is applied. Problem Based Blended Learning (PB2L).
This happens because the learning situation is prepared and implemented in accordance with the
context of student life, and is packaged in fun activities. This is in accordance with the paradigm of learning
mathematics today, where mathematics is close to humans, mathematics is part of human culture [7, 11, 12]
and is part of social reality [11, 13]. This is also in accordance with the research of Wahyudi, Waluya, &
Rochmad [16], learning with scaffolding in an interesting and correct way and using contextual problems can
provide motivation for students to want to learn mathematics and be able to solve mathematical problems.
The results of the interview show that motivating with interesting, contextual things, easy to imagine, not
always in the form of formulas and numbers, makes them interested and willing to learn mathematics.
In addition, students also get direct experience through contextual events, students also get
experience in online learning that has been prepared. Learning can be accessed at http://flearn.uksw.edu in
the course of solving mathematical problems. This condition provides opportunities for students to have a
vehicle that is sufficient as a learning resource that can be accessed anytime and anywhere according to their
preferences. In addition to that, this model allows students to see creative and unusual problem solving
methods with interesting approaches so as to inspire them to produce problem solving in new ways. This is in
accordance with the principle of creativity arising from opportunities. There are 3N activities (Niteni,
Nerokke, Nambahi) taught by Ki Hajar Dewentara. This concept makes the idea that creativity will emerge if
students are given the opportunity. Creativity that appears is still at the level that must look at the example
first. The results of the interviews support this statement, students at the initial level tend to imitate thus the
idea is to think of other creative works. This is in accordance with the opinion of Hsieh [17] that the teaching
style of a teacher can influence the learning reflection of his students (in this case students). So if you want to
produce creative students, lecturers must be creative first in designing and implementing learning. This is in
line with the opinion of Morais & Azevedo [18], good teachers must be creative so that they can be an
example for their students to create further. In addition to something creative that can be exemplified, teacher
creativity is also one of the best habits of teaching creative thinking and always developing, and developing
[19, 20]. The success of this model increases the ability to solve mathematical problems, also because of the
obligation of students to produce creative work that is the result of their creative thinking in solving
problems. Students are given extensive opportunities for discussion with their team, looking for information
and data that is sufficient and not limited to time and place and the role of the lecturer directly. This is in
accordance with the opinion of Boelens et al., [21] learning must be able to stimulate student interaction,
facilitate their learning process, and encourage an affective learning situation. Each of their learning activities
has been designed and prepared from the start and explained to students the target products that must be
produced and how they can meet these targets. To that while maintaining their presence in the team they will
try to meet the predetermined targets.
Student creativity in solving mathematical problems is also supported by a learning environment
that fosters creativity from among students themselves [22, 23]. There is an opportunity for each group to
present the results in a face-to-face class, thus encouraging other groups to produce better works. This very
positive learning environment triggered students with their teams to continue to improve their creative work.
Positive learning environments are also provided by lecturers in the form of learning simulations by lecturers
using animation media, images and even video realities of life that are close to students thus they are easy to
understand. This is consistent with the results of research by [24, 25] that a positive learning environment
will motivate students and be creative to produce something useful.
4. CONCLUSION
Based on the results of data analysis and discussion, it can be concluded that Problem based Blended
Learning (PB2L) valid, practical and effectively improves students' problem solving in creative thinking
abilities. This happens because learning gives students the opportunity to think systematically by beginning
J. Edu. & Learn. ISSN: 2089-9823
Development of Problem-based Blended Learning (PB2L) model to increase pre-service (Wahyudi)
333
by criticizing the interesting contextual problems and ending with meaningful reflection with adequate
learning resources both when face-to-face and online. Creative students because lecturers give them the
opportunity to do something creative in creative activities.
Based on the results of research has been conducted on the research results, the suggestions of the
results of this study are lecturers are suggested to give their students a great opportunity to develop their
creativity in solving mathematical problems. Gives students the opportunity to think systematically by
beginning by criticising the interesting contextual problems and ending with meaningful reflection with
adequate learning resources both when face-to-face and online.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Huge gratitude to the Satya Wacana Christian University especially the Assistant Chancellor V
Office for providing financial assistance through the 2017-2018 fiscal year competition grant.
REFERENCES
[1] Constitution No. 20 Tahun 2003 concerning the National Education System (in Bahasa).
[2] Mann, E.L., Mathematical creativity and school mathematics: Indicators of mathematical creativity in middle
school students, Connecticut: University of Connecticut, 2005.
[3] Stanny, C.J., "Reevaluating Bloom’s Taxonomy: What measurable verbs can and cannot say about student
learning," Education Sciences, vol. 6, no. 37, 2016.
[4] Vale, I. and Barbosa, A., "Mathematics creativity in elementary teacher training," Journal of the European Teacher
Education Network, vol. 10, pp. 101-109, 2015.
[5] Sternberg. R. J., "The nature of creativity," Creativity Research Journal, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 8798, 2006.
[6] Dyers, J.H. et al., Innovators DNA: Mastering the five skills of disruptive innovators. Harvard Business
Review, 2011.
[7] Rachmawati, I., "Exploration of Sidoarjo society etnomathematics (in Bahasa)," Ejournal Unnes, vol 1, no 1, 2012.
[8] Suarma, D. M., and Kusumah, Y. S., "Interaction between literacy factors and learning against the mathematical
deductive reasoning ability of prospective elementary school teacher students and their performance,"
EDUHUMANIORA: Jurnal Pendidikan Dasar, vol. 4, no. 1, 2016.
[9] Wahyudi, Waluya, B., and Rochmad. "Scaffolding based on learning style as an effort to increase mathematical
creative thinking skill," The International Journal of Research in Teacher Education, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 34-44, 2018.
[10] Wahyudi and Waluya, B., “the importance of cognitive psychology in mathematics learning and students’
creativity,” Proceeding International Conference on Mathematics, Science, and Education (ICoMSE), Malang State
University. Malang, 2017.
[11] Hersh, Reuben, What is mathematics, really? London: Jonathan Cape, 1997.
[12] Siswono, T. Y. E., Humanistic mathematics learning that develops student creativity (in Bahasa). Yogyakarta:
Universitas Sanata Dharma, pp. 1-16, 2007.
[13] Zevenbergen, R., Dole, S., and Wright, R., Teaching mathematics in primary schols. Autralia: ALLEN &
UNWIN. 2011.
[14] Gall, M.D., Gall, J.P., and Borg, W.R., Educational research. An instroduction, 8th edit., New York:
Pearson. 2007.
[15] Smaldino, S.E,Russel, J.D. Heinich, R., and Molenda, M., Intructional technology and media for learning. New
Jersey: Pearson Merril Prentice Hall Inc, 2005.
[16] Wahyudi, Waluya, B., Rochmad, and Suyitno, H., "Mathematical creative thinking ability and scaffolding process
according with learning styles for pre-service teachers," Anatolian Journal of Instruction, vol. 3, no. 1,
pp. 3950, 2018.
[17] Hsieh, S.W., et.al., "Effects of teaching and learning styles on students’ reflection levels for ubiquitous learning,"
Computers & Education, vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 1194-1201, August 2011.
[18] Morais, Maria Fatima, and Azevedo Ivete, "What is a creative tecaher and what is a creative pupil? Perceptions of
teachers," Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, vol. 12, pp. 330-339, 2011.
[19] Henriksen, Danah, "The seven transdisciplinary habits of minds of creative teachers: An exploratory studi of award
winning teachers," Teaching Skills and Creativity, vol. 22, pp. 212-232, December 2016.
[20] Wahyudi, W., Suyitno, H., and Isnarto, M., "Effectiveness of Problem Based Blended Learning (PB2L)Model with
Blended Learning on Improving Creative Thinking Ability in Mathematical Problem Solving," International
Conference on Science and Education and Technology 2018 (ISET 2018). Atlantis Press, 2018.
[21] Boelens, Heij, "The development of semantic blocking in children," British Journal of Development Psychology,
vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 310-315, 2017.
[22] Soh, K., "Fostering student creativity through teacher behaviors," Thinking Skills and Creativity, vol. 23,
pp. 58-66, 2017.
[23] Richardson, C and Mishra, P., "Learning environments that support student creativity: Developing the SCALE,"
Thinking Skills and Creativity, vol. 27, pp. 45-54, 2017.
ISSN: 2089-9823
J. Edu. & Learn. Vol. 13, No. 3, August 2019 : 324 334
334
[24] Tsai, C.Y., Horng, JS, Liu, CH, Hu, DC, Chung YC., "Awakening student creativity: Empirical evidence in a
learning environment context," Journal of Hospitality, Leisure, Sport & Tourism Education, vol. 17,
pp. 28-38, 2015.
[25] Wahyudi, W. and Winanto, A., "Development of Project-based Blended Learning (PjB2L) Model To Increase Pre-
Service Primary Teacher Creativity," Journal of Educational Science and Technology (EST), vol. 4, no. 2,
pp. 91-102, 2018.
BIOGRAPHIES OF AUTHORS
Wahyudi, born in Purwodadi, Grobogan, 2 February 1981. Taught at Universitas Kristen
Satya Wacana in Salatiga since 2006. In 2009, he completed a postgraduate program in the
field of Mathematics Basic Education at UNY, Yogyakarta. In 2016 he took Mathematics
Education Program (S3) at UNNES Postgraduate Semarang. Active in research and service
in internal grants and tertiary grants, national and international cooperation. Some of the
books that have been written include the 2013 Pengembangan Pembelajaran Matematika
(Widyasari Press Publisher, Salatiga, with TEAM), 2017 Program Pengalaman Lapangan
(PPL), (Tisara Grafika Publisher, Salatiga, TIM), 2017 Strategi Pemecahan Masalah
Matematika, (Publisher Tisara Grafika, Salatiga, with TEAM), and Problem-based Learning
dalam Pembelajaran Matematika 2018 (Tisara Grafika Publisher, Salatiga).
St. Budi Waluya born in Magelang, 7 September 1968. Professor in the field of mathematics
education at Universitas Negeri Semarang. His doctoral education in the Aplied Mathetmatic
field was completed at Delft University Of Technology, Netherlands. S2 and S1 education
are each completed at Bandung Institute of Technology (ITB) and Semarang State
University. His dissertation entitled integral equations On Asymptotic Approximations of
First Integrals for a Class of Nonlinear Oscillators printed Optima Grasche Communicatie
Rotterdam. Active in the field of research and community service both internally, nationally
and internationally.
Hardi Suyitno born in Magelang, 7 September 1968. Professor in the field of mathematics
education at Universitas Negeri Semarang. His doctoral Philosophy of Mathematics was
completed at Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta. S2 and S1 education are each completed
at Malang State University and Yogyakarta State University. Some of the books that have
been written include the 2013Filsafat Matematika, 2010 Linear Programing, 1997 Linear
Programing.
Sutriyono born in the District of Semarang on September 1, 1953. Professor in the field of
mathematics education at Universitas Kristen Satya Wacana in Salatiga. S1 mathematics
education from Sanata Dharma University Yogyakarta, S2 State University of New York and
S3 from the University of Malaya. Active in the field of research and community service
both internally, nationally and internationally. Active in assessing the credibility of Kopertis
Lecturer Functional region VI Central Java.
Indri Anugraheni, born in Yogyakarta, 11 June 1983. Teaching history, in 2012 teaching at
Sanata Dharma University, 2013 - 2016 at Atmajaya Indonesian Catholic University Jakarta,
2016 - now teaching at Universitas Kristen Satya Wacana in Salatiga. In 2006 she obtained a
Bachelor's degree in Mathematics Education at Sanata Dharma University. In 2012, she
completed the postgraduate (S2) study program in Basic Education Concentration in
Mathematics at State University of Yogyakarta (UNY).
... pendidikan di Indonesia selama revolusi industri 4.0 [6]. Menggabungkan blended learning dengan pembelajaran berbasis masalah (PB2L) mampu meningkatkan kemampuan berfikir kreatif siswa [7]. Pengembangan media pembelajaran yang interaktif dapat menjadi sebuah sumber belajar [8]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Perkembangan informasi, komunikasi dan teknologi yang semakin meningkat telah mengubah berbagai bidang kehidupan, termasuk dibidang pendidikan. Sudah semestinya sistem pembelajaran yang ada di Program Studi Pendidikan Teknik Elektro Untirta harus lebih inovatif. Mengembangkan sistem pembelajaran e-learning berbasis situs web dan mempelajari kelayakan produk yang dihasilkan dari tujuan penelitian ini, dengan menggunakan metode Penelitian dan Pengembangan (R&D) dengan model pengembangan waterfall yang terdiri dari beberapa tahapan yaitu, analisis kebutuhan, desain, implementasi atau pengkodeaan, dan pengujian. Subjek pada penelitian ini adalah 3 orang ahli produk, 3 staf dosen 1, dan 51 mahasiswa. Maka diperoleh hasil penelitian yang telah diolah, terdiri dari data (1) tingkat kelayakan produk situs web e-learning diperoleh nilai skor rata-rata sebesar 74,6 dengan kategori “sangat layak”. (2) hasil uji coba penggunaan situs web e-learning oleh dosen dan staf memperoleh nilai skor rata-rata sebesar 90,3 dengan kategori “sangat layak”. (3) hasil uji coba penggunaan situs web e-learning oleh mahasiswa diperoleh nilai skor rata-rata sebesar 85 dengan kategori “sangat layak”. Dapat ditarik kesimpulan, maka sistem pembelajaran berbasis e-learningsitus web sangat layak.
Article
Full-text available
Creativity plays an important role in mathematics learning, so teachers must provide students with appropriate learning opportunities. This means using tasks, in particular those with multiple solutions and/or multiple resolutions, that usually require creative thinking and it could be a possible way to promote creativity in students. In this paper, we identify some traits of creativity in elementary pre-service teachers through tasks productions used during math classes.
Article
Full-text available
One of the aims of Indonesian education is to develop the potential of learners to become creative human beings. It takes a creative teacher to meet this need. Not just teaching, but teachers who are able to teach with innovative models, strategies and methods provide an opportunity for students to be skilled from creative products including in the field of mathematics in elementary school (SD). The aim of this research is to develop model to grow pre-service primary teacher students’ creativity in designing the lesson plan. The method used in this research was R&D with ASSURE development model. Product validation was done through an expert’s assessment by using the expert’s validation sheet. Product effectiveness was seen by implementing limited development testing to a particular class with a one group pretest-posttest design and the result was analyzed by using a Paired-Samples T-Test. The result of this research was a project-based e learning model to increase the creativity of pre-service primary teacher college students in designing a lesson plan. The validity of the learning model was proven by the result of the expert assessment in learning (face-to-face and online), material and instructional media. This model is also effectively usable in instructions to produce creative lesson plans for teaching Elementar School Mathematics as it is shown by the difference in the average pretest and posttest scores with sig. (2-tailed) 0,000.
Article
Full-text available
This article describes the ability of mathematical creative thinking and scaffolding process of pre-service teachers according to the learning styles. The research design used qualitative triangulation. The subject was 50 first year students of Elementary School Pre-service Teacher in Satya Wacana Christian University who were taking Basic Mathematics Concept course. Research data was taken through tests and interviews. The result of this study indicates that the subjects have different creative thinking abilities which were seen from their learning styles. Two aspects of them that were still low were flexibility and originality. The lack of love of mathematics was one of the reasons why mathematical creative thinking ability was still low. Scaffolding according to the subject's learning styles could improve the ability of mathematical creative thinking. The technique and duration of the scaffolding process depend on the learning styles and the subject's ability to follow the scaffolding process. The scaffolding process should be done according to the subject's response and needs according to their learning styles. Although they have different learning styles, scaffolding process can be done successfully with the use of media, either in the form of props and simulation drawings.
Article
Full-text available
Faculty and assessment professionals rely on Bloom’s taxonomy to guide them when they write measurable student learning outcomes and describe their goals for developing students’ thinking skills. Over the past ten years, assessment offices and teaching and learning centers have compiled lists of measurable verbs aligned with the six categories that comprise Bloom’s taxonomy. The author analyzed 30 compilations posted on web sites and evaluated how well these verbs aligned with categories in Bloom’s taxonomy. The author discusses the value of Bloom’s taxonomy as a heuristic for writing student learning outcomes and other factors faculty should consider when they articulate learning outcomes to describe levels of expertise attained by students who complete an associate’s, bachelor’s, or graduate degree.
Article
In this article, we report on the creation of an instrument that offers educators a practical tool to aid in the design of learning environments that support student creativity. Based on our literature review, classroom observations, and administrator feedback, three key areas were found to support student creativity: Learner Engagement, Physical Environment, and Learning Climate. These three areas create the foundation of the SCALE: Support for Creativity in a Learning Environment, a tool that provides educators with specific examples for the support of creativity. The 14 items of the SCALE focus on learning tasks, classroom practices, interactions between students and teachers, and the physical setting and availability of resources. The empirical study of creativity in education has grown in the past 10 years as experts have called for schools to prepare students with the skills that enable them to be innovative and creative. However, much of what has been produced has not been practical or immediately useful for educators because the trend has been to focus on behavior or easily measurable aspects of creativity rather than creative potential. The SCALE offers one way of filling this gap.
Article
Pictures are named more slowly in the context of semantically related pictures than in the context of unrelated pictures. This semantic blocking effect has been studied extensively in adult participants, and one study has revealed its presence in 6‐year‐old children. However, little is known about the development of the effect with age. In this study, a blocked cyclic naming procedure was arranged for 5‐ to 7‐year‐old and 10‐ to 12‐year‐old children. The semantic blocking effect obtained did not differ in size between the two age groups. This finding is tentatively interpreted as evidence that the semantic blocking effect does not have the same underlying cause as interference effects typically observed in naming tasks involving a distractor stimulus, like the Stroop task. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? • The semantic blocking effect has been demonstrated in adults, but little is known about its development in childhood. • Age‐related changes in performance in children have been used to distinguish various types of inhibitory control. What does this study add? • A semantic blocking effect was obtained in 5‐ to 7‐year‐old children and – for the first time – in 10‐ to 12‐year‐old children. • In the two age groups, the effect was equal in size and did not show up in the first cycles of the experiment. • The findings are argued to be in line with the distinction unintentional vs. intentional inhibitory control.
Article
Fostering student creativity has become an added responsibility of classroom teachers. Teachers therefore need to be aware of possible ways to foster student creativity. Student creativity can be enhanced through social modelling, reinforcement, and classroom ecology. It is argued that teachers’ own teaching behaviors play a critical role in fostering student creativity and the CFTIndex serves both as an instructional and measurement tool of creativity fostering in the classroom context. Advancement of research depends on the availability of relevant measurement instrument. The Creativity Fostering Teacher Behavior Scale (CFTIndex) was designed to meet the need of researchers working in this specific area of creativity. Since it first appearance in 2000, it has been used extensively over the world and translated into several languages. This article summarized the studies and discusses its further development.
Article
Although discussions of thinking skills often revolve around students and learners, it is equally important to consider habits of mind and thinking skills for successful and creative teachers. Teachers are primary mediators of thinking and learning for their students, and understanding how excellent teachers function and use thinking skills is an important, albeit often underserved, area of research. Amid the expansion of research and discussion around thinking skills in general, one approach that has garnered interest in recent years is the idea of “transdisciplinary” thinking—which entails effective approaches to thinking and working, that cut across disciplinary boundaries. Existing research has shown that the most successful creative thinkers in the sciences tend to use a set of meta-level cognitive “transdisciplinary” skills. While others have suggested this transdisciplinary skill set as a framework for teaching, it has not yet been formally studied with regard to teachers, particularly those deemed as “effective” or “creative”. This article discusses a qualitative study that investigated the use of seven transdisciplinary thinking skills among highly accomplished and nationally award winning teachers. National teacher of the year award winners and finalists were interviewed with regard to their use of transdisciplinary thinking skills in their teaching beliefs and practices. Results exemplify how such skills are used by such effective, creative teachers in a diverse range of ways, with broader implications for future study and practice.