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More Than a MOOC—Seven Learning and Teaching Scenarios to Use MOOCs in Higher Education and Beyond


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Since 2010, Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) have been one of the most discussed and researched topics in the area of educational technology. Due to their open nature such courses attract thousands of learners worldwide and more and more higher education institutions begin to produce their own MOOCs. Even the (international) press is full of reports and articles of how MOOCs can revolutionize education. In this chapter, we will take a look from a meta-level. After years of experiences with different MOOCs, we recognize that many MOOCs are used in different ways by teachers, lecturers, trainers and learners. So, there are different learning and teaching scenarios in the background often not visible to the broader public. Therefore, we like to address the following research question: “How can MOOCs be used in Higher Education learning and teaching scenarios and beyond?” In the study, the authors will focus on the seven identified scenarios how particular MOOCs were used for teaching and learning and therefore illustrate, that a MOOC can be “more than a MOOC”. MOOCs are one of the key drivers for open education using Open Educational Resources. The use of open licenses for MOOC resources are the mechanism for potential innovations in learning and teachings scenarios.
Content may be subject to copyright.
Draft originally published in: Ebner M., Schön S., Braun C. (2020) More Than a MOOCSeven
Learning and Teaching Scenarios to Use MOOCs in Higher Education and Beyond. In: Yu S.,
Ally M., Tsinakos A. (eds) Emerging Technologies and Pedagogies in the Curriculum. Bridging
Human and Machine: Future Education with Intelligence. pp. 75-87 Springer, Singapore,
More than a MOOC - Seven Learning and Teach-
ing Scenarios to Use MOOCs in Higher Educa-
tion and Beyond
Martin Ebner 0000-0001-5789-5296
Sandra Schön 0000-0003-0267-5215
Clarissa Braun
Since 2010, Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) have been one of the most dis-
cussed and researched issue in the area of educational technology. Due to their nature
to be open such courses attract thousands of learners worldwide and more and more
higher education institutions begin to produce their own MOOCs. Even the (interna-
tional) press is full of reports and articles of how MOOCs can revolutionize education.
In this chapter, we will take a look from a meta-level. After years of experiences with
different MOOCs, we recognize that many MOOCs are used in different ways by
teachers, lecturers, trainers or learnings. So, there are different learning and teaching
scenarios in the background often not visible to broad public. Therefore, we like to
address the following research question: “How can MOOCs be used in Higher Educa-
tion learning and teaching scenarios and beyond?”. In the study, the authors will focus
on the seven identified different scenarios how particular MOOCs were used for teach-
ing and learning and therefore illustrate, that MOOC can be “more than a MOOC”.
Globalized Online Learning using MOOCs and Innovative Pedagogies
In our outlook, we shortly discuss that MOOCs are one of the key drivers for open
education, but that Open Educational Resources so the use of open licenses for
MOOC resources are anyway the motor of these potential innovations in learning and
teachings scenarios.
MOOC, Inverse Blended Learning, online learning, curriculum, Flipped Classroom
1 Introduction
Massive Open Online Courses, short MOOCs, are well known for many years and is an
important part of the research area of Technology Enhanced Learning. More than 8
years ago, George Siemens and Stephen Downes started their first online course on
open global online learning (McAuley et al., 2010; Perry, 2010). Just a couple of
months later, famous universities like Stanford, Harvard or MIT attracted thousands of
learners all over the world with their MOOCs on their MOOC platforms (Carson &
Schmidt, 2012). In 2012 we celebrated the “Year of the MOOC” (Pappano, 2012). Due
to Sebastian Thrun, who attracted more than 160.000 participants with his course on
Artificial Intelligence in the summer of 2011, MOOCs gained attention and got wide
publicity (Fred, 2012). Since then an online course with more than 150 participants
(Dunbar number) was called MOOC if the crucial elements were fulfilled: The course
must be open to anyone, online accessible and finally presented within a course frame-
work (start- and end-time of the course, weekly new content etc.).
In parallel, a lot of studies were carried out on how to improve online courses as well
as the learning process (Khalil & Ebner, 2016a; Khalil & Ebner, 2016b). Especially the
phenomena of a high drop-out rate was an issue and got more understandable (Jordan,
2013; Khalil & Ebner, 2014). In recent years the topic Learning Analytics and
MOOCs was one of the most investigated ones, due to the MOOCs` nature dealing
with a huge amount of data (Leitner et al., 2017).
In this chapter, we like to go a step further and take a look from a meta-level. In will
show that a MOOC is not always used as a pure ‘online course’. After more than 5
years of experience in development and implementation of MOOCs as well as MOOC
platform provider, we saw different stories behind MOOCs and helped to carry out
different learning and teaching scenarios. We have as well recognized that a single
MOOC is often used in different scenarios by teachers, trainers, lecturers as well learn-
ers. Nevertheless, most of these scenarios are not very visible or transparent from the
public perspective, as e.g. the participation on that learning and teaching approach is
not open to all. Therefore, we like to address the following research question: How
can MOOCs be used in Higher Education and beyond?”. In the study, we will focus on
learning and teaching scenarios how particular MOOCs were used for teaching and
learning and we will then give practical insights and outcomes.
Globalized Online Learning using MOOCs and Innovative Pedagogies
2 iMooX a MOOC platform
iMooX is the first and till now only MOOC platform in Austria. It was founded in 2014
by the University of Graz and Graz University of Technology aiming to bring online
courses to a broad public (Kopp & Ebner, 2015).
Place sreenshot of here
Figure 1: iMooX Austrian wide MOOC platform
Figure 1 is a screenshot of the actual start screen of the platform iMooX. Currently,
about 50 different courses are available with a broad range on different topics. Fur-
thermore, more than 15 universities as well as three federal ministries in the area of
German speaking countries in middle Europe are associate partners of the platform.
It is important to note that every course on iMooX uses Open Educational Resources
explicitly, so, each single learning object holds open licenses (creative commons) (Eb-
ner, Lorenz et al., 2016). In contrast to other big MOOC platforms like udacity or edX,
iMooX interprets “open” in the sense of offering Open Education based on open li-
censed learning objects and also does not delete or hide an ended course. So, each
course is also available after its run for self-paced learning.
Each MOOC on iMooX follows more a less the same structure:
Each MOOC is offered by a number of weekly sections. Usually, a MOOC
lasts 6-10 weeks typically.
The main content of each MOOC is consisting of a number of learning vide-
os. At least one per week, often more than two.
Each MOOC offers additionally learning content (presentations, documents or
hyperlinks) for in-depth study.
Each MOOC holds a discussion forum for the exchange between lecturers and
students or students and students.
Finally, each MOOC holds a self-assessment for each section. If those are
done with a success rate of at least 75% for each assessment the learner gets a
certificate for the whole course. Additionally, each week so-called badges can
be earned (Kopp & Ebner, 2017).
It can be summarized, that iMooX offers so-called xMOOCs extensively for years now
and gathered a lot of experiences to implement MOOCs for a broad public in the sense
of Open Education (Neuböck et al., 2015).
3 Research Design
In this research study, we are following a heuristic approach. We have examined all
offered MOOCs done on iMooX since 2010 by conducting interviews with 11 MOOC
experts, which also include instructional designers and platform providers as well as
the corresponding lecturers in winter 2018/2019. We asked them how they finally inte-
grated the MOOC within the corresponding curriculum and learning setting. We also
examined how they embedded the MOOC in their daily teaching practice and how the
MOOC was integrated. Afterwards, we clustered the examples and carried out a typol-
ogy of seven different learning and teaching scenarios of MOOCs.
4 Typology of learning and teaching scenarios
with MOOCs
As a result of the conducted interviews, we clustered the possible ways how MOOCs
were used and tried to get an overall approach. In summary, we found 7 different ways
to use MOOCs for teaching and learning. We therefore identified several features we
used to distinguish diverse types, as face to face phases, MOOC or LMS usage and
final assessment. We used these as well in our visualization of the different learning
and teaching scenarios: Figure 2 points out the legend for the following seven MOOC
See Fig. legend
Figure 2: Legend for MOOC types
Globalized Online Learning using MOOCs and Innovative Pedagogies
For every MOOC type, we visualized a start and endpoint of the MOOC. Furthermore,
any face-to-face part is pointed out as well as optional assessments to get credits for the
course. “Forum: A/P” indicates either an active discussion forum in which MOOC
participants are explicitly requested to post something in it, or a passive forum which is
only offered if learners have questions or comments on the course. MOOC is the ab-
breviation for Massive Open Online Course and LMS stands for Learning Management
Type 1: The conventional MOOC
The first type of MOOC is a conventional one. It is used as pure online offer; the
MOOC is an online course which reaches a massive amount of people. There is no
further face-to-face interaction and often only mere online tutoring in the background
(see Figure 3). Sometimes, a face-to-face assessment is offered to get formal credits for
the course. Due to the online nature of these courses, many learners can be found there
in other words the course is characterized by thousands of learners worldwide.
See Fig. Type 1
Figure 3: The conventional MOOC
A sample MOOC for the conventional type on the iMooX platform is for example
Pocket Code”. This MOOC should help children in the age of 10 to 14 years to learn
how to program a first game on their smartphones. The course itself is as far we
know typically used completely online and it took 5 weeks in total to finish it (Grandl
et al., 2018).
Type 2: The Pre-MOOC
In type 2, the pre-MOOC scenario, the MOOC starts and ends before the face-to-face
education. This type of MOOC is used when students (or other learners) need to have
some prior knowledge. This makes it easier for the lecturer to work with them in the
face-to-face session (see Figure 4). In some cases, there was an additional assessment
before the face-to-face interaction and in some cases the lecturer decided to have it
after she or he held the presence meetings.
See Fig. “Type 2
Figure 4: The Pre-MOOC
A sample MOOC on the iMooX platform is the “eMOOCs pre-conference MOOC”.
Here, a new concept for enhancing discussions at a scientific conference was intro-
duced. The ‘best-paper-awarded’ participants were asked to provide a short video
(about 10-15 minutes long) showing their results. Before the conference started, the
videos and additional documents were provided. This concept was then sent out as a
pre-conference MOOC. At the conference, a discussion session was given instead of
classic paper presentation session.
Type 3: The Blended MOOC
The third type of MOOC follows the typical Blended Learning approach, therefore we
name it “Blended MOOC”. It starts with a face-to-face meeting mainly to introduce
learners to each other and is directly followed by a MOOC part. In the middle of the
course, another face-to-face interaction takes place, followed by the second part of the
MOOC. The whole learning scenario finds its round up with the final face-to-face edu-
cation with an optional assessment in the end (see Figure 5)
See Fig. Type 3
Figure 5: The Blended MOOC
Globalized Online Learning using MOOCs and Innovative Pedagogies
A sample MOOC on the iMooX platform is Climbing with 360-degree videos(origi-
nal title in German: Klettern mit 360° Videos’). This lecture followed the traditional
Blended Learning concept. Students get theoretical skills via video at home and are
now prepared for the on-site training. Every week they went to the climbing hall and
trained face-to-face with their teacher at the climbing wall. Students gave a very good
feedback on the MOOC arrangement: they stated that they had more time to practice
climbing right at the wall because they have already done the theoretical parts online
(Gänsluckner et al, 2017).
Type 4: The In-Between MOOC
The in-Between MOOC can be seen as a special form of the Blended MOOC, with the
MOOC as only online phase (see Figure 6). This type seems to be used very often used
in the area of continuing education.
See Fig. “Type 4
Figure 6: The In-Between MOOC
Sample MOOC on the iMooX platform is „E-Learning & Law“ (original title in Ger-
man „E-Learning & Recht“) where students got an offline introduction session on the
topic for about 8 hours. Afterwards they had to do the MOOC and also the offered self-
assessment with additional exercises. A final presentation of their results was done two
weeks after the end of the MOOC.
Type 5: The Inverse-Blended MOOC
The Inverse-Blended-Learning MOOC is following the design approach of Inverse
Blended Learning (IBL) which is the opposite of Blended Learning. Instead of en-
hanced face-to-face education with online events, IBL enriches online course with
face-to-face meetings by offering additional offline learning events on a regular basis.
The offline sessions are not arranged like typical classroom lessons (see Figure 7).
They should be a place for exchanging learned issues during the MOOC. This ap-
proach should help that learners can get guided training sessions to reflect on their
knowledge and skills. Typically, these sessions are held offline in very small groups all
over the world. In some cases, learners also used online webinar tools to participate in
these “offline“- sessions.
See Fig. “Type 5”
Figure 7: The Inverse-Blended MOOC
A sample MOOC on the iMooX platform is AEmooc a digital tool for trainers in
adult education(original title in German EBmooc Digitale Werkzeuge für Erwach-
senenbildnerInnen”). In this case more than 40 different accompanying offline learning
events were offered at different locations in German speaking areas. The events differ
arbitrarily in frequency (from weekly to occasionally), in duration (from half an hour
up to two hours), in costs (5-299€) as well as in terms of content (from repetition to
reflection of the content) (Ebner et al., 2017).
Type 6: The Flipped MOOC
The Flipped MOOC mainly follows the teaching scenario of flipped or inverted class-
room (Li et al., 2015). Students study the content of the lecture at home by regularly
using a MOOC as learning tool. After watching the videos, they come back to class for
discussions, practical examples and exercises. A final examination can be done if nec-
essary (see Figure 8). The Flipped MOOC could as well be seen as a variation of Type
3, a blended MOOC, with a focus on a special didactical approach: the MOOC is used
for sharing knowledge to get room and time to apply, train or discuss these within the
face-to-face meetings. Nevertheless, we see not so clear offline and online phase for
Flipped MOOCs, as typically MOOC and face-to-face settings are used as parallel
offers and not phases.
See Fig. “Type 6”
Globalized Online Learning using MOOCs and Innovative Pedagogies
Figure 8: The Flipped MOOC
A Sample MOOC on the iMooX platform is the MOOC Entrepreneurship for Engi-
neers“. Therefore, the lecture content was prepared by using videos in presentation
style as well as interviews with experts. Students watched the whole MOOC at home
and came to class every week to discuss their personal experiences with the lecturer,
asking questions or giving feedback.
Type 7: The Lecture MOOC
This last MOOC typology is typically used in university lectures, where the MOOC
itself is used as the online resource and a second system for the tasks. In order to get
grades the students have to do tasks which they also find online. Sometimes the MOOC
is interrupted with face-to-face events and if necessary there can be a final examination
in the end (see Figure 9).
See Fig. “Type 7”
Figure 9: The Lecture MOOC
A sample MOOC on the iMooX platform is Social Aspects of Information technolo-
gy(original title in GermanGesellschaftliche Aspekte der Informationstechnolo-
gie“). In this lecture a MOOC was done by providing interviews with experts as
MOOC content on a weekly basis. The students watched the videos for 10 weeks and
wrote short essays about the MOOC’s topics in parallel with it. The essays have been
uploaded to the university wide learning management system. Here, the whole lecture
description, a discussion forums and further support have been given to the students for
further studies. In the end, students also had to upload the final certificate which veri-
fies successful participation in the MOOC. The final grades were given by additionally
grading the essays. Typically, this scenario of a MOOC only works for students at a
particular university, where they are currently enrolled. Of course, external participants
can use the MOOC in the conventional mode (type 1).
5 Summary and Discussion
Within this contribution we presented a typology of MOOC integration in current edu-
cational scenarios from higher education and beyond. We therefore identified the fol-
lowing seven types
Type 1: The conventional MOOCa pure online course for many users
Type 2: The Pre-MOOC an online course as preparation for a following
learning event
Type 3: The Blended MOOCa MOOC that is integrated in between several
face-to-face learning events
Type 4: The In-Between MOOC is a special form of type 3, where the
MOOC is in-between two face-to-face-events
Type 5: The Inverse-Blended MOOC a type of MOOC which is enriched by
face-to-face meetings and events
Type 6: The Flipped MOOC a MOOC is used to flipped/inverted classroom
concept: the MOOC prepares parallel for the face-to-face phases which are fo-
cused to discuss, train or apply knowledge.
Type 7: The Lecture MOOC is accompanied by online activities in the LMS
of an educational organization, which allows e.g. additional non-public discus-
sions and tests.
Of course, this new typology of MOOC application in educational scenarios is only a
description of all potential usages. We see e.g. that in several of the types the face-to-
face meeting could be as well organized as an online meeting for a certain group (in an
LMS, e.g.). But we tried to focus to develop an overview of types, which does not
describe any potential application but describes typical (new) usages of MOOCs in
learning and teaching scenarios. This includes the possibility for needed changes and
adaption of this typology in future.
To sum up, we as well provided insights and examples that MOOCs are not only and
always conventional MOOC, even if there is no obvious different scenario or integra-
tion in higher education (or other educational sectors) visible at a first sight (e.g. the
MOOC platform). So, we showed that a MOOC is in many cases “more than a
Globalized Online Learning using MOOCs and Innovative Pedagogies
6 Outlook: MOOCs and OER as driver and motor
for new HE learning and teaching scenarios
To put it in other words, we learned that the lecturers use the MOOCs in many differ-
ent ways and situations. This brings flexibility in their teaching because different learn-
ing scenarios with different learning and teaching scenarios e.g. Flipped Classroom,
Inverse Blended Learning, can be used. Can MOOCs be seen as drivers to innovate
learning and teaching scenarios?
For us, this is a very obvious thing. The existence of these open and public available
offers allows a lot of other usages as well as integrations in educational settings even
with the same MOOC, e.g. by several organizations (e.g. universities) or within several
branches (e.g. adult education as well as higher education) as well within several sce-
narios (e.g. as in-between MOOC and pre-MOOC).
MOOCs should therefore not only be reduced as online available course materials, as
the MOOC as well have the feature of a public available resource. Each MOOC is
available to the general public. This is a nice add-on for learners, as e.g. discussions
include potentially more perspectives, including international perspectives or interdis-
ciplinary exchanges.
Of course this is a interesting feature for the lecturer and hosting organization as well:
If a lecturer wants to spread her/his knowledge a MOOC allows a very fast knowledge
transfer from university to those who are interested in it. When we think about the
European Bologna process and the idea to guarantee a fast and uncomplicated ex-
change of students, MOOCs will be highly enabling this transfer. In a whitepaper about
‘Digital Bologna’, MOOCs are playing an important role there.
Nevertheless, base of most of our described usages was not only because the MOOC
was available. Copyright restrictions e.g. challenges a lot of these scenarios. So, we
need to emphasize, that iMoox’ Open Educational Resources approach is such an ena-
bler for many of new scenarios, especially if they are not provided by the original
MOOC developers (and copyright holders). The open licenses allow to reuse any con-
tent anywhere. We saw that with more a less the same content different MOOC usages
were provided. So, OER can be seen as an motor for the development of this (and po-
tential future) new scenarios in higher education (see Ebner, Kopp et al., 2016).
It can be summarized that MOOCs have a very high potential to assist not only mere
online learning situations but also to assist a mix between face-to-face and online learn-
ing scenarios. If the content is also available as Open Educational Resources, the ex-
change in between other institutions and usage of external organization becomes rather
simple and legal OER works as motor. MOOCs can be a great driver for open educa-
tion in a long run.
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Author Biography
Adjunct Prof Dr. Martin Ebner is currently head of the Department Educational Technology
at Graz University of Technology and therefore responsible for all university wide e-
learning activities. He holds an Adjunct Prof. on media informatics (research area:
educational technology) and works also at the Institute for Interactive Systems and
Data Science as senior researcher. His research focuses strongly on seamless learn-
ing, learning analytics, open educational resources, making and computer science for
children. Martin has given a number of lectures in this area as well as workshops and
keynotes at international conferences. For publications as well as further research
activities, please visit his website:
Dr. Sandra Schön is Senior Researcher and Project Manager within the InnovationLab at
Salzburg Research Forschungsgesellschaft (Salzburg, Austria). She studied educa-
tional science, psychology and computer science at the Ludwig-Maximilians-
University in Munich (M.A. 2000, PhD in educational research 2007). Since 2006 she
works at Salzburg Research in (inter-)national projects as project manager as well as
researcher. Sandra has already co-organized several online courses (MOOCs) as
OER (open educational resources): the MOOC GOL14, a start for online learners,
with more than 3.000 participants got the Austrian State Prizes for Adult Education
2015; the COER13 about OER got the German OER Award 2015. She also co-
organized the first online course about “Making with children” in 2015 where more
than 600 teacher and educators from German speaking countries participated. See
more at:
Clarissa Braun is currently working at the Department Educational Technology at Graz
University of Technology. She is part of the Team ‘Instructional Design’ and works as
project member in the field of e-didactics. At Eberhard Karls University of Tübingen
she studied social education, psychology and English (Staatsexamen) and is a for-
mer teacher in adult education and in school.
... Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) are online courses designed for open, unrestricted participation through the Internet (Kaplan and Haenlein, 2016). Since their appearance, many higher institutions have increasingly considered the use of a form of blended learning, commonly known as flipped classroom (FC), where third-party MOOCs are integrated into the curriculum (Fox, 2013;Ebner et al., 2020;Pérez-Sanagustín et al., 2020). In an FC approach, video lectures drawn from a MOOC can be used as a supplement to or a replacement for these traditional face-to-face lectures. ...
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Despite its importance, interaction remains limited in MOOC-based flipped classroom (MBFC) Grounded in social learning theory, we proposed an MBFC approach supported by social media to facilitate students’ interaction with peers and learning performance. A quasi-experiment was conducted to compare the MBFC approach (N = 58) based on WeChat with the conventional MBFC approach (N = 52). The results revealed that the use of WeChat in an MBFC approach led to better performance in terms of watching video lectures and completing online exercises before the class; however, it did not significantly enhance student learning performance compared to the conventional MBFC approach. In addition, the study found that students were moderately satisfied with the MBFC approach supported by WeChat. According to a WeChat interaction quantity and quality analysis, students’ non-substantive postings are much higher than students’ substantive postings in WeChat interaction groups, but students’ contributions to the postings have no significant effect on the final marks. Findings from this study could be of valuable reference for practitioners and researchers who plan to leverage social media tools such as WeChat to support student MOOC learning.
... MOOCs, since their inception, became an attraction to online learners due to myriad reasons; one of the reasons was their open nature. Since 2010, Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) have been one of the most discussed and researched topics in the area of educational technology (Ebner et al., 2020). There are various studies on the advantages and pitfalls of MOOCs. ...
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The study is inspired by the fact that Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) have penetrated the world's higher education system to a great extent and emerged as a sustainable solution in the era of technology, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic; it has gained a broader impetus. The study is carried out by analyzing the actual data available on five major MOOC platforms at the international level; i.e. edX, Coursera, Udemy, LinkedIn Learning, and SWAYAM; offering courses in the subject 'Law.' The findings reveal that the majority of the courses are offered from the Udemy platform. Most of the courses are offered on a payment basis; however, a good number of courses are available either free, or payment is required for certification only. It is also found that most of the courses are offered in the English language as well as most courses are offered for less than or equal to 48 hours duration. The study will provide an overview of the already offered courses through five select MOOCs platforms and encourage and motivate the students and legal practitioners to enrol in a course in their desired area. It may also abet the policymakers and intelligentsia, leveraging the potential of MOOCs to increase the quality of legal education as it exhibits an overall picture of the current scenario of its penetration into the higher education system. The study has excellent usability for stakeholders engaged in legal education and MOOCs research.
... A unique characteristic of is that all courses are licensed as open educational resources (in short OER, Schaffert & Geser, 2008) and therefore available under CC licenses, so it is possible to (re-)use as well as to modify them (Ebner et al., 2016). Several MOOCs are part of lectures at universities or provided by partner universities, so that a variety of design concepts such as blended MOOCs or pre-MOOCs (Ebner, Schön & Braun, 2020) or a design alternative coined as Inverse Blended MOOC (Ebner & Schön, 2019) have already been explored. At the quizzes are a key for learning assessment and certification. ...
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The analysis of learner data in MOOCs provides numerous opportunities to look for patterns that may indicate participants' learning strategies. In this article, we investigated how participants in a MOOC (N=1,200), in which they must successfully complete a quiz in each unit, deal with the fact that they can repeat this quiz up to five times. On the one hand, patterns can be identified regarding the success of the quiz attempts: For example, 32.7% of the course participants always repeat the quizzes up to a full score, while about 16.0% of the participants repeat, but only until they pass all quizzes. Regarding the number of attempts, independent of the success, there is only a uniformity in "single attempt"; 12.6% of the participants only take exactly one attempt at each of the quizzes in the MOOC. An analysis of a subgroup of 80 learners which were students of a course where the MOOC was obligatory, shows that the proportion of learners attributed to patterns making more attempts is generally bigger. It can be shown as well that learners who uses several attempts, even after a full score results, tend to get better exam. The article concludes by discussing how these patterns can be interpreted and how they might influence future MOOC developments.
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מטרת המחקר הנוכחי הייתה לתאר ולבחון את תפיסותיהם של סטודנטים להוראה ביחס לתרומתה של למידה בקורסי מוק (Massive Open Online Courses) לעבודת ההוראה העתידית שלהם. המשתתפים במחקר זה היו סטודנטים בתוכניות חד־שנתיות להכשרת אקדמאים להוראה — תוכניות שלא נלמדו פנים־אל־פנים מאחר שהחלו בתקופת משבר הקורונה. כחלק אינטגרלי מחובות הלימודים במסגרת המקוונת, נדרשו הסטודנטים ללמוד בקורסי מוק אחדים. המחקר בוצע במתודולוגיה איכותנית שבמסגרתה נאספו תגובות הסטודנטים על קורסי מוק, כחלק מפורטפוליו (תלקיט) הגשה שלם שכל סטודנט נתבקש להגיש עם סיום הלמידה בכל קורס. התגובות נותחו בשיטת ניתוח תוכן, וממצאי המחקר מבוססים על ניתוחים תמטיים. חרף היתרונות הרבים והידועים של קורסי מוק, המחקר הנוכחי מראה כי יש צורך בחשיבה מחודשת על אופן הטמעתם בתוכניות הכשרה במטרה לתרום לטיובן של התוכניות ולמידת הרלוונטיות שלהן עבור פרחי ההוראה בעבודתם העתידית בשדה. שלושת ההיבטים המרכזיים שיסייעו למצות את מלוא הפוטנציאל של קורסי מוק, כפי שעלו מתגובותיהם של הסטודנטים, הם: (1) הטמעה — הטמעת קורסי מוק בדרך המשמרת ואף משפרת את תחושת הקוהרנטיות של התוכנית; (2) תיווך — תיווך של סגל המרצים את הנלמד בקורסי מוק; (3) למידת עמיתים — יצירת קבוצות למידה של עמיתים סביב כל אחד מהקורסים. התובנות שעולות מהמחקר הן בעלות השלכות פרקטיות על האופן הרצוי של שילוב קורסים מקוונים בכלל וקורסי מוק בפרט בתוכניות ההכשרה. תובנות אלה הן אף בעלות השלכות אפשריות על הצורך הלימודי־תוכני־פדגוגי שיש למוסבים בתוכניות להכשרת אקדמאים.
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Exkursionen weisen ein großes didaktisches Potenzial bei der Behandlung von Themen der Bildung für nachhaltige Entwicklung (BNE) auf, da sie beispielsweise Betroffenheit und Problembewusstsein erzeugen können. Ist die originale Begegnung im Unterricht nicht möglich, so kann mit sog. Virtual-Reality-Exkursionen (VRE) eine annähernd den Eigenschaften von Exkursionen entsprechende mediale Repräsentationsform didaktisch fruchtbar gemacht werden. Um diese Potenziale tatsächlich ausschöpfen zu können, sollten Lehrkräfte neben BNE-spezifischen didaktischen Kompetenzen auch über digitalitätsbezogene Fähigkeiten und Fertigkeiten verfügen. Der vorliegende Beitrag beleuchtet vor diesem Hintergrund zunächst die didaktischen Potenziale von Virtual-Reality-Lernumgebungen in der BNE im Allgemeinen und von VRE im Besonderen, um dann die Anforderungen an eine digitalitätsbezogene Professionalisierung zukünftiger Lehrkräfte zu klären. Durch die Vorstellung der Seminarkonzeption „Virtual-Reality-Exkursionen in der Bildung für nachhaltige Entwicklung“ wird anhand eines konkreten Beispiels aufgezeigt und reflektiert, wie die Hochschullehre diesen Anforderungen gerecht werden und einen motivierenden und zielführenden Beitrag zur Professionalisierung zukünftiger Lehrkräfte leisten kann.
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Based on the increasing demand for and promotion of Open Educational Resources (OER, see (UNESCO (2019), this chapter describes the objectives of Graz University of Technology (TU Graz) in Austria for good teaching. A description of how the impact of OER at TU Graz will be analysed and considerations around it is the central contribution. In addition, the effects, and potentials of selected OER initiatives of the university are described as examples and discussed as key potential for good teaching. For a better understanding of the role of OER at TU Graz, the national context of OER in the Austrian higher education landscape is described at the beginning of the chapter.
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Initially, in March 2020, when COVID-19 forced conventional face-to-face to pure online teaching, didactic matters were only of secondary importance. At Graz University of Technology (TU Graz, Austria) both the support team for Educational Technology as well as the instructors were mostly concerned with solving technical challenges. Nevertheless, a special tool, the ReDesign Canvas, was available to support lecturers in their endeavor to also address the didactic aspects of their teaching systematically. The article presents the application of the canvas in a redesign of an exemplary lecture.
This book analyses higher education's digital transformation and potential disruption from a holistic point of view, providing a balanced and critical account from a variety of interdisciplinary viewpoints. It looks at case studies on educational and emerging technology, their impact, the potential risk of digitalization disrupting higher education, and also offers a glimpse into what the future of digitalization will likely bring. Researchers and practitioners from countries including New Zealand, Russia, Eswatini, India, and the USA, bring together their knowledge and understanding of this rapidly evolving field. The contributors analyse academia's digitalization along the broad topics of the sector's general digital (r)evolution. The book looks at changes in instructional formats from the Massive Open Online Courses to Small Private Online Courses and artificial intelligence. This work also provides analysis on how skills, competences and social networks demanded by future jobs and job markets can be further integrated into higher education.
ICL2021 was the 24th edition of the International Conference on Interactive Collaborative Learning and the 50th edition of the IGIP International Conference on Engineering Pedagogy. This interdisciplinary conference aims to focus on the exchange of relevant trends and research results as well as the presentation of practical experiences in Interactive Collaborative Learning and Engineering Pedagogy. ICL2021 has been organized by Technische Universität Dresden and University of Applied Science Dresden, Germany, from September 22 to 24, 2021, as a hybrid event. This year’s theme of the conference was “Mobility for Smart Cities and Regional Development – Challenges for Higher Education”.
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Programming is considered as an essential skill in the 21st century. Visual programming languages and age-appropriate development environments allow an easy entry into this field. Nevertheless, it is very challenging to bring those skills in a very short time frame to schools, to their teachers, and to school children themselves. Therefore, Graz University of Technology started a Massive Open Online Course named "Learning to code: Programming with Pocket Code" which is intended to teach coding skills to school children as well as teachers in a very fast, flexible and effective way. The learning content within the course is published under an open license to allow the reuse, modification and dissemination of the materials in different teaching and learning contexts. In this research work, we will present structure and concept of the MOOC. A special emphasis will be given on how the MOOC can be used in school and on the fact, that the content can be disseminated in a variety of ways.
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Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) have been a hype in technology enhanced learning systems the last couple of years. The promises behind MOOCs stand on delivering free and open education to the public, as well as training a large criterion of students. However, MOOCs clashes severely with students dropout which by then forced educationalists to deeply think of MOOCs effectivity from all angles. As a result, the authors of this paper propose a pedagogical idea that strongly depends on injecting the online learning (MOOC) with face-to-face sessions to refresh the students minds as well as integrating them in the real learning process. The authors after that analyze the results of their experiment using Learning Analytics. The outcomes have shown a new record of certification ratio (35.4%), an improvement of student interaction in the MOOC platform, and a manifest in social interaction in the MOOC discussion forum.
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In this research study a course, combining both computer-supported and face-to-face teaching using the concept of blended learning, has been designed. It is a beginners climbing course called "Klettern mit 360° Videos" (climbing with 360° videos) and the online part has been implemented as a Massive Open Online Course (MOOC). This research study presents the background of the course, the course concept, the course itself and the results of the evaluation. To measure the difference between the pure online participants and the blended learning participants the MOOC has been evaluated independently from the blended learning course. It should be mentioned that all participants (whether pure online or both) evaluated the course in a positive manner. The use of technology enhanced learning realized by the concept of blended learning proved to be a well-suited method for this course setting. Furthermore, many advantages of computer based learning, blended learning and 360°-videos have been reported by the participants.
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This chapter looks into examining research studies of the last five years and presents the state of the art of Learning Analytics (LA) in the Higher Education (HE) arena. Therefore, we used mixed-method analysis and searched through three popular libraries, including the Learning Analytics and Knowledge (LAK) conference, the SpringerLink, and the Web of Science (WOS) databases. We deeply examined a total of 101 papers during our study. Thereby, we are able to present an overview of the different techniques used by the studies and their associated projects. To gain insights into the trend direction of the different projects, we clustered the publications into their stakeholders. Finally, we tackled the limitations of those studies and discussed the most promising future lines and challenges. We believe the results of this review may assist universities to launch their own LA projects or improve existing ones.
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In general, participants use MOOCs for individual learning purposes by selecting certain contents of a MOOC in which they are interested. Simultaneously, MOOCs are used in the context of online-lectures offered to students who must or may enroll for a specific course to earn credits. However, many participants do not successfully complete all units of a MOOC. Therefore, completion rates – in general – are rather low. Certificates like PDF-documents or electronic badges can be an adequate stimulation to complete a course. This research raises the questions, how the certification of MOOC-participants can be managed and if certificates have an impact on completion rates. Firstly, general aspects of certification are discussed. This is followed by a practical insight into the certification practice based on experiences of the Austrian MOOC-platform iMooX operators. As a conclusion, results are summarized and related challenges and further research questions are addressed.
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The field of Learning Analytics has proven to provide various solu- tions to online educational environments. Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) are considered as one of the most emerging online environments. Its substantial growth attracts researchers from the analytics field to examine the rich repositories of data they provide. The present paper contributes with a brief literature review in both prominent fields. Further, the authors overview their developed Learning Analytics application and show the potential of Learning Analytics in tracking students of MOOCs using empirical data from iMooX.
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Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) are remote courses that excel in their students’ heterogeneity and quantity. Due to the peculiarity of being massiveness, the large datasets generated by MOOC platforms require advanced tools and techniques to reveal hidden patterns for purposes of enhancing learning and educational behaviors. This publication offers a research study on using clustering as one of these techniques to portray learners’ engagement in MOOCs. It utilizes Learning Analytics techniques to investigate an offered MOOC by Graz University of Technology held for undergraduates. The authors mainly seek to classify students into appropriate categories based on their level of engagement. Clusters afterward are compared with another classical scheme (Cryer’s scheme of Elton) for further examination and comparison. The final results of this study show that extrinsic factors are not enough to make students highly committed to the MOOC, yet, adding intrinsic factors are recommended to improve future MOOCs.
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Open Educational Resources (OER) are considered an important instrument to increase access and to facilitate the reuse of learning content. Educational institutions, especially those in Higher Education, play a crucial role in the production of OER, since they are the main producers of learning materials. To foster this production, a national strategy or at a least a national commitment to OER is necessary. Moreover, due to the very strict copyright law in Austria, this achievement is of high importance and necessity. In this publication, we will introduce recommendations for the integration of OER in all Higher Education institutions in Austria; these were developed by a national workgroup consisting of different stakeholders (government, library, funder, Higher Education and special interest groups). The overall aim is to achieve sustainability for the educational sector, especially with regard to the usage of learning materials by different lecturers as well as institutions. The cooperation among various stakeholders on different levels needs to be in the centre of all further efforts, which should be based upon six explicit requirements: 1. Mandatory commitment to OER 2. Establishment of a nationwide information platform for exchange and cooperation 3. Establishment of nationwide educational programmes for different stakeholders 4. Establishment of national OER badges 5. Targeted financial and structural promotion of OER 6. Establishment of OER strategies within each institution and as a comprehensive approach Each requirement will be described in more detail and a roadmap will illustrate how OER can be successfully integrated at Higher Education institutions in the next ten years.
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Many MOOCs initiatives continue to report high attrition rates among distance education students. This study investigates why students dropped out or failed their MOOCs. It also provides strategies that can be implemented to increase the retention rate as well as increasing overall student satisfaction. Through studying literature, accurate data analysis and personal observations, the most significant factors that cause high attrition rate of MOOCs are identified. The reasons found are lack of time, lack of learners’ motivation, feelings of isolation and the lack of interactivity in MOOCs, insufficient background and skills, and finally hidden costs. As a result, some strategies are identified to increase the online retention rate, and will allow more online students to graduate.
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In this chapter, we discuss why open educational resources (OER) and MOOCs are a necessary and powerful combination, especially in German-speaking Europe. We begin with an introduction to open online courses and an overview of copyright law in Germany and Austria. We then describe the evolution of OER MOOCs in Austria and Germany, especially the development of two MOOC platforms. Finally, we present examples of the impact of OER on MOOCs to conclude that an approach combining OER and MOOCs can be very valuable to foster new and innovative didactical approaches as well as future education.