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Visions for Intercultural Music Teacher Education

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Visions for Intercultural Music Teacher Education

Abstract

This open access book highlights the importance of visions of alternative futures in music teacher education in a time of increasing societal complexity due to increased diversity. There are policies at every level to counter prejudice, increase opportunities, reduce inequalities, stimulate change in educational systems, and prevent and counter polarization. Foregrounding the intimate connections between music, society and education, this book suggests ways that music teacher education might be an arena for the reflexive contestation of traditions, hierarchies, practices and structures. The visions for intercultural music teacher education offered in this book arise from a variety of practical projects, intercultural collaborations, and cross-national work conducted in music teacher education. The chapters open up new horizons for understanding the tension-fields and possible discomfort that music teacher educators face when becoming change agents. They highlight the importance of collaborations, resilience and perseverance when enacting visions on the program level of higher education institutions, and the need for change in re-imagining music teacher education programs.
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... However, research aimed at designing and/or constructing artificial tutors in the music domain is more scarce. Much effort is placed on the teaching of singing and folk music because of the social and intercultural consequences of that knowledge [26,27]. But when available, this type of research focuses on constructing software tools that operate within a well defined and heavily restricted domain. ...
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... As individuals begin to consider the partiality of personal knowledge, they may also grow to see possibilities for action, thereby "allow[ing] for the fashioning of new identities within existing configurations of power" (Giroux, 2005, p. 28). This also means that a commitment to critical pedagogical practice requires a professional vision that expands beyond the music classroom (Benedict, 2021;Westerlund et al., 2020). ...
Article
The past two decades have seen a growing de-professionalization of teaching. Combating this educational climate requires music teacher education programs to prioritize both critical pedagogical practices and policy knowhow in order to reestablish a focus on relational engagements and the navigation of the complex tensions lived daily in schools. In this article, we utilize the frameworks of border crossing and policy ethnography to explore the experiences of one music educator acting as a policy practitioner. We focus on the ways she utilized a project in her general music classes as a space for pedagogical risk-taking and policy practice, challenging taken-for-granted norms both within her own music classroom as well as within the larger school setting. We use her experiences to formulate an argument that considers how critical pedagogical practice and policy knowhow might be seen as interdependent partners in music teacher education, both equally important when advancing a forward-looking agenda of professionalization in music education.
Article
This ethnographic case study investigates how teachers and leaders in a Norwegian primary school perceive and promote an inclusive school environment for newly arrived migrant children through music. The analysis draws on two aspects of inclusion. The first is on whose terms inclusion takes place and whether newcomers have the opportunity to transform the existing social order. The second is the boundaries of inclusive practices: inclusion and exclusion are seen as processes separated by a boundary that, once crossed, can result in exclusion despite good intentions. The case is a primary school with a dedicated introductory class for newly arrived migrant children. The data collection instruments were participant observation, interviews and field conversations over a period of 10 months. There was a participatory element to the fieldwork in connection with the school’s ongoing development work to create an inclusive environment. Three socio-musical spaces were identified. The findings suggest that inclusive music practices face obstacles at individual, organisational and discursive levels. Fields of tension are identified relating to boundaries around what cultural expressions are welcomed and represented in the school; visibility and performance of home cultures; and exclusion and self-exclusion through musical markers of belonging.
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Müzik eğitimi alan yazınında sık kullanılan “yaklaşım”, çok yönlü bir kavramdır. Bazen eğitim ve öğretim sürecinde temel alınan düşünceyi veya anlayışı, bazen dersin ana karakteristiğini, bazen iletişim biçimini veya kimi zaman da yönteme dair işlemleri işaret edebilir. Bu kitapta böylesine farklı kullanım biçimlerinin tümüne değil, “pedagojik yaklaşım” ve “öğretme-öğrenme yaklaşımı (didaktik yaklaşım)” kavramlarına odaklanılmıştır. Pedagojik ve didaktik yaklaşımların bazıları eğitim ve öğretime dair genel çerçeveler sunarken, bazıları kendi içinde sistem oluşturabilecek şekilde çok boyutlu bir yapı göstermekte ve bunlar kitabımızda “çok bileşenli yaklaşım” olarak nitelendirilmektedir. Çok bileşenli olma hâli, yaklaşımın bir veya birden fazla unsurunda bulunabilir. Kitabımızda, müzik eğitiminde çok bileşenli yaklaşımlardan seçki yapılarak bir başucu kaynağının okuyucuya sunulması amaçlanmıştır. 20. yüzyılın ilk yarısında geliştirilen müzik-pedagojik yaklaşımlardan Jaques-Dalcroze Yöntemi, Elementer Müzik ve Hareket Eğitimi/Orff-Schulwerk ve Kodály Yöntemi; 20. yüzyılın ortasından itibaren geliştirilen öğretme-öğrenme yaklaşımlarından da Programlı Öğrenme Yaklaşımı, Tam Öğrenme Modeli, İş Birlikli Öğrenme Yöntemi, Kültüre Duyarlı Müzik Eğitimi ve Yapılandırmacı Öğrenme Kuramı çalışmamıza dâhil edilmiştir. Kitap, yaklaşımların tarihsel gelişiminin, pedagojik ve didaktik niteliklerinin ele alındığı “kuramsal kısım” ve yaklaşımlara ait “uygulama örnekleri” olmak üzere iki ana bölümden oluşmaktadır. Kapsamlı giriş bölümünde ise, her bir yaklaşımın gelişim bağlamı ele alınarak eğitim tarihindeki yerlerinin görünür kılınması amaçlanmıştır.
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The Politics of Diversity in Music Education attends to the political structures and processes that frame and produce understandings of diversity in and through music education. Recent surges in nationalist, fundamentalist, protectionist, and separatist tendencies highlight the imperative for music education to extend beyond nominal policy agendas to critically consider the ways in which understandings about society are upheld or unsettled and the ways in which knowledge about diversity is produced. This chapter provides an overview of the scholarly foundations that this book builds upon before introducing the four sections of the book and contributing chapters. The first section of the book focuses on the politics of inquiry in music education research. The second section attends to the paradoxes and challenges that arise as music teachers negotiate cultural identity and tradition within the political frames and ideals of the nation state. The third section considers diversities that are often overlooked or silenced, and the final section turns to matters of leadership in higher music education as an inherently political and ethical undertaking. Together, chapters work towards a more critical, complex, and nuanced understanding of the ways in which the politics of diversity shape our ideals of what music education is, and what it is for.
Article
"The article presents the analysis and scientific assessment of trends of the inclusive school culture, manifesting themselves in the context of music education. It is maintained that school culture grounded on the philosophy of inclusive education and enriched with advanced educational processes, in this case, with artistic/musical activities, not only marks the school’s uniqueness but also highlights the importance of the educational process, unites and empowers its participants to work together naturally to achieve a common goal. Building the inclusive school culture, music education correlates with all of its main features manifesting themselves in reality: the collaboration of participants of the educational process, dissemination of best practice, favourable microclimate ensuring the manifestation of a successful situation not only in the educational process but also in concert activities, and the like. Music activity grounded on the philosophy of inclusive education becomes an aspiration building the inclusive school culture, which undoubtedly helps to create the society grounded on tolerance of differences, which seeks to envisage every learner’s needs and possibilities. Keywords: school culture, inclusive school, music education."
Article
The article seeks to find ways to re-imagine music-educator professional self-understanding beyond tendencies and constraints created and imposed by neoliberal politics. This involves exploring the conditions for music-teacher professionalism in the Nordic countries today through the position of competency nomads, as well as searching for theoretical frameworks through which the current circumstances can be understood and unpacked, by looking into the relationships between resilience, subjectivity, agency and neoliberalism. Given that the current professional situation for music teachers might potentially be understood as characterised by instability and uprootedness, the article proposes an activist approach as one possible way of keeping professional agency and imagination intact and alive. Such an approach requires both the embracement of individual and collective vulnerability and an acknowledgment of our fundamental and mutual interdependency, locally and globally. Towards the end of the article, examples of what this might mean in music-education practice and research are discussed.
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Today most societies across the world are witnessing rising levels of social and cultural diversity brought about by globalisation and in particular increased human mobility and significant advances in information and communications technologies. The dilemma, therefore, has been how best to manage the resultant diversity and what optimal social policy paradigms to adopt towards this end. Assimilation, multiculturalism and presently interculturalism have all been proposed as possible policy conduits for managing socio-cultural diversity. This book, in focusing on the latter concept, and in particular in its intercultural dialogue manifestation, offers at once theoretical examinations, policy discussion and practical explorations of its uptake across the world. The core argument connecting the book’s three distinct sections is that whilst assimilation in its racist manifestation is no longer a viable option in today’s world, intercultural dialogue within existing multicultural settings has much to offer.
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This chapter explores the actions musician-teachers in the extremely diverse and complex context of the Kathmandu Valley imagine that might hold potential for contesting and altering processes of marginalisation and stigmatisation in Nepali society. The empirical material was generated in 16 workshops involving 53 musician-teachers and guided by the Appreciative Inquiry 4D model (e.g. Cooperrider et al. Appreciative inquiry handbook: for leaders of change. Crown Custom, Brunswick, 2005). Drawing upon the work of Arjun Appadurai, we analysed the ways in which engaging the collective imagination (1996) and fostering the capacity to aspire (2004) can support musician-teachers in finding resources for changing their terms of recognition. We identified five actions that musicians and musician-teachers take to legitimise their position in Nepali society: (1) challenging stigmatised identities, (2) engaging foreignness, (3) advocating academisation, (4) countering groupism, and (5) promoting professionalisation. We argue that these actions suggest the need for music teachers to be able to ethically and agentively navigate both the dynamic nature of culture and questions of legitimate knowledge, which may be fostered through an emphasis on professional responsibility (Solbrekke and Sugrue. Professional responsibility: new horizons of praxis. Routledge, New York, 2011) in music teacher education.
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In light of recent discussions on the importance of shared visions in teacher education, this inquiry raises necessary questions as to whose visions shape unified and shared visions, and whose remain absent, unspoken, or silenced in the margins. The starting point for this inquiry was a set of visions for music education in Nepal that were co-constructed with over 50 musician-teachers working in the Kathmandu Valley, during a series of 16 workshops guided by Appreciative Inquiry’s 4D cycle. Despite the challenges female musician-teachers encounter in their pursuit of music in Nepal, no reference to these injustices was apparent in the resulting shared visions. This inquiry therefore engages with the nature and possible causes of this lack of reference, leaning on economist and philosopher Amartya Sen’s (2009) idea of justice and social-cultural anthropologist Arjun Appadurai’s (2004) notions of the capacity to aspire and the capacity for voice. The critical (Kuntz, 2015) and reflexive (Alvesson & Sköldberg, 2009) work guiding this inquiry suggests that while the workshops were guided by the aim to be inclusive, the need to come to consensus when co-constructing shared visions both reflected and obscured the injustices experienced by female musician-teachers. The article concludes by offering insights for music teacher education.
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Walking as an artistic and participatory practice is re-emerging in various disciplines, including its intersections with social science and humanities research methods and methodologies (see walkinglab. org). Some of this interest stems from the fact that walking can be an embodied and sensory way of enacting research. In this chapter we discuss how walking as research also begs the question of the “how of research”; we speculate on how rather than simply a mode of moving from place to place, walking engenders what Alfred North Whitehead (1978) refers to as propositions. We use the concept of propositions to examine the productive potential of walking research within two artist groups: a community arts walking practice in Canada organized by the Hamilton Perambulatory Unit (HPU), and a contemporary art walking project in the United Kingdom facilitated by Barbara Steveni, founder of the former art collective the Artist Placement Group (APG). When walking is understood as a proposition, subjects are not given to experiencing movement, space, walking, etc. in any pre-determined or already realized way. Walking becomes stripped of its own assumptions.
Article
This article explores the relationships between power, hegemony, and policy as constructed through the language used in the 2011 Israeli National Curriculum of Music (Israel Ministry of Education 2011). Through the framework of Critical Discourse Analysis (Blommaert & Bulcaen 2000; Fairclough 1995; Fairclough & Wodak 1997; Van Dijk 2001), I analyze the word choice and vocabulary patterns in the Foreword section of the Curriculum in order to critically reflect upon the explicit and implicit ways in which this text conceptualizes the notion of "diversity" as a core constituent of contemporary Israeli music education policy and practice. In developing a "policy language consciousness" in music education (Schmidt 2012, 60), the "structures of social control" (Van Dijk 2001, 355) can be seen to construct the values of music education in Israeli policy and practice. Such structures "enact, confirm, legitimate, reproduce, or challenge relations of power and dominance in society" through language and text (Van Dijk 2001, 356). A close reading of the Israeli National Music Curriculum suggests that the language of "diversity" obscures the complex structures of power that work to reinforce a Western-Classical hegemony (Gramsci 1971) through the Curriculum.