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Effect of customer loyalty program on customer satisfaction and its impact on customer loyalty

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  • Sekolah Tinggi Ekonomi Islam (STEI) Hamfara, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Abstract and Figures

The aim of this research is to examine the effect of the customer loyalty program on customer satisfaction and its impact on customer loyalty. This program is developed by the company in order to increase customer satisfaction. Optimal customer satisfaction will be able to create customer loyalty. For a company, customer loyalty will guarantee the company’s income to be constantly optimal. The research is conducted using the survey method involving 110 customers and 100 feasible data used. The sampling technique used is judgment sampling and data collected through the questionnaire. It uses SEM in examining hypotheses assisted by software AMOS version 20.0. Member card significantly affects customer satisfaction, while discount promo has no significant effect on customer satisfaction and it also doesn’t affect customer loyalty. Member cards and discount promo have a direct effect on customer loyalty. In general, it can be understood that the customer loyalty program applied by Alfamart either member card or discount promo affects customer satisfaction and has an impact on customer loyalty. This research gives input to retail business managers in managing customer satisfaction through the proper development of customer loyalty programs.
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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF RESEARCH IN BUSINESS AND SOCIAL SCIENCE 9(1)(2020) 15-23
* Corresponding author. ORCID ID: h ttps: //orcid .org/0000-0001-9636-7306
Peer revie w under responsibility of Bussecon International Academy.
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https://doi.org/10.20525/ijrbs.v9i1.603
Effect of customer loyalty program on customer satisfaction and its
impact on customer loyalty
Salihah Khairawatia
aBusiness and Psychology Faculty, Yog yakarta Tech nology University, Indonesia
A R T I C L E I N F O
Article history:
Received 07 July 19
Received in revised form 22 July 19
Accepted 08 August 19
Keywords:
Loyalty program
Customer satisfaction
Customer loyalty
Jel Classification
M30,M20
A B S T R A C T
The aim of this re search is to examine the effect of the custo mer loyalty program on customer
satisfaction and its impact on customer loyalty. This program is developed by the company in order to
increase customer satisfaction. Optimal customer satisfaction will be able to create customer loyalty.
For a company, customer loyalty will guarantee the company’s income to be constantly optimal. The
research is conducted usi ng the survey method in volving 110 customers and 100 feasible data used.
The samplin g technique used is judgmen t sampling and data collected through th e q uestionnaire. It
uses SEM in examining hypotheses assisted by software AMOS version 20.0. Member card significantly
affects customer satisfaction, while discount promo has no significant effect on customer satisfaction
and it also doesn’t affect customer loyalty. Member cards and discount promo have a direct effect on
customer loyalty. In general, it can be understood that the customer loyalty program applied by
Alfamart either member card or discount promo affects customer satisfaction and has an impact on
customer loyalty. This research gives input to retail business managers in managing customer
satisfaction thro ugh the proper development of customer loyalty programs.
© 2019 Bussecon International Academy. Hosting by SSBFNET. All rights reserved.
Peer revie w under responsibility of Bussecon International Academy & SSBFNET.
Introduction
Customer satisfaction has important role for business sustainability, especially the retail business. Customer satisfaction is able to
support the customers to have positive impression on the product and service offered by a business organization. Positive attitude
has important role in rebuying the product or service in the future (Dizfani, Mantralla, Yuzta and Ruiz, 2017). The satisfied customers
will be formed to rebuy in the same shop despite the interesting offer from other shops. In general, a positive relationship between
the customer satisfaction and the customer loyalty possibly becomes the main factor or the moderation. In some previous marketing
study, it is confirmed that the customer satisfaction on their needs is one antecedent of loyalty either on the brand or the shop Dizfani
et.al (2017).
Customer satisfaction is determined by the development of product and quality conducted by the company, also the service and
improvement in order to meet the customer expectation. The customer satisfaction can be measured through various methods. One
of them is by measuring the customer expectation compared with the benefit and cost (Mouri, 2005). According to Spath & Fahnirch
(2007) another way to measure the customer satisfaction is by measuring the customer life cycle relationship.
Customer loyalty is one strength owned by a company. Many companies do not realize that the customer loyalty is started from
several stages, from searching potential customers to the forming of advocate customer that will bring benefit for the company
(Hurriyati, 2005). Various efforts are conducted by the company in order to build the customer loyalty, to maintain the customer
loyalty to make the company’s finance performance increase and to make the company be able to maintain its life sustainability.
Magatef & Tomaleh (2015) in a study conducted to a grocery prove that the loyalty program performed in a good way will be able
to build and manage or maintain the customers. According to Singh & Khan (2012), customer loyalty is the customer will or wish to
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Salihah Khairawati, International Journal of Research in Business & Social Science 9(1)(2020) 15-23
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buy the company’s product or service compared with the competitor’s product or service in the market. The programs of reward gift
are offered by the company that always conduct purchase, or it can also be in the form of more easiness to the customers to get new
product, discount card, or free gift. These programs support the level of rebuying and improve and maintain the level of sales by
providing incentive for the customers who often buy in a big amount (Lewis, 2004). Some types of customer loyalty programs are
Fee-Based Loyalty System, Rebates System, Non-Monetary/Community Program, Coalition, Organic Loyalty (Alazzam, Fahad &
Bach, 2014). The customer loyalty programs are the special offer gift for those having member card, the discount price promo for
the customers, and many others.
An effort to build the customer loyalty is also conducted by applying harmonic relationship with the customers. Loyalty program
gives effect on the customer satisfaction and loyalty (Singh & Khan, 2012). Juramello & Spector (2015) conduct a research on how
the customers react on member card and its impact on the value creating and goal in marketing. Li (2018) in the research conducted
on the customer behavior also examines the relationship among membership card, mobile application, and loyalty in Starbuck. The
result of research confirms that member card and mobile application programs are one way to build a relationship with the customers
and a part of the customer loyalty program. Other effort to build the customer loyalty is by holding a program of discount price
promo. A research conducted by Dewi & Kusumawati (2018) on the effectiveness of price promo in affecting the customer
satisfaction of online business reaches a conclusion that the program of discount price promo affects the customer decision on buying
and the customer satisfaction.
Alfamart is a modern retail shop and has a networking that recently is facing a competitive business condition. Alfamart effort to
maintain its customers is conducted by applying the loyalty program for its loyal customers by offering various incentives such as
discount for product purchase and special facilities for the member card holders, the purchase point that can be exchanged to pay the
transaction. It aims at making the customers satisfied and finally loyal to the shop. The reseach question statement are loyalty program
applied by Alfamart affects the customer satisfaction and gives impact on the customer loyalty?
The aim of this research is to find out the effect of the customer loyalty program on the customer satisfaction and how it gives impact
on the customer loyalty. This research is hopefully able to give benefit to the retail business actors in performing the development of
their promo program, the development of values or benefit to their loyal customers, and in giving inputs on the effectiveness of
marketing programs in creating the customer satisfaction and loyalty.
The previous research has much examined the relationship of loyalty program on the customer satisfaction. In this research the writer
is trying to examine the relationship between the loyalty program and the customer loyalty and then adding the variables of mediation.
The author is trying to examine the relationship and effect of the loyalty program on the customer satisfaction and how it gives impact
on the customer loyalty.
This study is divided into five parts. The first part is introduction that discusses the background of research, the object of research,
and the scope of research. The second part discusses the theory and study of literature and the development of hypothesis. The third
part contains the methodology of research as follows: sample selection, method used, and method of data analysis. The fourth part
contains discussion and result of research. The fifth part discusses conclusion, limitation of research, and suggestion for further
research.
Literature of Review
Loyalty Program
According to Wijaya (2008), customer loyalty program is a program offered to the customers to build an emotional bond to the
company or the brand of company. This program is a technique of growing and maintaining the existing customers and supporting
the rebuying through the incentive scheme (Doyle, 2013). Loyalty programs encourage buyers to return to shops where they make
purchases (Isoraite, 2019).
Membership Card
Kottler & Keller (2009) state that the customer loyalty program much applied in companies is the frequency program and the
marketing program (club or member card). The club marketing program through member cards gives opportunity to the company to
build a data base or to catch the customers from the competitors. In retail world, the customer loyalty program has various names as
follows: program bonus, customer card, customer club, membership card, fly buys, and many others. It is clearly proved that the
loyalty programs are able to build and maintain the customers (Li, 2018).
Loyalty program is not only a tool to increase the customer loyalty but also is an opportunity to get information about shopping habit
and customer preference. Such information help the company to adapt its service to the customers. Customer loyalty program is an
incentive plan that allows the retail business to get information about its customers. The customers get offers in the form of product
discount, coupon, point, and merchandise or other rewards. Another aim of loyalty program is to rebuild the business by offering the
customer participation that is not offered to the non-participated customers. (Magtef & Tomalieh, 2015).
According to Sutjipto & Santoso (2013), member card is used for a necessary related to membership of an organization. Lupiyoadi
(2013:197) states that the customers who become the members of program tend to have stronger emotional bond than those who are
Salihah Khairawati, International Journal of Research in Business & Social Science 9(1)(2020) 15-23
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not the members. According to Matita (2013), member card ownership gives significant effect on the customer satisfaction, trust,
and commitment. In general, based on the study conducted (Jaramillo & Spector, 2015; Li, 2018) in a research on the customer
behavior on membership card program, it is positive, which means that the customer respond on membership card program is positive.
Sutjipto & Santoso (2013) in their research state that member card gift and facilities belonging to it affect the customer loyalty.
Hypothesis 1 : Customer member card program gives positive effect on the customer satisfaction.
Hypothesis 4 : Customer member card program gives indirect impact on the customer loyalty.
Discount Price Program
According to Tjiptono (2011: 166), a discount is a reduce fare given by the seller to the buyer as a reward on certain activity from
the buyer that makes the seller happy. Dewi & Kusumawati (2018) in a research on the customers of Traveloka in Surabaya who buy
the tickets via online by utilizing the discount price state that the variable of discount price gives significant effect on the customer
satisfaction. The customers tend to search for those who give discounts. It indicates that the variable of discount price is something
favored by the customers. Zhang & Prasongsukarn (2017) in a research conducted in Starbuck in Thailand by examining the
relationship between promo price and the customer evaluation on the quality, the customer satisfaction and the intensity of rebuying
that promo price affects the customer satisfaction.
An effort to prevent the moving of customers to other companies is conducted by giving incentives in the form of discount price to
the customers. As proved by Kim (2019); Gabler, Landers & Raynolds (2017) in the research on the impact of promo price on losing
the customers and the strategy of discount price on the decision of buying, which show that giving discount price to the customers is
able to prevent losing the customers and affect the decision of buying of the customers.
Therefore, price becomes the important thing as the predictor of satisfaction either directly or indirectly, that may affect the customer
loyalty. This is confirmed by Raji, M. N. A., & Zainal, A. (2017) in a research, which proves that the customer satisfaction is affected
by the values received in which monetary price is seen as the best predictor for the customer satisfaction.
Hypothesis 2: Discount program gives positive effect on the customer satisfaction.
Hypothesis 5: Discount program gives indirect effect on the customer loyalty.
Customer Satisfaction
Customer satisfaction is the most important thing that is used to measure the success of a product or service. Satisfaction and
assessment given by the customers can be used to find out the level of customer satisfaction on the product or service. The customers
will feel satisfied when the product they get and feel meet their expectation.
Bloemer & De Ruyter (1998) define satisfaction as a result of subjective evaluation process in selecting the alternative or exceeding
the expectation. While Swan & Oliver (1985) describe satisfaction as an orientation of post purchase that is affective or cognitive
focusing on the evaluation of product performance. The customer satisfaction is positively caused by the product and service offered
by the retailer. This habit has important role in the customer purchase in the future.
Customer satisfaction is affected by physical environment and perception on prices (Dube, Johnson & Renaghan, 1999; Knutson &
Patton, 1995). According to (Tjiptono, 2011: 453), there are three important aspects required to be examined in the frame of
measurement of customer satisfaction as follows:
1). General satisfaction or overall satisfaction
2). Confirmation of expectation that is suitability level between performance and expectation, and
3). Comparison to ideal situation that is the product performance compared to the ideal product according to customer perception.
Kim et.al (2015) prove in a research conducted to a hotel industry that has impact of customer satisfaction on the loyalty to the hotel
industry. While Bricci et.al (2016) examine the impact of customer trust, commitment, and satisfaction on their loyalty. It is proved
that customer loyalty is affected by the above three factors.
Hypothesis 3: Customer satisfaction gives positive effect on customer loyalty.
Customer Loyalty
Loyalty can be described as a condition in which someone is doing a buying routinely based on the unit of decision making. According
to Griffin (2005) loyalty has four characteristics as follows: doing rebuying regularly, buying product or service at the same place,
referring or recommending to others, and not being able to be influenced by the competitor to move.
A research on loyalty has been much conducted by the previous researches. Ali & Reza (2015) on a research in the influence of
service quality on customer satisfaction in Islamic Banks in Pakistan conclude that the customer satisfaction is influenced by other
quality of service. The research on the effectiveness of loyalty program in building customer loyalty has been conducted by Kamran
et.al (2017); Breugelmans (2015); Key & Alejandro (2015); Liu & Mattila (2016). While Kadimpully et.al (2015) in a literature study
Salihah Khairawati, International Journal of Research in Business & Social Science 9(1)(2020) 15-23
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of secondary data states that it needs to build a frame to understand the customer loyalty and its impact on the improvement of the
customer involvement role.
H4
Membership Card H1
Customer Satisfaction H3 Customer Loyalty
Discount Promo H2
H5
Figure 1: Frame of Research; Source: Author
Research and Methodology
A research is conducted by survey method to the customers of Alf amart. The sample is taken using judgement sampling method, in
which the criteria for the respondents is the customer who has shopped at least three times to Alfamart and has Alfamart member
card. According to Sugiyono (2018: 96-97), the independent variable in the research is free variable which value does not depend on
other variables. In this research independent variable is: member card and discount price. While mediation variable is a variable that
influences or strengthens or weakens the relationship between independent variable and dependent variable. In this research
mediation variable is the customer satisfaction. While dependent variable is attached variable which value depends on other variables,
in this research dependent variable is the customer loyalty.
The population in this research is the customers who buy or shop in Alfamart Bangunjiwo, Indonesia. Sample is the part of amount
and the characteristic owned that should be really representative for the sample selected as the participant; it is a technique that does
not give the same opportunity to each element or member of population to be selected as the sample. The research determines 110
samples of respondents, but of 110 only 100 questionnaires that are complete and feasible to be processed.
It can use likert scale to measure the attitude, opinion, and perception of someone or a group of people about the social phenomena
(Sugiyono, 2013:168). The indicator of measurement is based on 5 points of Likert Scale (1 = strongly disagree, 2= disagree, 3=not
agree, 4= agree, dan 5 = strongly agree). The data feasibility is measured through the reliability and validity analysis test. Specifically
the reliability analysis uses alpha Cronbach and the validity analysis uses discriminant and convergent analysis with Pearson
correlation. The Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) data analysis is used to examine the hypothesis. Path analysis is conducted
with AMOS program version 20.0.
Result and Discussion
Validity Analysis and Data Reliability
Examining the validity and reliability of the question items for each variable is conducted by validity and reliability test. The result
of validity test of all indicators of member card variable amounted seven items of questions is stated to be valid because the loading
factor value is > 0.5. While of the discount promo variable amounted seven items of questions, there are two that are not valid because
the loading factor value is < 0.5 so it cannot be used in the questionnaire of research. The validity test for the variable indicator of
customer satisfaction amounted six items of questions and the variable indicator of customer loyalty amounted eight items of
questions in which the whole questions have the loading factor value > 0.5 so all is stated to be valid and can be used in the
questionnaire of research. Reliability test is conducted by comparing the alpha Cronbach value of the result with the standard. The
variable of research is said to be reliable if having the result value > 0.70 (Ghozali, 2018: 46)
Table 1. Reliability of Instrument
Variables
Description
X1
Reliable
X2
Reliable
Y1
Reliable
Y2
Reliable
Source: Primary processed data
Salihah Khairawati, International Journal of Research in Business & Social Science 9(1)(2020) 15-23
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Based on the above table, all variables of research have the Alpha Cronbach value that is bigger than 0.70 so that this instrument of
research meets the criteria of valid and reliable because it is stated to be feasible to use.
Model of Research Testing
Based on the hypothesis model improved, the customer loyalty program is indirectly assumed as having causal relationship with the
customer loyalty through the dimension of customer loyalty forming, by making the starting point having no estimation value.
Afterwards it should be making the structural model having owned estimation value based on the starting point. The testing on the
goodness of fit of model should be conducted to ensure that the structural model arranged can explain the direction of relationship
and the direction of effect exactly without causing estimation bias. Figure 2 describes how the relationship between variables and
model is.
Figure 2. Goodness of Fit of model: relationship between variables and model
Theoretical model on the conceptual frame of research is determined to be fit if being supported by the empirical data. The result of
goodness of fit of overall model testing is used to find out whether the hypothetic model is supported by the empirical data. The
computing result with AMOS program for SEM model result the index of goodness of fit as shown in the following table:
Table 2: Goodness of Fit Index of Model
Source: Primary processed data
The result of Goodness of Fit gets the Chi-Square value amounted 396.778 with probability 0.000. Other fit criteria are GFI, TLI,
CFI, NFI, and RMSEA to conclude the goodness of fit of overall model, the value of CMIN/DF amounted 1.350 indicates fit model
because it is 2. The values of GFI amounted 0.781, NFI amounted 0.784, TLI amounted 0.932 and CFI amounted 0.925 indicate
fit model because they are more than the recommended values. The result of goodnees of fit testing as a whole may conclude that
the hypothetic model is supported by the empirical data, or the model is said to be fit.
Based on Table 2., it can be seen that the evaluation result of model for full model structural indicates good criteria in which each
measurement of goodness of fit value has been appropriate except for the measurement of Chi-Square, GFI, AFGI and NFI which
values have not met the determined criteria. However, as a whole it can be concluded that the structural model being modified has
resulted in the expected estimation level. Based on Ghozali’s opinion (2015), if two or more than the whole Goodness of Fit used
Goodness of Fit
Analysis Result
Cut-off Value
Description
c
2 (Chi-Square)
396.778
Expected to be little
Less
Probability
0.000
³ 0.05
Less
CMIND/DF
1.350
2
Good
GFI
0.781
³ 0.90
Less
AGFI
0.739
³ 0.90
Less
NFI
0.784
³ 0.95
Less
CFI
0.932
³ 0.90
Good
TLI
0.925
³ 0.95
Marginal
RMSEA
0.065
0.08
Good
Salihah Khairawati, International Journal of Research in Business & Social Science 9(1)(2020) 15-23
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have indicated good fit of model, so the model is considered to be good and fit. Basically the customer satisfaction is an intermediary
that can bridge the customer loyalty program, in which the good customer satisfaction will affect the customer loyalty. A hypothesis
testing is conducted to test the presumption.
Hypothesis Testing
To answer the hypothesis of research, a hypothesis testing is conducted to find out the direct or indirect effect among the variables.
The result of hypothesis test is as follows:
Table 3 Direct Effect of Hypothesis Testing
Hypothesis
Estimate
C, R
P
Hypothesis
Y1
<---
X1
0.159
2.382
0.017
Accepted
Y1
<---
X2
0.130
1.247
0.212
Rejected
Y2
<---
X1
0.343
2.508
0.012
Accepted
Y2
<---
X2
0.233
3.077
0.002
Rejected
Y2
<---
Y1
0.205
1.776
0.076
Rejected
Source: Primary processed data
Hypothesis 1: Customer Member Card Program gives positive effect on Customer Satisfaction
The result of hypothesis testing for the direct effect on table 3 indicates that the result of the first hypothesis with AMOS approach
is that the coefficient value of customer member card has effect on the customer satisfaction with the value 2.382 (p value 0.017 <
0.05). The coefficient value is positive, so it can be concluded that the relationship between both is in the same directon, which means
that the better the customer member card is, the better the customer satisfaction will be. Based on the result of t-statistic test amounted
2.382, because the t-statistic value is bigger that the t-table 2.00, so the first hypothesis that states ”customer member card program
gives positive effect on customer satisfactionis accepted. As confirmed by Matita (2013) that the ownership of membership card
has significant effect on customer satisfaction, which means that so far the customers feel satisfied with the offer and facilities
provided by Alfamart to the member card holders.
Hypothesis 2: Discount Program has positive effect on customer satisfaction
Based on the t-statistic test on table 3, the result of the second hypothesis testing with AMOS approach is that the coefficient value
of discount program has effect amounted 1.274 (p value 0.212 > 0.05), because the t-statistic is less than the t-table 2.00, so the
second hypothesis that states ”discount program has effect on customer satisfactionis rejected. Thus, it can be concluded that the
discount program conducted by Alfamart has not been able to give positive and significant effect on the customer satisfaction. It is
possibly because the Alfamart customers do not pay much attention on discount program so that this program does not give any effect
on the customer satisfaction. This hypothesis is different from the result of study conducted by the previous researchers such as Dewi
& Kusumawati (2018); Zhang & Prasongsukarn (2017) who state that price promo affects the customer satisfaction.
Hypothesis 3: Customer satisfaction gives positive effect on customer loyalty
Based on the result of t-statistic test as shown in table 3, the result of the third hypothesis testing is that the coefficient value of the
customer satisfaction has effect on the customer loyalty amounted 1.205 (p value 0.076 > 0.05) because the t-statistic value is less
than t-tabel 2.00, so the third hypothesis that states ”Customer satisfaction has positive effect on customer loyalty“ is rejected. So far
the customer satisfaction has not been able to have strong effect on the customer loyalty. According to Oliver (1999), customer
loyalty is a very important thing for all industries either product or service. When the customer has been loyal by always using the
product or service of a certain company, it can be said that the company has succeeded in giving satisfaction to its customers because
basically customer satisfaction is one important factor that can make them loyal.
The testing of indirect influence is also conducted and the result is as shown in table 4. The relation existing between the customer
loyalty program and the customer loyalty is indirect effect, which means that the effect is given indirectly and through the dimension
of customer loyalty forming as the intermediary variable. The calculation result of indirect effect using AMOS program can be seen
in table 4.
Salihah Khairawati, International Journal of Research in Business & Social Science 9(1)(2020) 15-23
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Table 4 Indirect Effect Testing
Interaction
Value
Description
Hypothesis
Y2 <--- X1
0.343
Direct Effect
Direct effect > indirect effect, so hypothesis stating
“X1 gives indirect effect on Y2” is rejected
Y2 <--- X1
0.055
Indirect Effect
Y2 <--- X2
0.233
Direct Effect
Direct effect > indirect effect, so hypothesis stating
“X2 gives indirect effect on Y2” is rejected
Y2 <--- X2
0.044
Indirect Effect
Source : Primary processed data
Hypothesis 4: Customer Member Card Program has direct or indirect effect on customer loyalty
Direct Effect
From table 3 it can be seen that the result of the fourth hypothesis testing with AMOS approach is that the coefficient value of
customer member card has effect on loyalty with the value 2.508 (p value 0.012 < 0.05). The result of coefficient value is positive,
so it can be concluded that the relationship between both is in the same direction, which means the better the customer member car
is, the better the customer loyalty will be. Based on the result of t-statistic test amounted 2.508, because the value of t-statistic is
bigger than t-table 2.00, so the fourth hypothesis that states ”customer member card program has direct effect on customer loyalty
is accepted. It is similar to Sutjipto & Santoso (2013) who state in their research the member card with its facilities and benefit offers
in it can affect the customer loyalty.
Indirect Effect
While the indirect effect in table 4 indicates that direct effect is bigger than indirect effect, so the hypothesis that states “member card
has indirect effect on customer loyalty” is rejected. Thus, it can be concluded that member card having indirect effect on customer
loyalty is rejected and is not proved.
Hypothesis 5: Discount program has direct and indirect effect on customer loyalty
Direct Effect
From table 3 the result of the fifth hypothesis testing using AMOS is that the coefficient value of discount program effect on loyalty
is 3.077 (p value 0.002 < 0.05). The result of coefficient value is positive, so it can be concluded that the relationship between both
is in the same direction, which means that the better the discount program is, the better the customer loyalty will be. Based on the
result of t-statistic test amounted 3.077, because the t-statistic value is bigger that t-table 2.00, so the fifth hypothesis that states
”Discount promo program has direct effect on customer loyaltyis accepted.
Indirect Effect
Table 4 indicates that direct effect is bigger than indirect effect, so the hypothesis stating that discount promo has indirect effect on
customer loyalty is rejected and not proved. Thus, the discount promo program having indirect effect on customer loyalty is rejected
and not accepted.
Implication of Research
This research gives description about customer loyalty. The result of research is also considered to be an evaluation of the policy of
customer loyalty program that all this time is being conducted by the company using variables of member card and discount promo,
and how the success of loyalty program on customer satisfaction is so it can give positive effect on the customer loyalty.
The company needs to improve the features and benefit of the customer loyalty program in accordance with the times, because the
values of benefit or utilization are moving as the times run, so that it will be able to increase the customer satisfaction and strengthen
the customer loyalty.
Conclusions
The results of the study in showed that the customer loyalty programmes offered by Alfamart to consumers have an effect on customer
satisfaction. The results of the first hypotheses evaluation proves that customer loyalty program through Member card program
significantly affects customer satisfaction. This is due to the provision of benefits, facilities and attractive offers to the member card
holders. The promo price discount as a form of loyalty program does not affect customer satisfaction. This is possible, prices are not
a major factor for consumers. This study shows that the role of customer satisfaction as a moderator variable is not significant in
influencing customer loyalty. This research proves that customer loyalty programmes through member cards and discount promo
prices directly impact customer loyalty.
This research has limitation in the form of the amount of respondents that is relatively little or limited. It is expected that further
research can use more respondents. Besides, this research is also conducted only in one booth of Alfamart so it cannot be generalized.
Salihah Khairawati, International Journal of Research in Business & Social Science 9(1)(2020) 15-23
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Further research is suggested to be conducted to respondents from some booths of retail store in different regions. Further research
is suggested to be able to improve either from variable of endogen latent used, variable of exogent latent, and the method and tools
used.
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... In such membership programs, consumers that joined as members would get special treatment from the retailer. Through this program hopefully the members will feel appreciated and needed, which in turn will improve their experience and satisfaction [7]. A membership program can increase the customer satisfaction index by 17% and increase consumer commitment in making purchases to 59.1%, compared to an absence of membership program [8]. ...
... Retail Literature research on retail business recent conditions and challenges: [1], [2], [3] Literature research on retail business variables: [4], [5], [6], [7], [8], [9]. ...
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... http://www.actacommercii.co.za Open Access influence customer loyalty (Khairawati 2019;Kim, Kang & Johnson 2012;Ma, Morgan & Hoffman 2018). Loyalty programmes have long been an important marketing tool within relationship marketing (Curatman, Suroso & Suliyanto 2021;Kim et al. 2021), attracting the attention of marketing researchers (Voorhees et al. 2015). ...
... Like, I don't go out of my way to buy things that are advertised on special'. (P5) Khairawati (2019) proposed that only satisfied customers will rebuy products. Customer satisfaction is an important aspect for retail business success, as it encourages the customers to have a positive attitude towards the product. ...
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... The frequency of consumers' visiting the bank's online platform (i.e., Website), their usage rate, how frequently they utilize the digital banking solutions and promote digital banking appropriately are the major factors that are analyzed to define "Customer Loyalty" in the perspective of online banking) (Khairawati, 2020). Thus, "Loyalty" is the key to gaining more potential consumers and building and sustaining the connection with them, especially in digital banking. ...
... All four hypotheses related to the impact of reliability on customer trust, impact of security on customers' trust, impact of website design on customer trust, and finally, impact of customer trust on customer loyalty were supported. These findings are in line with the findings of the previous research (Khairawati, 2020;Budur & Poturak, 2021;Kaur et al., 2021;Pal Kapoor & Vij, 2020). Similarly, 03 hypotheses related to mediation analysis stated that customer trust mediates the relationship between reliability, security, website design, and customer loyalty. ...
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... One of the ways to provide services in accordance with customer needs is by implementing a membership program in order to create customer satisfaction (Sthopoulou & Balabanis, 2016). This is also strengthened by the results of Khairawatia's (2020) research stated that membership programs significantly affected customer satisfaction. Besides, customer satisfaction can also maintain customer loyalty in a company. ...
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Chapter
The sunk cost effect and escalation of commitment theories are used to assess membership card pricing on consumer purchasing intentions. A simulation experiment is conducted to study the sunk cost effect and escalation of commitment theories prediction that individuals’ prior investments in a membership card increase the card members purchasing intentions. As a result of this experiment, no evidence of the sunk cost escalation of commitment effect is found. Also, the effect of sources of windfall gains on cognitively related and unrelated products is investigated. Evidence indicates that consumers are more likely to purchase goods that are cognitively related to the source of the windfall gain.
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Purpose Presently, loyalty programs often offer preferential treatment to the firm’s best customers, and recently, service firms started to incorporate corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives into the loyalty reward programs (e.g. Starwood’s “Make A Green Choice”). However, academic research advancing the understanding of the effectiveness of CSR-focused loyalty programs is lacking. To bridge that gap, this paper aims to examine the influence of a “green” loyalty program on members’ and bystanders’ service encounter satisfaction in light of preferential treatment. Furthermore, this paper investigates the psychological mechanisms (prosociality perceptions and status perceptions) that underlie these effects. Design/methodology/approach This study used a 2 (loyalty program: green vs standard) × 2 (customer type: member vs bystander) × 2 (observability of preferential treatment: low vs high) between-subjects experimental design. Respondents were asked to read a hotel check-in scenario and then completed scales that measured their perceptions and evaluations of the service encounter. Findings Results from this study suggest that a green loyalty program can buffer the negative effect of preferential treatment on bystanders’ service encounter satisfaction. An examination of the underlying mechanism reveals that prosociality perceptions of the firm mediate the impact of loyalty programs on bystanders’ satisfaction. As expected, the results show that a green loyalty program is as effective as a standard program in elevating members’ satisfaction. Furthermore, findings from a moderated mediation analysis indicate that status perceptions mediate the impact of customer type on satisfaction. However, status perceptions have a greater leveraging power in satisfaction when observability of preferential treatment is high. Originality/value The results of this study have significant implications for service firms with loyalty programs and customer prioritization practices. By incorporating CSR into their loyalty programs, firms may be able to mitigate the negative bystander effect while maintaining the positive effects of preferential treatment on members’ service encounter satisfaction.
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The goal of this study is to obtain a deep understanding of the impact of customer loyalty programs on customer retention. This study was applied to Jordanian customers. The study investigates the impact of independent variable; loyalty programs: point system, tier system reward, charges an upfront fee for VIP benefits and non-monetary programs, on the dependent variable: customer retention. To achieve the objective of the study, a survey was conducted to collect data from the sample. In total (350) questionnaires were distributed randomly to Jordanian customers who could be reached by the researchers, and were contacted through friends, relatives, students and local malls. The participants had different social, educational, and occupational backgrounds. Response rate was (81.14%) Percent. The findings clearly show: there is significant evidence of the effect of all loyalty programs on building and maintaining customer retention. The major effect was for Tier system reward followed by charge Up-front fee for VIP benefits, and then point system, the weakest effect was for Non-monetary programs.