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Abstract

The psychological literature on the development of gestures during the first year of life has been limited. It has mainly focused on the development of pointing at around 11 months of age, considering it the gesture that allows triadic interactions. However, recent studies have argued for the importance of earlier ostensive gestures (showing and giving), not only as precursors of pointing, but also as important gestures for early cognitive and communicative development. These studies have also emphasized the mediating role of materiality and of others (adults and peers) in communicative acts, especially in pre-verbal interactions. This paper reports a longitudinal study of first-year infants in an Infant School classroom in Madrid. Through a microgenetic analysis both infants’ gestures and teachers’ educational actions related to gesture development were investigated. The results highlight (1) the central role of the teacher in the birth and configuration of infants’ gestural repertoire; and (2) materiality as a configurative aspect of communicative interactions during this period as infants communicate not only about objects but through them. Among the types of gestures observed, self-directed gestures predominated, especially ostensive gestures, these being related to early self-regulation processes. Gesture development could be understood as a process of progressive distancing of the infant from or between the material world and himself/herself. In this process, the teacher can encourage, redirect, and structure the infant’s productions through adjustment of their educational activity.

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... Algunos estudios muy recientes destacan nuevos aspectos de la emergencia y funciones de los gestos ostensivos Guevara, et al., 2020). Moreno-Núñez, Rodríguez y Zapata (2020) analizaron la producción gestual de seis niños observados entre los 9 y 13 meses en situaciones de juego con sus madres con distintos objetos y juguetes. ...
... Como puede observarse a partir de los estudios precedentes, el desarrollo gestual posee dos características destacables: por una parte, evoluciona desde lo proximal a lo distal y por otra, comporta tanto funciones comunicativas (dirigido a los demás) como autorreguladoras (autodirigido). En otros términos, desde una perspectiva En lo que respecta a la función autorreguladora de los gestos ostensivos, tal como se ha observado en los estudios precedentes (Moreno Nuñez et al. 2020;Guevara et al. 2020), vale la pena mencionar el hecho de que en el mismo período en que los niños producen sus primeros gestos ostensivos para comunicarse, también producen gestos inmediatos que se interpretan como "dirigidos a sí mismos" y cuya función parece ser explorar una parte del objeto para dominar su uso (Moreno-Núñez et al., 2017). Si bien se trata de una categoría que requeriría de una definición operacional más precisa, resulta sugerente la conjetura según la cual el gesto rebasaría su función comunicativa para pasar a ser un instrumento de autorregulación. ...
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... One of the star gestures has been pointing in its attentional function (Delgado et al. 2009(Delgado et al. , 2011Carpendale and Carpendale 2010). Here, however, it is seen that private ostensive gestures were the first gestures whose function served self-regulation, in agreement with the results of previous studies in the home when children find difficulties in using complex objects according to their function (Basilio and Rodríguez 2017;Moro 2012;Moro and Rodríguez 2005;Rodríguez and Palacios 2007) and at nursery school, classroom 0-1 (Rodríguez et al. 2017b;Guevara et al. 2020). ...
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Del ritmo al símbolo ofrece una visión del desarrollo cognitivo temprano que contrasta con el sujeto paciente, el “gran ojo que mira” sin actuar y reacciona a los estímulos que se le presentan, ignorando el cuerpo, la comunicación con los otros o toda influencia educativa como causa del desarrollo cognitivo temprano. Del ritmo al símbolo se dirige hacia los clásicos de la Psicología Evolutiva, Piaget, Wallon y Vygotsky y recuerda la atención que le prestaron a la observación cualitativa, a los procesos, no sólo a los resultados de las conductas, y al análisis semiótico. Se apoya en la idea de Bruner, para quien la comunicación está pragmáticamente orientada. La cultura y la educación son protagonistas de la construcción de la inteligencia desde sus orígenes. Aborda desde la pragmática y la semiótica los grandes temas de la Primera Infancia, tales como la estrecha conexión entre cuerpo, emociones y ritmo, analiza la evolución de los usos de los objetos en contextos cotidianos y cuestiona que la permanencia del objeto esté completamente al margen de sus aspectos funcionales y culturales. Las primeras intenciones no son productos individuales, sino que son prestadas. Los símbolos también son herramientas de comunicación, y los niños no los producen un día por su cuenta, sino que el adulto los ha venido realizando constantemente al comunicarse con ellos. La imitación no puede reducirse a una simple copia. La interacción triádica adulto-niño-objeto a través de los signos ocurre desde el principio de la vida, aunque la comunicación intencional se produzca al final del primer año. Sólo desde una sólida comprensión del desarrollo típico temprano es posible abordar los desarrollos de otro modo de los niños de riesgo.
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The role of language as a tool to support the self-regulation has been widely studied, yet there is little evidence on the role of prelinguistic communication in the early development of self-regulation. To address this gap we developed behavioural indicators of preverbal cognitive self-regulation, and described how can parents support it through guided play. We observed 16 children at 14, 16 and 18 months interacting with two complex toys, either independently or with a parent. A microanalytic coding captured a total of 721 gestures, of which 473 were classed as self-regulatory. Children used gestures to support self-regulation in planning monitoring, control, and evaluation. Analysis of parental mediation revealed a relationship between supporting autonomy, providing challenge, responsiveness, effective communication, children’s competence with objects, and self-regulatory gestures. We produced reliable indicators of self-regulation through gestures and characterised effective parental mediation, thus making explicit key social mechanisms to foster self-regulation in preverbal development.
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Piaget has observed that an acute observation is worth a thousand statistics. Recent studies of early prelinguistic and linguistic development bear this out. While experimental studies are being increasingly reported, work presenting interpretations of selected observations is still common.
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Extracts available on Google Books (see link below). For integral text, go to publisher's website : http://www.elsevierdirect.com/product.jsp?isbn=9780121098902
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Publisher Summary There is considerable agreement about the importance of self-regulation to human survival. There is disagreement about how it can be analyzed and defined in a scientifically useful way. A social cognitive perspective differs markedly from theoretical traditions that seek to define self-regulation as a singular internal state, trait, or stage that is genetically endowed or personally discovered. Instead, it is defined in terms of context-specific processes that are used cyclically to achieve personal goals. These processes entail more than metacognitive knowledge and skill; they also include affective and behavioral processes, and a resilient sense of self-efficacy to control them. The cyclical interdependence of these processes, reactions, and beliefs is described in terms of three sequential phases: forethought, performance or volitional control, and self-reflection. An important feature of this cyclical model is that it can explain dysfunctions in self-regulation, as well as exemplary achievements. Dysfunctions occur because of the unfortunate reliance on reactive methods of self-regulation instead of proactive methods, which can profoundly change the course of cyclical learning and performance. An essential issue confronting all theories of self-regulation is how this capability or capacity can be developed or optimized. Social cognitive views place particular emphasis on the role of socializing agents in the development of self-regulation, such as parents, teachers, coaches, and peers. At an early age, children become aware of the value of social modeling experiences, and they rely heavily on them when acquiring needed skills.
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We provide an analysis of holdout and giving (Ho&G) behaviours in prelinguistic infants and investigate their relationship with index finger pointing. The frequency of Ho&Gs at 10 and 11 months along with the length of the following social interaction correlated with index finger pointing at 12 months. We conclude that Ho&Gs are a precursor to index finger pointing and that this provides support for social-pragmatic approaches to communicative development.
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Adults mediate the relationship between material reality and children, according to functional units of cultural relevance. This paper explores early development of semiotic systems in infants, analyzing rhythmic, sonorous and melodic components, which enable adult-child interaction with and about objects. The triads (with sonorous and non-sonorous objects) was studied longitudinally at age 2, 4 and 6 months. We propose that rhythmic, sonorous and melodic components conformed one of the basic semiotic systems upon the adult's action relies (through gestures and uses of objects) in order to segment and organize objects in the world. Likewise, children actively respond to these presentations and seek sounds for themselves when they are able to interact with the object more autonomously.
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Desde la asuncion de que los libros de Critica han formado parte del bagaje intelectual y moral de una generacion de espanoles y latinoamericanos, a las puertas del siglo XXI nacio esta coleccion de bolsillo para poner al alcance de una nueva generacion de lectores, a precios minimos, aquellos libros ya publicados que por su calado y actualidad sea oportuno recuperar junto a titulos originales que tengan algo que aportar a la construccion de una cultura critica, esto es, libre.
Article
In this study, we address the construction of the first symbolic uses of objects in contexts of triadic interaction (adult–child–object). We assume that symbolic productions are based on public rules of the use of objects previously agreed by the community. The first symbols are not rooted in any literal, evident reality, but in shared rules of uses about the material world. We observed six dyads communicating and interacting together with 10 objects in a semi-structured situation longitudinally from 9 to 15 months of age. We found that the infants gradually constructed symbolic meanings, and we identified five symbolic levels and sublevels. At 9 months, the infants attended and engaged in the symbolic uses produced by an adult even though they themselves were not yet able to produce them. At 12 months, infants began to use objects symbolically to communicate with adults. The highest percentage of these first symbolic uses was of level 1, that is, with a close relation to the conventional use of the object used to perform the symbol. At 15 months, children increased their symbolic uses and performed symbolic uses at all levels, whereas adults reduced such practices. Adult semiotic mediation and the social meanings of objects can be considered important factors in children's symbolic productions. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
Symbolic uses of objects originate in communicative and triadic contexts (adult-child-object). In this longitudinal study we explore the emergence and development of the first symbolic uses in triadic interaction contexts in a girl with Down syndrome between 12 and 18-months of age. We conducted five sessions of video recording, at 12, 13½, 15, 16½, and 18 months chronological age. At each session we videotaped the girl and her mother interacting with different objects. Data were coded in semiotic categories used in previous studies (Rodríguez & Moro, 1999) and a microgenetic analysis was conducted for each session. The first symbolic uses by the girl appeared at 13½ months. Symbols were of different types and levels of complexity, and the adult had an important role in facilitating the production of these symbols.
Article
Despite longstanding interest in cultural differences in emblems, there have only been a few systematic investigations of those differences, and to date there is no study that catalogues and compares emblems across different cultural groups to a standard list of verbal messages. This study does so. Encoders from six world regions produced potential emblems from a standard verbal message list. Gestures that were encoded by at least 70% of the encoders in a region were shown to observers from the same regions, and gestures that were judged correctly as the message intended by at least 70% of the decoders in that region were considered emblems. These procedures resulted in the cataloguing of cultural differences in emblems to the same verbal message list. Surprisingly, the results also indicated a small group of emblems that were similarly encoded and decoded across cultures.
Article
The ability to measure the process of change in learning represents a fundamental aspect of psychology. In this manuscript, initially, two traditional designs, cross-sectional and longitudinal, are shown to be inadequate for analyzing changes associated with cognitive learning processes. Then microgenetic analysis, along with its philosophical underpinnings and a case study, is shown to be a promising methodological approach for examining change processes and individuals' learning differences because it is expressly designed to permit researchers to scrutinize processes, not products, typically associated with cognitive change or learning.
Article
Caregivers modify their communication when interacting with infants, and these modifications have been related to children's language development. However, the factors influencing caregivers' modification of gestures are understudied. This study examined whether infants' object knowledge, considered as common ground shared with the caregiver, relates to caregivers' gesturese. Six caregiver-infant dyads were videotaped every two months for 15min in their homes, from child age 8-to-16 months, while they played with two separate objects (i.e. toys). Results indicated that the changes in infants' object knowledge were paralleled by associated changes in caregivers' gestures: parents increased both the amount and the complexity of their gestures.
Article
Classically, infants are thought to point for 2 main reasons: (a) They point impera-tively when they want an adult to do something for them (e. g., give them something; "Juice!"), and (b) they point declaratively when they want an adult to share attention with them to some interesting event or object ("Look!"). Here we demonstrate the ex-istence of another motive for infants'early pointing gestures: to inform another per-son of the location of an object that person is searching for. This informative motive for pointing suggests that from very early in ontogeny humans conceive of others as intentional agents with informational states and they have the motivation to provide such information communicatively.
Article
Performing action has been found to have a greater impact on learning than observing action. Here we ask whether a particular type of action - the gestures that accompany talk - affect learning in a comparable way. We gave 158 6-year-old children instruction in a mental transformation task. Half the children were asked to produce a Move gesture relevant to the task; half were asked to produce a Point gesture. The children also observed the experimenter producing either a Move or Point gesture. Children who produced a Move gesture improved more than children who observed the Move gesture. Neither producing nor observing the Point gesture facilitated learning. Doing gesture promotes learning better than seeing gesture, as long as the gesture conveys information that could help solve the task.
Article
Determined the age at which infants call interesting objects to another's attention by pointing, related their ability to follow another's pointing to their own use of the gesture, and compared the uses of pointing and reaching. 48 Ss aged 10–16 mo were studied with their mothers in a setting containing 6 special stimulus objects. By 12.5 mo, most Ss pointed, usually vocalizing or looking at their partner while pointing. The communicative function of the gesture was further established by the partner's response of verbal acknowledgment and looking at the object. The ability to follow another's points seemed to be acquired before Ss began to point but improved with their own use of the gesture. Reaching partook of the behaviors associated with pointing but developed earlier and decreased as pointing increased. Data show that at an early age Ss exhibit an elementary form of the ability to take the visual perspective of others. (12 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Index-finger pointing is a means of making definite reference that is intimately linked to gesture and speech. This chapter examines evidence for its species specificity to humans, considers the development of pointing in babies, and offers some evidence for the universality of the gesture at least in its earliest form. Pointing is connected with species-typical handedness, precision grip, and acquisition of language. It is one of a set of indicative gestures, some of which overlap with those of the higher primates, but on the evidence to date only humans use the pointing gesture declaratively to share attention with conspecifics. Pointing serves to refer as precisely as possible to objects for joint attention. The precision may arise because pointing makes use of the same anatomical adaptations and attention mechanisms that serve tool use. Pointing connects a visual referent to the concurrent sound stream so that a relation of identity exists between these two aspects of the infant's perceptual experience. Pointing allows visual objects to take on auditory qualities, and this is the royal road (but not the only route) to language. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Although there is consensus about the importance of early communicative gestures such as pointing, there is an ongoing debate regarding how infants develop the ability to understand and produce pointing gestures. We review competing theories regarding this development and use observations from a diary study of infants’ social development, focusing primarily on one infant from 6 to 14 months to illustrate a currently neglected view of the development of pointing. According to this view, infants first use their extended index finger as a manifestation of their own attention that emerges from their tactile exploration of close-by objects. Their gesture gradually becomes social in its use as infants become aware of the meaning of their action for adults.
Article
The goal of this chapter is to develop the notions of directing-to and placing-for as two basic techniques of indicating. The indicative acts that are prototypical for directing-to and placing-for are simple pointing and placing, but directing-to and placing-for are part of other communicative acts as well. The author first considers the foundations of indicative acts and then shows how these lead to directing-to and placing-for as two basic indicative techniques. At the end, the author returns to the notion of context and how we must revise our understanding of what it is. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This article is based on an ethnographic study of children’s everyday life in Swedish preschools. The ethnography is used to explore children’s strategies for influencing, defending and constructing the social order of a preschool institution. The focus of our concern is on how the children, in their interactions with each other and with the preschool teachers, manage the collective regulation and how they negotiate their participation in collective activities. There is an inherent tension between free play and the high degree of routinised and collective activities within the preschool institution. The study shows that children are active in playing at the border, acting as if the institution is the children’s place. It also shows how they draw on different strategies as resources for managing the regulations, accounting for personal autonomy and negotiating the social order. In taking a child perspective and acknowledging children as active agents, it is possible to see how they influence and shape their everyday life in a preschool context. In addition, the article illustrates individual children’s strategic and pragmatic use of resources and in doing so contribute to their own childhood and thereby become part of a social and cultural construction process.
Chapter
This chapter is based on three propositions: (1) learning is central to child development, (2) microgenetic analyses yield unique information about learning, and (3) the information yielded by microgenetic analysis is helping to create a vibrant new field of children's learning. In addition to providing arguments and evidence for these propositions, the chapter describes conclusions from microgenetic studies regarding the path, rate, breadth, variability, and sources of children's learning. Among the main conclusions are that: within-child variability is substantial at all ages from infancy to older adulthood, initial within-child variability tends to be positively related to subsequent learning, learning tends to progress through a regular sequence of knowledge states that parallel untutored development, the path of learning is usually similar for learners of different ages and different intellectual levels, new approaches are generated following success as well as failure of existing approaches, and requests to explain observations often promote learning above and beyond the effects of feedback and practice. Keywords: cognitive variability; developmental sequences; learning; learning and development; microgenetic; self-explanation; transfer
Article
The later Wittgenstein's emphasis on the social usage of language has been very influential in psychology, particularly in language acquisition research. This move toward a pragmatic position should also be applied to gestures in pre-linguistic children and to objects in the everyday contexts of use. The shared ‘forms of life’ presupposed by language involve pre-linguistic gestures and material ‘things’.Research on early communication has focused on proto-declarative and proto-imperative gestures. I extend this focus and propose further types of gestures: ‘proto-interrogatives’ – in which children “ask” for help or regulation from adults, and three types of ‘private gestures’ – ostensive, indexical and symbolic – in which children regulate their own behaviour. This diversity of gestures becomes apparent when objects are taken seriously. Wittgenstein's ‘language-games’ necessarily apply to games with objects and gestures as well: social meaning in all cases is emergent within the context of these ‘sign games’ and ‘circumstances.’
Book
Many nonverbal behaviors--smiling, blushing, shrugging--reveal our emotions. One nonverbal behavior, gesturing, exposes our thoughts. This book explores how we move our hands when we talk, and what it means when we do so. Susan Goldin-Meadow begins with an intriguing discovery: when explaining their answer to a task, children sometimes communicate different ideas with their hand gestures than with their spoken words. Moreover, children whose gestures do not match their speech are particularly likely to benefit from instruction in that task. Not only do gestures provide insight into the unspoken thoughts of children (one of Goldin-Meadow's central claims), but gestures reveal a child's readiness to learn, and even suggest which teaching strategies might be most beneficial. In addition, Goldin-Meadow characterizes gesture when it fulfills the entire function of language (as in the case of Sign Languages of the Deaf), when it is reshaped to suit different cultures (American and Chinese), and even when it occurs in children who are blind from birth. Focusing on what we can discover about speakers--adults and children alike--by watching their hands, this book discloses the active role that gesture plays in conversation and, more fundamentally, in thinking. In general, we are unaware of gesture, which occurs as an undercurrent alongside an acknowledged verbal exchange. In this book, Susan Goldin-Meadow makes clear why we must not ignore the background conversation. Table of Contents: Preface I. A Window on the Mind 1. Gesture Is Everywhere 2. Not Just Hand Waving 3. Giving Our Thoughts Away 4. Who Is Ready to Learn? 5. Only the Hands Know for Sure II. Communicating 6. Everyone Reads Gesture 7. Understanding Speech 8. In the Classroom 9. Learning by Gesturing to Others III. Thinking 10. Gesturing in the Dark 11. Gesturing Helps 12. Gesturing Leads to Change IV. When There Is Only Gesture 13. Gesture within a Community 14. Gesture by a Child 15. Gesture on the Spot Conclusion: Talking and Thinking with Gesture References Credits Index Reviews of this book: Goldin-Meadow offers a naturalistic study of gesture in children and adults that will convince the reader that gesture (as she defines it) is an inseparable part of speech, communication, and thought. Indeed, after reading this study one wonders whether the written word alone can really do the job of communicating. --M. W. York, Choice Reviews of this book: Hearing Gesture is an engaging (even suspenseful) read and, with its clear and informal style, should be largely accessible to non-experts...Readers will be impressed by [Goldin-Meadow's] extraordinary combination of thoughtful insight, experimental ingenuity and immense persistence and dedication to the search for knowledge... Hearing Gesture stands beside McNeill's Hand and Mind and Language and Gesture as a milestone in the study of gesture's relationship with language and thought. It may help to reshape the basic premises and methods of psychologists, linguists and other social scientists. --Eve Sweetser, Nature Susan Goldin-Meadow is the world's leading researcher into the cognitive meaning of gesture, and a beautiful writer as well. In this fascinating book, she shows us how gesture helps us think, remember, and learn, whether or not we're communicating anything to anyone else. Everybody gestures--she has told us why. --Annette Karmiloff-Smith, co-author, Pathways to Language Hearing Gesture is a treasure trove of observations and insights. A keen observer, witty writer, and remarkably creative experimenter, Goldin-Meadow focuses on our simplest and seemingly least consequential actions and draws from them a set of deep truths about the ways children and adults converse, think, and learn. --Elizabeth Spelke, Harvard University
Article
Obra sobre métodos de investigación aplicables a disciplinas como psicología y educación. Se enfoca principalmente en aquéllos utilizados para la psicología, abordando temas como: Métodos descriptivos: observación, encuestas, y metodologías cualitativas; Métodos experimentales: experimentación, diseños experimentales, y diseños factoriales; Investigación aplicada: diseños experimentales de caso único, diseños cuasiexperimentales, y diseños post facto; Complementos metodológicos: el informe de investigación, e investigación con individuos clónicos.
Article
Incluye bibliografía Obra sobre el desarrollo de la inteligencia y la construcción del pensamiento, a través de la toma de los objetos reales como referentes en el proceso comunicativo de los niños con las personas que los rodean. Se plantea así la tríada adulto-niño-objeto como la unidad mínima para el estudio de los orígenes del pensamiento en el niño.