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ISIS Discourse in Radical Islamic Online News Media in Indonesia: Supporter or Opponent

Authors:
  • Universitas Nahdlatul Ulama Indonesia

Abstract

This article aims to understand how discourses about Islamic State in Iraq and Syria (ISIS) are supported and/or rejected by radical Islamic groups. Data were collected from two Islamic news website: Voa-Islam and Arrahmah. Both websites are categorised as radical Islamic sites. By using the discursive psychology approach, it was found that when ISIS is viewed as a group that actualised the establishment of an Islamic State, it is praised and supported. However, when ISIS is deemed to have killed other fellow Muslims, it is opposed and its movement is considered to be ‘out of Islamic corridors'. Practical implications of these findings are identified and discussed.
Editor-in-Chief
Mehdi Khosrow-Pour, DBA
Information Resources Management Association, USA
Associate Editors
Steve Clarke, University of Hull, UK
Murray E. Jennex, San Diego State University, USA
Ari-Veikko Anttiroiko, University of Tampere, Finland
Editorial Advisory Board
Sherif Kamel, American University in Cairo, Egypt
In Lee, Western Illinois University, USA
Jerzy Kisielnicki, Warsaw University, Poland
Amar Gupta, Arizona University, USA
Craig van Slyke, University of Central Florida, USA
John Wang, Montclair State University, USA
Vishanth Weerakkody, Brunel University, UK
Table of Contents
Preface .................................................................................................................................................xiii
Volime I
Section 1
Media Advocacy
Chapter 1
Mediating Social Media’s Ambivalences in the Context of Informational Capitalism .......................... 1
Marco Briziarelli, University of New Mexico, USA
Eric Karikari, University of New Mexico, USA
Chapter 2
Trans-National Advocacy and the Hashtag Black Lives Matter: Globalisation and Reception in
the UK and France ................................................................................................................................ 25
Danella May Campbell, Manchester Metropolitan University, UK
Marie Chollier, Manchester Metropolitan University, UK
Chapter 3
Rethinking Media Engagement Strategies for Social Change in Africa: Context, Approaches, and
Implications for Development Communication ....................................................................................52
Adebayo Fayoyin, UNFPA, South Africa
Chapter 4
With a Little Help from My Friends: The Irish Radio Industry’s Strategic Appropriation of
Facebook for Commercial Growth ........................................................................................................ 76
Daithi McMahon, Univeristy of Limerick, Ireland
Chapter 5
The Personalized and Personal “Mass” Media – From “We-Broadcast” to “We-Chat”: Reflection
on the Case of Bi Fujian Incident ......................................................................................................... 91
Yu Zhang, New York Institute of Technology, USA
Chapter 6
Radical Political Communication and Social Media: The Case of the Mexican #YoSoy132 ............ 105
Lázaro M. Bacallao-Pino, National Autonomous University of Mexico, Mexico
Chapter 7
The Resistance of Memories and the Story of Resistance: July 15 Coup Attempt and Social
Movement in Turkey ...........................................................................................................................124
Fadime Dilber, Karamanoğlu Mehmet Bey University, Turkey
Section 2
Media and Social Platforms
Chapter 8
We the New Media: The Disruption of Social Media in Interpersonal and Collective
Communication ................................................................................................................................... 138
Miguel del Fresno, Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia (UNED), Spain
Chapter 9
Social Media as Public Political Instrument ....................................................................................... 158
Ikbal Maulana, Indonesian Institute of Sciences, Indonesia
Chapter 10
The Politics of Immersive Storytelling: Virtual Reality and the Logics of Digital Ecosystems ........ 175
Christian Stiegler, Brunel University London, UK
Section 3
Media Credibility
Chapter 11
Modeling Rumors in Twitter: An Overview ....................................................................................... 192
Rhythm Walia, Netaji Subhash Institute of Technology, India
M.P.S. Bhatia, Netaji Subhash Institute of Technology, India
Chapter 12
Contribution of Mindfulness to Individuals’ Tendency to Believe and Share Social Media
Content ................................................................................................................................................ 216
Peerayuth Charoensukmongkol, National Institute of Development Administration, Thailand
Chapter 13
Arabic Rumours Identification By Measuring The Credibility Of Arabic Tweet Content .................236
Ahmad Yahya M. Floos, King Saud University, Saudia Arabia
Section 4
Media Representation and Bias
Chapter 14
Exploring the Complexities Associated to Victimization: Addressing Media Sensationalism and
Race ..................................................................................................................................................... 250
Erica Hutton, Hutton Criminal Profiling and Associates, USA
Chapter 15
Racial Spectacle and Campus Climate: Media Representations and Asian International Student
Perceptions at U.S. Colleges ............................................................................................................... 262
Kenneth Robert Roth, California State University, USA
Zachary S. Ritter, University of Redlands, USA
Chapter 16
Portrayal of Women in Nollywood Films and the Role of Women in National Development ........... 292
Suleimanu Usaini, Covenant University, Nigeria
Ngozi M. Chilaka, Covenant University, Nigeria
Nelson Okorie, Covenant University, Nigeria
Chapter 17
The Digital Politics of Pain: Exploring Female Voices in Afghanistan ............................................. 307
Mary Louisa Cappelli, Globalmother.org, USA
Chapter 18
Islamaphobic Discourse and Interethnic Conflict: The Influence of News Media Coverage of the
ISIS Beheadings on Identity Processes and Intergroup Attitudes .......................................................320
Bobbi J. Van Gilder, University of Oklahoma, USA
Zachary B. Massey, University of Oklahoma, USA
Section 5
Media Transparency and Press Freedom
Chapter 19
The Uses of Science Statistics in the News Media and on Daily Life ................................................ 336
Renata Faria Brandao, University of Sheffield, UK
Chapter 20
Naming Crime Suspects in the News: “Seek Truth and Report It” vs. “Minimizing Harm” ............. 354
Robin Blom, Ball State University, USA
Chapter 21
Mediatized Witnessing and the Ethical Imperative of Capture .......................................................... 373
Sasha A Q Scott, Queen Mary University of London, UK
Chapter 22
Online Free Expression and Its Gatekeepers ...................................................................................... 387
Joanna Kulesza, University of Lodz, Poland
Volime II
Chapter 23
Information Control, Transparency, and Social Media: Implications for Corruption ........................ 399
Chandan Kumar Jha, Le Moyne College, USA
Chapter 24
Free Speech, Press Freedom, and Democracy in Ghana A Conceptual and Historical Overview ..... 418
Murtada Busair Ahmad, Kwara State University, Nigeria
Chudey Pride, Kwara State University, Nigeria
Anthony Komlatse Corsy, Kwara State University, Nigeria
Chapter 25
Press Freedom and Socio-Economic Issues in the Nigerian and Ugandan Democratic
Landscape ........................................................................................................................................... 433
Okorie Nelson, Covenant University, Nigeria
Section 6
Role of Media in Politics
Chapter 26
Neo-Populist Scandal and Social Media: The Finnish Olli Immonen Affair .....................................442
Juha Herkman, University of Helsinki, Finland
Janne Matikainen, University of Helsinki, Finland
Chapter 27
Interacting with Whom? Swedish Parliamentarians on Twitter during the 2014 Elections ............... 460
Jakob Svensson, Uppsala University, Sweden
Anders Olof Larsson, Westerdals Oslo School of Arts, Communication & Technology,
Norway
Chapter 28
Understanding the Role of Media in South Asia ................................................................................ 477
Sukanya Natarajan, Jawaharlal Nehru University, India
Chapter 29
Social Media and the Public Sphere in China: A Case Study of Political Discussion on Weibo
after the Wenzhou High-Speed Rail Derailment Accident ................................................................. 497
Zhou Shan, University of Alabama, USA
Lu Tang, University of Alabama, USA
Chapter 30
Media Mediate Sentiments: Exploratory Analysis of Tweets Posted Before, During, and After the
Great East Japan Earthquake............................................................................................................... 513
Naohiro Matsumura, Osaka University, Japan
Asako Miura, Kwansei Gakuin University, Japan
Masashi Komori, Osaka Electro-Communication University, Japan
Kai Hiraishi, Keio University, Japan
Chapter 31
The Role of Mass Media in Women’s Participation in 2013 Kenya General Election ....................... 528
Thomas Ibrahim Okinda, Moi University, Kenya
Chapter 32
Kenya’s Difficult Political Transitions Ethnicity and the Role of Media ............................................ 549
Wilson Ugangu, Multimedia University of Kenya
Chapter 33
Media Coverage of the 2009 Afghan Presidential Election ................................................................ 562
Christopher Strelluf, Northwest Missouri State University, USA
Chapter 34
ISIS Discourse in Radical Islamic Online News Media in Indonesia: Supporter or Opponent ..........585
Fajar Erikha, Universitas Indonesia, Indonesia
Idhamsyah Eka Putra, Persada Indonesia University, Indonesia
Sarlito Wirawan Sarwono, Universitas Indonesia, Indonesia & Persada Indonesia
University, Indonesia
Chapter 35
The Press and the Emergent Political Class in Nigeria: Media, Elections, and Democracy .............. 606
Ibitayo Samuel Popoola, University of Lagos, Nigeria
Chapter 36
Ethical and Legal Challenges of Election Reporting in Nigeria: A Study of Four General
Elections, 1999-2011 ..........................................................................................................................619
Tayo Popoola, UNESCO Centre of Excellence in Journalism and Media Training, Nigeria
Chapter 37
Communicating Democracy through Participatory Radio in Nigeria: The Question of Political
Economy ............................................................................................................................................. 642
Murtada Busair Ahmad, Kwara State University, Nigeria
Kamaldin Abdulsalam Babatunde, Kwara State University, Nigeria
Section 7
Role of Media in Public Health
Chapter 38
Social Media and Infectious Disease Perceptions in a Multicultural Society .....................................659
Maria Elena Villar, Florida International University, USA
Elizabeth Marsh, Florida International University, USA
Chapter 39
Media Campaign on Exclusive Breastfeeding: Awareness, Perception, and Acceptability Among
Mothers in Anambra State, Nigeria .................................................................................................... 677
Nkiru Comfort Ezeh, Nnamdi Azikwe University, Nigeria
Chapter 40
Awareness and Education on Viral Infections in Nigeria Using Edutainment ................................... 699
Suleimanu Usaini, Covenant University, Nigeria
Tolulope Kayode-Adedeji, Covenant University, Nigeria
Olufunke Omole, Covenant University, Nigeria
Tunji Oyedepo, Covenant University, Nigeria
Section 8
Role of Media in War and Conflicts
Chapter 41
The Benefits and Challenges of New Media for Intercultural Conflict............................................... 716
Amy Janan Johnson, University of Oklahoma, USA
Sun Kyong Lee, University of Oklahoma, USA
Ioana A. Cionea, University of Oklahoma, USA
Zachary B. Massey, University of Oklahoma, USA
Chapter 42
Art, Values, and Conflict Waged in Satirical Cartoons: The 10-Year Rhetorical Crisis .....................736
Z. Hall, Independent Scholar, USA
Chapter 43
Postracial Justice and the Trope of the “Race Riot” ........................................................................... 757
Jennifer Heusel, Coker College, USA
Chapter 44
Using Media to Resolve Media Engendered Ethnic Conflicts in Multiracial Societies: The Case of
Somalis of Kenyan Origin ...................................................................................................................775
Agnes Lucy Lando, Daystar University, Kenya
Chapter 45
Boko Haram Insurgency in Cameroon: Role of Mass Media in Conflict Management ..................... 796
Afu Isaiah Kunock, University of Yaounde I, Cameroon
Index ..................................................................................................................................................... xx
Preface
The media, entrusted with providing clear and accurate information to its consumers, readers, and audi-
ence, plays an increasingly important role in modern society. Journalists, in particular, are educated to
remain unbiased and to present all uncovered information to readers to allow those consumers to form
their own opinions on the published events. While this is the basis for the media, it is increasingly com-
mon for media outlets and individuals within the media to include personal bias and opinions in their
pieces and even use their roles as watchdogs and gatekeepers to sway public opinion on specific issues
such as public health, warfare, and economic policies. Although this may be unintentional on the part
of the journalist, the media has the power to play important roles in the global society and is responsible
for uncovering all of the information and checking facts and sources before publishing a story.
Different laws around the world impact the level of transparency, clarity, and censorship that appear
in published coverage with free media policies in some countries and government-run media approaches
in others. Additionally, the subject matter that is reported can greatly impact the way a story is handled.
Issues such as racial tension, warfare, and ethnic conflicts are often handled with more care though
they are often the most difficult for the media to cover. Media coverage of these may be manipulated by
extremists to cause a serious distortion of public perception. Because of this, outlets are vigilant to not
report sensitive issues in inflammatory manners although outlets are often criticized as sensationalizing
such events to increase readership, “clicks” on online articles, and increase profits.
The need and desire to increase profits, the emergence of social media sharing, and freedom of the
press greatly impact which stories are published and which aren’t, driving public opinion on those given
areas. Social media and the amount of clicks a story receives from audiences sway the types of stories
that continue to get posted. Social media shares and the easily publishable online articles through blogs
or less credible sources compromises the integrity of news stories as readers can easily share an enticing
article without doing any research into the facts behind the post and could subsequently perpetuate false
information. As shown in the forthcoming chapters of this reference source, numerous factors attribute
to the articles and media presented to consumers including information on the impact of the media in
elections, after natural disasters, and violent conflicts while also presenting research on the importance
of transparency and credibility in the media.
The changing landscape surrounding the diverse applications of different scientific areas can make it
very challenging to stay on the forefront of innovative research trends. That is why IGI Global is pleased
to offer this two-volume comprehensive reference that will empower journalists, news writers, colum-
nists, broadcasters, newscasters, media professionals, media outlets, professors, students, researchers,
practitioners, and academicians with a stronger understanding of media controversies.
xiii
Preface
This compilation is designed to act as a single reference source on conceptual, methodological, and
technical aspects, and will provide insight into emerging topics including but not limited to social media
news, ethical coverage of war conflicts, political communication, and the importance of gatekeeping in
the media. The chapters within this publication are sure to provide readers the tools necessary for further
research and discovery in their respective industries and/or fields.
Media Controversy: Breakthroughs in Research and Practice is organized into eight sections that
provide comprehensive coverage of important topics. The sections are:
1. Media Advocacy
2. Media and Social Platforms
3. Media Credibility
4. Media Representation and Bias
5. Media Transparency and Press Freedom
6. Role of Media in Politics
7. Role of Media in Public Health
8. Role of Media in War and Conflicts
The following paragraphs provide a summary of what to expect from this invaluable reference source:
Section 1, “Media Advocacy,” opens this extensive reference source by highlighting the latest trends
in social change, hashtag activism, and advocacy among various media outlets. In the first chapter of
this section, “Mediating Social Media’s Ambivalences in the Context of Informational Capitalism,” Prof.
Marco Briziarelli and Prof. Eric Karikari from the University of New Mexico, USA explore the socially
reproductive and transformative functions of social media in media dialectics from a political economic
perspective. In the second chapter, “Trans-National Advocacy and the Hashtag Black Lives Matter: Glo-
balisation and Reception in the UK and France,” Prof. Danella May Campbell and Prof. Marie Chollier
from Manchester Metropolitan University, UK offer insights into racial debates and equality advocacy
in the 21st century through social media hashtags, and the authors focus on the long-lasting impact of
#BlackLivesMatter in particular. In the following chapter, “Rethinking Media Engagement Strategies
for Social Change in Africa: Context, Approaches, and Implications for Development Communication,
the author, Prof. Adebayo Fayoyin from UNFPA, South Africa, investigates the imperatives for and the
diverse approaches by development organizations in mobilizing the media for social change in Africa
and call for a second look at existing media engagement approaches in achieving social change. Within
a significant chapter of this section, “With a Little Help From My Friends: The Irish Radio Industry’s
Strategic Appropriation of Facebook for Commercial Growth,” Prof. Daithi McMahon of the University
of Limerick, Ireland studies strategic social media management as a way to enhance radio station audi-
ences and revenues citing Facebook opportunities as a key factor in maximizing profits. In the following
chapter, “The Personalized and Personal “Mass” Media From We-Broadcastto ‘We-Chat’: Reflection
on the Case of Bi Fujian Incident,” the author, Prof. Yu Zhang from New York Institute of Technology,
USA, discusses the role two of China’s major social media channels—Weibo and WeChat—played
following the Bi Fijuan incident that turned the event into a national debate, created citizen journalists,
and called for social justice in the country. In one of the concluding chapters, “Radical Political Com-
munication and Social Media: The Case of the Mexican #YoSoy132,” Prof. Lázaro M. Bacallao-Pino
from the National Autonomous University of Mexico, Mexico analyzes the main uses of social media
as part of mobilizations and the interrelationships between online communication and offline collec-
xiv
Preface
tive action while using a university student mobilization campaign during Mexico’s 2012 electoral
campaign—#YoSoy132—as a key case study. In the final chapter of this section, “The Resistance of
Memories and the Story of Resistance: July 15 Coup Attempt and Social Movement in Turkey,” the
author, Prof. Fadime Dilber from Karamanoğlu Mehmet Bey University, Turkey, focuses on the story
structure of struggle exhibited against the July 15, 2016 coup attempt in Turkey in the transmedia. Un-
like previous coup attempts in Turkish history, the media moved with the people out in the streets as an
anti-coup, and the author surmises that when the attitude of the national media is supported by citizens
and mass media, new media, and those struggling against the coup gained strength and helped to make
the coup attempt unsuccessful.
Section 2, “Media and Social Platforms,” includes chapters on emerging innovations in social net-
works as journalistic tools. In the first chapter, “We the New Media: The Disruption of Social Media
in Interpersonal and Collective Communication,” Prof. Miguel del Fresno of the Universidad Nacional
de Educación a Distancia (UNED), Spain presents a new model to describe and explain the emerging
social media communication ecosystem that has put an end to the mediating exclusivity of professional
media and maximizes collective interpersonal communication on one and the same social continuum.
In the following chapter, “Social Media as Public Political Instrument,” the author, Prof. Ikbal Maulana
from the Indonesian Institute of Sciences, Indonesia, argues social media is an effective tool that gives
a political voice to individuals who are otherwise silent on societal, public, and political issues while
also explaining the ways in which conventional media hinders the public in expressing opinions. In the
final chapter of this section, “The Politics of Immersive Storytelling: Virtual Reality and the Logics of
Digital Ecosystems,” Prof. Christian Stiegler from Brunel University London, UK applies and extends
the concept of social media logic to assess the politics of immersive storytelling on digital platforms
such as Facebook and Instagram.
Section 3, “Media Credibility,” presents coverage highlighting media responsibility and tools to
determine credible news sources. In the first chapter of this section, “Modeling Rumors in Twitter: An
Overview,” the authors, Prof. Rhythm Walia and Prof. M.P.S. Bhatia, both from Netaji Subhash Institute
of Technology, India, focus on rumor analysis in the age of social media as more of the population receive
and share news stories via social media platforms. In the next chapter, “Contribution of Mindfulness to
Individuals’ Tendency to Believe and Share Social Media Content,Prof. Peerayuth Charoensukmongkol
from the National Institute of Development Administration, Thailand explores the effect of mindfulness
on individuals’ tendencies to believe social media content and share it without realizing the potential
consequences through a survey of 300 full-time workers and college students in Bangkok, Thailand. In
the concluding chapter of this section, “Arabic Rumours Identification by Measuring the Credibility of
Arabic Tweet Content,” Prof. Ahmad Yahya M. Floos from King Saud University, Saudi Arabia inves-
tigates Arabic rumor patterns on Twitter and explains the impact features the social media platform can
have in spreading false information.
Section 4, “Media Representation and Bias,” discusses ethical issues in media coverage and the possible
introduction of bias by reporters in news stories, as well as showcases how media can help to represent
minorities and women. In the first chapter, “Exploring the Complexities Associated to Victimization:
Addressing Media Sensationalism and Race,” Prof. Erica Hutton from Hutton Criminal Profiling and
Associates, USA addresses the complexities in reports of victimization in the media in direct correla-
tion to how racial disparities sensationalize certain incidents of crime. In the second chapter of this sec-
tion, “Racial Spectacle and Campus Climate: Media Representations and Asian International Student
xv
Preface
Perceptions at U.S. Colleges,” the authors, Prof. Kenneth Robert Roth of California State University,
USA and Prof. Zachary S. Ritter of the University of Redlands, USA, present the implications media
representations may have on cross-cultural interactions by identifying the ways in which U.S. colleges
are addressing campus climate issues. In the following chapter, “Portrayal of Women in Nollywood
Films and the Role of Women in National Development,” the authors, Prof. Suleimanu Usaini, Prof.
Ngozi M. Chilaka, and Prof. Nelson Okorie from Covenant University, Nigeria, investigate how women
are portrayed in Nollywood films and the interpretation of their representations among audiences. The
authors argue that positive portrayal of women in film furthers national development and female portrayal
can only be fully achieved through an increase in female screenwriters and directors. In a noteworthy
chapter, “The Digital Politics of Pain: Exploring Female Voices in Afghanistan,” Prof. Mary Louisa
Cappelli from Globalmother.org, USA explores the power of the Afghan Women’s Writing Project in
empowering women to bear witness and share their stories. The group, the author states, operates as a
social media campaign employing Western rhetoric to combat efforts that undermine protections against
women and principles of free market democracy. In the concluding chapter of this section, “Islamophobic
Discourse and Interethnic Conflict: The Influence of News Media Coverage of the ISIS Beheadings on
Identity Processes and Intergroup Attitudes,” Prof. Bobbi J. Van Gilder and Prof. Zach B. Massey from
the University of Oklahoma, USA examine the Islamophobic discourse that is perpetuated by the news
media coverage of the ISIS beheadings to explain the potential influence of news media on viewers’
dissociative behaviors and the justifications made by social actors for such behaviors.
Section 5, “Media Transparency and Press Freedom,” presents emerging research on journalistic
limits and freedom of the press in modern news coverage. In the first chapter of this section, “The Uses
of Science Statistics in the News Media and on Daily Life,” Prof. Renata Faria Brandao from the Uni-
versity of Sheffield, UK investigates how journalists use scientific statistics as a means to communicate
current scientific research as well as how the public decodes this information. In the second chapter,
“Naming Crime Suspects in the News: ‘Seek Truth and Report It’ vs. ‘Minimizing Harm,’” the author,
Prof. Robin Blom from Ball State University, USA, examines the positive and negative aspects of news
outlets exposing all information regarding a crime suspect as well as other outlets withholding this infor-
mation. In the following chapter, “Mediatized Witnessing and the Ethical Imperative of Capture,” Prof.
Sasha A.Q. Scott of Queen Mary University of London, UK argues the need to rescue witnessing as a
concept from its conflation with the watching and passive consumption of events. Within a noteworthy
chapter in this section, “Online Free Expression and Its Gatekeepers,” the author, Prof. Joanna Kulesza
from the University of Lodz, Poland, covers the pressing issues of online free expression at the time of
global telecommunication services and social media. She discusses each of the three composite rights
of free expression (the right to hold, impart, and receive information and ideas) and identify the actual
limitations originated by national laws. In the next chapter, “Information Control, Transparency, and
Social Media: Implications for Corruption,” Prof. Chandan Kumar Jha from Le Moyne College, USA
discusses the implications that government control over information can have for the effects of social
media on corruption. In one of the concluding chapters of this section, “Free Speech, Press Freedom,
and Democracy in Ghana: A Conceptual and Historical Overview,” the authors, Prof. Murtada Busair
Ahmad, Prof. Chudey Pride, and Prof. Anthony Komlatse Corsy from Kwara State University, Nigeria,
examine free speech, press freedom, and media ownership in Ghana with a focus on the roles of the colo-
nialists, anti-colonial activists, post-independence democratic government, and business conglomerates.
The authors also discuss specific factors that affect free speech and press activities within the framework
xvi
Preface
of diverse political and legal settings that operate in Ghana. In the final chapter, “Press Freedom and
Socio-Economic Issues in the Nigerian and Ugandan Democratic Landscape,” Prof. Okorie Nelson from
Covenant University, Nigeria compares the constitutional basis of press freedom in Uganda and Nigeria.
Section 6, “Role of Media in Politics,” discusses the impact media coverage, or lack of coverage,
can play in modern politics such as covering the positive or negative aspects of candidates or policies
to sway popular opinion. In the first chapter of this section, “Neo-Populist Scandal and Social Media:
The Finnish Olli Immonen Affair,” the authors, Prof. Juha Herkman and Prof. Janne Matikainen from
the University of Helsinki, Finland, analyze the impact social media has on politics by highlighting a
scandal that occurred in Finland in 2015, when an MP of the populist right-wing Finns Party, Olli Im-
monen, published a Facebook update in which he used the same kind of militant-nationalist rhetoric
against multiculturalism that Norwegian mass-murderer Anders Behring Breivik had used years earlier.
In the following chapter, “Interacting With Whom?: Swedish Parliamentarians on Twitter During the
2014 Elections,” the authors, Prof. Jakob Svensson of Uppsala University, Sweden and Prof. Anders Olof
Larsson of Westerdals Oslo School of Arts, Communication, and Technology, Norway, explore Swedish
Parliamentarians’ Twitter practices during the 2014 general elections and investigate party uses such as
only retweeting within a party’s network and only @messaging towards political opponents. In the third
chapter of this section, “Understanding the Role of Media in South Asia,” Prof. Sukanya Natarajan from
Jawaharlal Nehru University, India aims to understand the dynamics behind the rise of social media, print
media, audio visual media, and film in these countries and describes the cultural and social continuum the
media has to employ in shaping public opinion within the South Asian region. In a noteworthy chapter
of this section, “Social Media and the Public Sphere in China: A Case Study of Political Discussion on
Weibo After the Wenzhou High-Speed Rail Derailment Accident,” Prof. Zhou Shan and Prof. Lu Tang
from the University of Alabama, USA examine the political discussion and interrogation on Sina Weibo,
China’s leading microblog site, concerning the Wenzhou high-speed train derailment accident in July
of 2011 through a critical discourse analysis. The authors use this event to investigate whether or not a
microblog can function as a promising form of public sphere. In the following chapter, “Media Medi-
ate Sentiments: Exploratory Analysis of Tweets Posted Before, During, and After the Great East Japan
Earthquake,” the authors, Prof. Naohiro Matsumura from Osaka University, Japan; Prof. Asako Miura
from Kwansei Gakuin University, Japan; Prof. Masashi Komori from Osaka Electro-Communication
University, Japan; and Prof. Kai Hiraishi from Keio University, Japan, analyze 89,351,242 tweets posted
between December 11, 2010 to April 16, 2012 following the Great East Japan Earthquake to reveal the
usage of various terms appearing in tweets concurrently with the terms expressing emotion. In another
significant chapter in this section, “The Role of Mass Media in Women’s Participation in 2013 Kenya
General Election,” Prof. Thomas Ibrahim Okinda of Moi University, Kenya assesses the role and per-
formance of the Kenyan media in women’s participation in 2013 Kenya general election with particular
emphasis on radio, television and newspapers concluding that, while Kenya generally has a diverse
and informative free media, it largely limited coverage and produced negatively biased coverage of the
female candidates. In the next related chapter, “Kenya’s Difficult Political Transitions Ethnicity and the
Role of Media,” Prof. Wilson Ugangu from the Multimedia University of Kenya, Kenya argues there is
a close relationship between the country’s political transitions, ethnicity, and the role of the media citing
transitionary events of the 1960s, 1982, the 1990s, and 2007 as case periods that affected media. In a
concluding chapter, “Media Coverage of the 2009 Afghan Presidential Election,” Prof. Christopher Strel-
luf from Northwest Missouri State University, USA investigates how, despite tremendous obstacles that
journalists faced in Afghanistan during the 2009 presidential election, the news sources leveled a range of
xvii
Preface
critiques against incumbent president Hamid Karzai, the Afghan government, and foreign governments.
Within another concluding chapter of this section, “ISIS Discourse in Radical Islamic Online News Me-
dia in Indonesia: Supporter or Opponent,” the authors, Prof. Fajar Erikha from Universitas Indonesia,
Indonesia; Prof. Idhamsyah Eka Putra from Persada Indonesia University, Indonesia; and Prof. Sarlito
Wirawan Sarwono from Universitas Indonesia, Indonesia & Persada Indonesia University, Indonesia, aim
to understand how discourses about Islamic State in Iraq and Syria (ISIS) are supported and/or rejected
by radical Islamic groups through data collected from Islamic news sources, Voa-Islam, and Arrahmah.
In the following chapter, “The Press and the Emergent Political Class in Nigeria: Media, Elections, and
Democracy,” Prof. Ibitayo Samuel Popoola from the University of Lagos, Nigeria investigates how the
political class in colonial and post-colonial Nigeria established, maintained, improved, and controls the
machinery of the state through the press concluding that the political class emerged because they were
read, advertised, or packaged by the press. In the significant chapter, “Ethical and Legal Challenges of
Election Reporting in Nigeria: A Study of Four General Elections, 1999-2011,” Prof. Tayo Popoola from
the UNESCO Centre of Excellence in Journalism and Media Training, Nigeria explores why the mass
media, which are globally regarded as the playing field of politics and the road upon which presidential
campaign travels every four years, could suddenly develop contours leading to serious disputes, crisis,
violence, and bloodletting in Nigeria, especially between 1999 and 2011. In the final chapter of this
section, “Communicating Democracy Through Participatory Radio in Nigeria: The Question of Politi-
cal Economy,” the authors, Prof. Murtada Busair Ahmad and Prof. Kamaldin Abdulsalam Babatunde
of Kwara State University, Nigeria, argue a case for sustainability of community radio in a developing
society with a focus on both sides of the equation (production and distribution) after finding that com-
munity media enables people from different socio-cultural backgrounds within a community, to share
information and exchange ideas in a positive and productive manner.
Section 7, “Role of Media in Public Health,” explores the ways in which modern media can impact
public health both positively by promoting emerging research and negatively by spreading false information.
In the first chapter of this section, “Social Media and Infectious Disease Perceptions in a Multicultural
Society,” Prof. Maria Elena Villar and Prof. Elizabeth Marsh of Florida International University, USA
examine the influence and effect of social media on health communication during the Zika outbreak in
Miami and the Ebola outbreak. In the following chapter, “Media Campaign on Exclusive Breastfeed-
ing: Awareness, Perception, and Acceptability Among Mothers in Anambra State, Nigeria,” Prof. Nkiru
Comfort Ezeh from Nnamdi Azikwe University, Nigeria investigates the relationship between the media
campaign for exclusive breastfeeding and mothers’ decision to comply based on Symbolic Interactionism,
Diffusion of Innovation, Social Responsibility, and Gate-Keeping Theories through a survey conducted
among 400 mothers in Anambra, Nigeria. In the final chapter of this section, Awareness and Education
on Viral Infections in Nigeria Using Edutainment,” the authors, Prof. Suleiman Usaini, Prof. Tolulope
Kayode-Adedeji, Prof. Olufunke Omole, and Prof. Tunji Oyedepo from Covenant University, Nigeria,
examine why edutainment—a fusion of education into entertainment programs—should be used and
how it can be used to educate media audience in Nigeria on some viral infections that pose serious health
risks and how they can live healthy lives.
Section 8, “Role of Media in War and Conflicts,” tackles sensitive responsibilities of journalists when
covering war-torn nations, violent conflicts, and other war issues. In the first chapter of this section, “The
Benefits and Challenges of New Media for Intercultural Conflict,” the authors, Prof. Amy Janan John-
son, Prof. Sun Kyong Lee, Prof. Ioana A. Cionea, and Prof. Zachary B. Massey from the University of
Oklahoma, USA, examine current research on intercultural interactions over new media with a particular
xviii
Preface
emphasis on those studies involving conflict. In the second chapter, “Art, Values, and Conflict Waged
in Satirical Cartoons: The 10-Year Rhetorical Crisis,” Prof. Z. Hall, an Independent Scholar from USA,
investigates whether or not satire is an effective rhetorical device for resolving disagreements involving
conflicting sacrosanct values, and if and how it ameliorates or contributes to conflict in increasingly
multi-religious, multiethnic, and multicultural societies. In a significant chapter of this section, “Postra-
cial Justice and the Trope of the ‘Race Riot,’” Prof. Jennifer Heusel from Coker College, USA aims to
understand the trope of “race riot” as a rhetorical strategy in news media that disciplines race-conscious
protest, and the author compares coverage of the 1906 Atlanta riots with the 2014 unrest in Ferguson,
Missouri. In a concluding chapter, “Using Media to Resolve Media Engendered Ethnic Conflicts in
Multiracial Societies: The Case of Somalis of Kenyan Origin,” the author, Prof. Agnes Lucy Lando of
Daystar University, Kenya, exposes the ethnic conflicts Somalis of Kenyan origin endure and argues that
the ethnic plights of Somalis of Kenyan origin are often created by media. In the final chapter of this
section and reference source, “Boko Haram Insurgency in Cameroon: Role of Mass Media in Conflict
Management,” Prof. Afu Isaiah Kunock of the University of Yaounde I, Cameroon discusses the role
of the media in managing the deadly attacks by the Islamic insurgent group Boko Haram in Cameroon
through the critical analysis of documents as well as interviews and observations from the theoretical
perspective of framing.
Although the primary organization of the contents in this work is based on its eight sections, offering
a progression of coverage of the important concepts, methodologies, technologies, applications, social
issues, and emerging trends, the reader can also identify specific contents by utilizing the extensive
indexing system listed at the end.
xix
585
Copyright © 2020, IGI Global. Copying or distributing in print or electronic forms without written permission of IGI Global is prohibited.
Chapter 34
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-9869-5.ch034
ABSTRACT
This article aims to understand how discourses about Islamic State in Iraq and Syria (ISIS) are sup-
ported and/or rejected by radical Islamic groups. Data were collected from two Islamic news website:
Voa-Islam and Arrahmah. Both websites are categorised as radical Islamic sites. By using the discursive
psychology approach, it was found that when ISIS is viewed as a group that actualised the establish-
ment of an Islamic State, it is praised and supported. However, when ISIS is deemed to have killed other
fellow Muslims, it is opposed and its movement is considered to be ‘out of Islamic corridors’. Practical
implications of these findings are identified and discussed.
INTRODUCTION
The Islamic State in Iraq and Syria (ISIS), an Islamic terrorist group, is currently under great scrutiny
as a result of numerous violent acts that have been perpetrated around Iraq and Syria. ISIS has asked
other Muslims around the world to join and support its movement. As a result, a lot of Muslims from
different countries have joined ISIS.
ISIS Discourse in Radical
Islamic Online News
Media in Indonesia:
Supporter or Opponent
Fajar Erikha
Universitas Indonesia, Indonesia
Idhamsyah Eka Putra
Persada Indonesia University, Indonesia
Sarlito Wirawan Sarwono
Universitas Indonesia, Indonesia & Persada Indonesia University, Indonesia
586
ISIS Discourse in Radical Islamic Online News Media in Indonesia
Indonesia is one of the most populated Muslim countries in the world (88.2 percent of the 250 million
Indonesians; Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life, 2009) with the majority identifying themselves as
being Sunni Islam. Presently, there are two major schools of thought (madhhab) in Islam, namely Sunni
and Shia Islam. Both schools have each further spawned various other schools of thought. Each has a
different interpretation of Islam. Normally, differences in thoughts and Islamic law are understandable;
as long as the Al-Quran and Hadith are used as the foundation (Okon, 2012), they will still be regarded
as being Muslim thinking.
ISIS has branded itself as one of the many schools of thought in Sunni Islam. This is appealing to
some and hence, Indonesia is considered as a fertile ground for ISIS to recruit new followers. It is inter-
esting to note that the majority of Muslims in Indonesia are moderate, and most of them rejected ISIS
ideology and movement. However, radical groups, which make up the minority, are more aggressive in
spreading their ideology. This is why, many Islamic news sites in Indonesia are categorised as radical
in nature. To the best of our knowledge, radical groups in Indonesia are actively discussing about the
ISIS phenomenon. So far, radical Islamic groups have been found to have different perspectives with
regards to ISIS. The present article discusses the discourses about ISIS in radical Islamic online news
media in Indonesia.
LITERATURE REVIEW
The Islamic State in Iraq and Syria (ISIS)
ISIS is a state as well as a political-military organisation with an orientation towards militant Salafi-
jihadism that is not recognised by the Iraqi and Syrian authority (The Clarion Project, 2015). The name
ISIS was used from 2013 to 2014, and changed into ‘The Islamic State’ after it was declared on June 29,
2014. Abu Bakar Al-Bagdadi was officially appointed as the leader of this group (Caliph). The Islamic
State originally annexed Iraq and Syria because the two countries are considered to be important for the
world jihad movement (Gerges, 2014).
In its journey, ISIS uses the legal interpretation of Islam (Sharia) and imposes its application in areas
under its territorial control. ISIS performs extreme and oppressive acts such as suicide bombings, bank
looting, and executions against those considered as its enemies such as the West (e.g., America, Europe),
as well as other Islamic groups (in Sunni or Shia sub-schools). Furthermore, ISIS propaganda materials
(e.g., execution of all prisoners) have been shared and propagated through print media, Internet, and video.
Terrorism and ISIS in Indonesia
Ever since Abu Bakar Bashir (a former leader of Jemaah Islamiyah and Indonesian Mujahidin Council;
currently, a leader of Jemaah Ansharut Tauhid [JAT]) pledged an allegiance to ISIS in Nusakambangan
prison on July 18, 2014, ISIS has attracted the attention of the Indonesian government (Feillard, 2014).
The Indonesian government immediately took a stand on this matter, and recognise the need to reject,
prevent, and combat ISIS ideology.
On the one hand, opposition to ISIS has been seen across Indonesia. Major religious institutions
such as Nadlatul Ulama (NU) and Muhammadiyah are supporting the stance adopted by the Indonesian
government (“PBNU: Ulama Besar”, 2014; Putra & Sukabdi, 2014). Furthermore, anti-terror Special
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ISIS Discourse in Radical Islamic Online News Media in Indonesia:
Supporter or Opponent
Fajar Erikha (Universitas Indonesia, Indonesia), Idhamsyah Eka Putra (Persada Indonesia University, Indonesia) and Sarlito
Wirawan Sarwono (Universitas Indonesia, Indonesia & Persada Indonesia University, Indonesia)
Source Title: Media Controversy: Breakthroughs in Research and Practice (/book/media-controversy-breakthroughs-research-
practice/224372)
Copyright: © 2020
Pages: 21
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-9869-5.ch034
Top
Abstract
This article aims to understand how discourses about Islamic State in Iraq and Syria (ISIS) are supported and/or rejected by
radical Islamic groups. Data were collected from two Islamic news website: Voa-Islam and Arrahmah. Both websites are
categorised as radical Islamic sites. By using the discursive psychology approach, it was found that when ISIS is viewed as a
group that actualised the establishment of an Islamic State, it is praised and supported. However, when ISIS is deemed to have
killed other fellow Muslims, it is opposed and its movement is considered to be ‘out of Islamic corridors'. Practical implications of
these findings are identified and discussed.
Chapter Preview
Literature Review
The Islamic State in Iraq and Syria (ISIS)
ISIS is a state as well as a political-military organisation with an orientation towards militant Salafi-jihadism that is not recognised
by the Iraqi and Syrian authority (The Clarion Project, 2015). The name ISIS was used from 2013 to 2014, and changed into ‘The
Islamic State’ after it was declared on June 29, 2014. Abu Bakar Al-Bagdadi was officially appointed as the leader of this group
(Caliph). The Islamic State originally annexed Iraq and Syria because the two countries are considered to be important for the
world jihad movement (Gerges, 2014).
In its journey, ISIS uses the legal interpretation of Islam (Sharia) and imposes its application in areas under its territorial control.
ISIS performs extreme and oppressive acts such as suicide bombings, bank looting, and executions against those considered as
its enemies – such as the West (e.g., America, Europe), as well as other Islamic groups (in Sunni or Shia sub-schools).
Furthermore, ISIS propaganda materials (e.g., execution of all prisoners) have been shared and propagated through print media,
Internet, and video.
26/1/2020
ISIS Discourse in Radical Islamic Online News Media in Indonesia: Supporter or Opponent: Social Sciences & Humanities Book Ch
https://www.igi-global.com/chapter/isis-discourse-in-radical-islamic-online-news-media-in-indonesia/235645 2/10
Terrorism and ISIS in Indonesia
Ever since Abu Bakar Bashir (a former leader of Jemaah Islamiyah and Indonesian Mujahidin Council; currently, a leader of
Jemaah Ansharut Tauhid [JAT]) pledged an allegiance to ISIS in Nusakambangan prison on July 18, 2014, ISIS has attracted the
attention of the Indonesian government (Feillard, 2014). The Indonesian government immediately took a stand on this matter, and
recognise the need to reject, prevent, and combat ISIS ideology.
On the one hand, opposition to ISIS has been seen across Indonesia. Major religious institutions such as Nadlatul Ulama (NU)
and Muhammadiyah are supporting the stance adopted by the Indonesian government (“PBNU: Ulama Besar”, 2014; Putra &
Sukabdi, 2014). Furthermore, anti-terror Special Detachment from Indonesian National Police (Densus 88) has arrested 14
people suspected to be ISIS members and sympathisers (T. Sembiring, personal communication, May 17, 2015). On the other
hand, support from Indonesian Muslims towards ISIS has been seen in the form of recognising ISIS as the Islamic Caliphate.
These Muslims pledge allegiance (via an oath of support) to ISIS, and send fighters to join ISIS in Iraq and Syria.
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Editorial Advisory Board View Full PDF (/pdf.aspx?
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Table of Contents View Full PDF (/pdf.aspx?
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Contents&isxn=9781522598695)
Preface View Full PDF (/pdf.aspx?
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Chapter 1
Mediating Social Media's Ambivalences in the Context of Informational Capitalism
(/chapter/mediating-social-medias-ambivalences-in-the-context-of-informational-
capitalism/235607) (pages 1-24)
Marco Briziarelli, Eric Karikari
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Chapter 2
Trans-National Advocacy and the Hashtag Black Lives Matter: Globalisation and
Reception in the UK and France (/chapter/trans-national-advocacy-and-the-hashtag-
black-lives-matter/235608) (pages 25-51)
Danella May Campbell, Marie Chollier
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Chapter 3
Rethinking Media Engagement Strategies for Social Change in Africa: Context,
Approaches, and Implications for Development Communication (/chapter/rethinking-
media-engagement-strategies-for-social-change-in-africa/235609) (pages 52-75)
Adebayo Fayoyin
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Chapter 4
With a Little Help from My Friends: The Irish Radio Industry's Strategic Appropriation
of Facebook for Commercial Growth (/chapter/with-a-little-help-from-my-
friends/235610) (pages 76-90)
Daithi McMahon
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Chapter 5
The Personalized and Personal “Mass” Media – From “We-Broadcast” to “We-Chat”:
Reflection on the Case of Bi Fujian Incident (/chapter/the-personalized-and-personal-
mass-media--from-we-broadcast-to-we-chat/235611) (pages 91-104)
Yu Zhang
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Chapter 6
Radical Political Communication and Social Media: The Case of the Mexican
#YoSoy132 (/chapter/radical-political-communication-and-social-media/235612)
(pages 105-123)
Lázaro M. Bacallao-Pino
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Communication and Social Media: The Case of the Mexican
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Chapter 7
The Resistance of Memories and the Story of Resistance: July 15 Coup Attempt and
Social Movement in Turkey (/chapter/the-resistance-of-memories-and-the-story-of-
resistance/235613) (pages 124-136)
Fadime Dilber
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Chapter 8
We the New Media: The Disruption of Social Media in Interpersonal and Collective
Communication (/chapter/we-the-new-media/235615) (pages 138-157)
Miguel del Fresno
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Chapter 9
Social Media as Public Political Instrument (/chapter/social-media-as-public-political-
instrument/235616) (pages 158-174)
Ikbal Maulana
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Chapter 10
The Politics of Immersive Storytelling: Virtual Reality and the Logics of Digital
Ecosystems (/chapter/the-politics-of-immersive-storytelling/235617) (pages 175-190)
Christian Stiegler
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Chapter 11
Modeling Rumors in Twitter: An Overview (/chapter/modeling-rumors-in-
twitter/235619) (pages 192-215)
Rhythm Walia, M.P.S. Bhatia
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Chapter 12
Contribution of Mindfulness to Individuals' Tendency to Believe and Share Social
Media Content (/chapter/contribution-of-mindfulness-to-individuals-tendency-to-
believe-and-share-social-media-content/235620) (pages 216-235)
Peerayuth Charoensukmongkol
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Chapter 13
Arabic Rumours Identification By Measuring The Credibility Of Arabic Tweet Content
(/chapter/arabic-rumours-identification-by-measuring-the-credibility-of-arabic-tweet-
content/235621) (pages 236-248)
Ahmad Yahya M. Floos
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Chapter 14
Exploring the Complexities Associated to Victimization: Addressing Media
Sensationalism and Race (/chapter/exploring-the-complexities-associated-to-
victimization/235623) (pages 250-261)
Erica Hutton
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Chapter 15
Racial Spectacle and Campus Climate: Media Representations and Asian
International Student Perceptions at U.S. Colleges (/chapter/racial-spectacle-and-
campus-climate/235624) (pages 262-291)
Kenneth Robert Roth, Zachary S. Ritter
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Chapter 16
Portrayal of Women in Nollywood Films and the Role of Women in National
Development (/chapter/portrayal-of-women-in-nollywood-films-and-the-role-of-
women-in-national-development/235625) (pages 292-306)
Suleimanu Usaini, Ngozi M. Chilaka, Nelson Okorie
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Chapter 17
The Digital Politics of Pain: Exploring Female Voices in Afghanistan (/chapter/the-
digital-politics-of-pain/235626) (pages 307-319)
Mary Louisa Cappelli
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Chapter 18
Islamaphobic Discourse and Interethnic Conflict: The Influence of News Media
Coverage of the ISIS Beheadings on Identity Processes and Intergroup Attitudes
(/chapter/islamaphobic-discourse-and-interethnic-conflict/235627) (pages 320-334)
Bobbi J. Van Gilder, Zachary B. Massey
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Chapter 19
The Uses of Science Statistics in the News Media and on Daily Life (/chapter/the-
uses-of-science-statistics-in-the-news-media-and-on-daily-life/235629) (pages 336-
353)
Renata Faria Brandao
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Chapter 20
Naming Crime Suspects in the News: “Seek Truth and Report It” vs. “Minimizing
Harm” (/chapter/naming-crime-suspects-in-the-news/235630) (pages 354-372)
Robin Blom
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Chapter 21
Mediatized Witnessing and the Ethical Imperative of Capture (/chapter/mediatized-
witnessing-and-the-ethical-imperative-of-capture/235631) (pages 373-386)
Sasha A Q Scott
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Chapter 22
Online Free Expression and Its Gatekeepers (/chapter/online-free-expression-and-
its-gatekeepers/235632) (pages 387-398)
Joanna Kulesza
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Chapter 23
Information Control, Transparency, and Social Media: Implications for Corruption
(/chapter/information-control-transparency-and-social-media/235633) (pages 399-
417)
Chandan Kumar Jha
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Chapter 24
Free Speech, Press Freedom, and Democracy in Ghana: A Conceptual and
Historical Overview (/chapter/free-speech-press-freedom-and-democracy-in-
ghana/235634) (pages 418-432)
Murtada Busair Ahmad, Chudey Pride, Anthony Komlatse Corsy
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Freedom, and Democracy in Ghana: A Conceptual and Historical
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Chapter 25
Press Freedom and Socio-Economic Issues in the Nigerian and Ugandan
Democratic Landscape (/chapter/press-freedom-and-socio-economic-issues-in-the-
nigerian-and-ugandan-democratic-landscape/235635) (pages 433-440)
Okorie Nelson
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Economic Issues in the Nigerian and Ugandan Democratic
Landscape&isxn=9781522598695)
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Chapter 26
Neo-Populist Scandal and Social Media: The Finnish Olli Immonen Affair
(/chapter/neo-populist-scandal-and-social-media/235637) (pages 442-459)
Juha Herkman, Janne Matikainen
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Chapter 27
Interacting with Whom?: Swedish Parliamentarians on Twitter during the 2014
Elections (/chapter/interacting-with-whom/235638) (pages 460-476)
Jakob Svensson, Anders Olof Larsson
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Swedish Parliamentarians on Twitter during the 2014 Elections&isxn=9781522598695)
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Chapter 28
Understanding the Role of Media in South Asia (/chapter/understanding-the-role-of-
media-in-south-asia/235639) (pages 477-496)
Sukanya Natarajan
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Chapter 29
Social Media and the Public Sphere in China: A Case Study of Political Discussion
on Weibo after the Wenzhou High-Speed Rail Derailment Accident (/chapter/social-
media-and-the-public-sphere-in-china/235640) (pages 497-512)
Zhou Shan, Lu Tang
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Chapter 30
Media Mediate Sentiments: Exploratory Analysis of Tweets Posted Before, During,
and After the Great East Japan Earthquake (/chapter/media-mediate-
sentiments/235641) (pages 513-527)
Naohiro Matsumura, Asako Miura, Masashi Komori, Kai Hiraishi
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Exploratory Analysis of Tweets Posted Before, During, and After the Great East Japan
Earthquake&isxn=9781522598695)
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Chapter 31
The Role of Mass Media in Women's Participation in 2013 Kenya General Election
(/chapter/the-role-of-mass-media-in-womens-participation-in-2013-kenya-general-
election/235642) (pages 528-548)
Thomas Ibrahim Okinda
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Women's Participation in 2013 Kenya General Election&isxn=9781522598695)
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Chapter 32
Kenya's Difficult Political Transitions Ethnicity and the Role of Media
(/chapter/kenyas-difficult-political-transitions-ethnicity-and-the-role-of-media/235643)
(pages 549-561)
Wilson Ugangu
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Transitions Ethnicity and the Role of Media&isxn=9781522598695)
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Chapter 33
Media Coverage of the 2009 Afghan Presidential Election (/chapter/media-coverage-
of-the-2009-afghan-presidential-election/235644) (pages 562-584)
Christopher Strelluf
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2009 Afghan Presidential Election&isxn=9781522598695)
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26/1/2020
ISIS Discourse in Radical Islamic Online News Media in Indonesia: Supporter or Opponent: Social Sciences & Humanities Book Ch
https://www.igi-global.com/chapter/isis-discourse-in-radical-islamic-online-news-media-in-indonesia/235645 8/10
Chapter 34
ISIS Discourse in Radical Islamic Online News Media in Indonesia: Supporter or
Opponent (/chapter/isis-discourse-in-radical-islamic-online-news-media-in-
indonesia/235645) (pages 585-605)
Fajar Erikha, Idhamsyah Eka Putra, Sarlito Wirawan Sarwono
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Islamic Online News Media in Indonesia: Supporter or Opponent&isxn=9781522598695)
$37.50
Chapter 35
The Press and the Emergent Political Class in Nigeria: Media, Elections, and
Democracy (/chapter/the-press-and-the-emergent-political-class-in-nigeria/235646)
(pages 606-618)
Ibitayo Samuel Popoola
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Emergent Political Class in Nigeria: Media, Elections, and
Democracy&isxn=9781522598695)
$37.50
Chapter 36
Ethical and Legal Challenges of Election Reporting in Nigeria: A Study of Four
General Elections, 1999-2011 (/chapter/ethical-and-legal-challenges-of-election-
reporting-in-nigeria/235647) (pages 619-641)
Tayo Popoola
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Challenges of Election Reporting in Nigeria: A Study of Four General Elections, 1999-
2011&isxn=9781522598695)
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Chapter 37
Communicating Democracy through Participatory Radio in Nigeria: The Question of
Political Economy (/chapter/communicating-democracy-through-participatory-radio-
in-nigeria/235648) (pages 642-657)
Murtada Busair Ahmad, Kamaldin Abdulsalam Babatunde
Sample PDF (/viewtitlesample.aspx?id=235648&ptid=224372&t=Communicating Democracy
through Participatory Radio in Nigeria: The Question of Political
Economy&isxn=9781522598695)
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Chapter 38
Social Media and Infectious Disease Perceptions in a Multicultural Society
(/chapter/social-media-and-infectious-disease-perceptions-in-a-multicultural-
society/235650) (pages 659-676)
Maria Elena Villar, Elizabeth Marsh
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Disease Perceptions in a Multicultural Society&isxn=9781522598695)
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Chapter 39
Media Campaign on Exclusive Breastfeeding: Awareness, Perception, and
Acceptability Among Mothers in Anambra State, Nigeria (/chapter/media-campaign-
on-exclusive-breastfeeding/235651) (pages 677-698)
Nkiru Comfort Ezeh
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Exclusive Breastfeeding: Awareness, Perception, and Acceptability Among Mothers in
Anambra State, Nigeria&isxn=9781522598695)
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26/1/2020
ISIS Discourse in Radical Islamic Online News Media in Indonesia: Supporter or Opponent: Social Sciences & Humanities Book Ch
https://www.igi-global.com/chapter/isis-discourse-in-radical-islamic-online-news-media-in-indonesia/235645 9/10
Chapter 40
Awareness and Education on Viral Infections in Nigeria Using Edutainment
(/chapter/awareness-and-education-on-viral-infections-in-nigeria-using-
edutainment/235652) (pages 699-714)
Suleimanu Usaini, Tolulope Kayode-Adedeji, Olufunke Omole, Tunji Oyedepo
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on Viral Infections in Nigeria Using Edutainment&isxn=9781522598695)
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Chapter 41
The Benefits and Challenges of New Media for Intercultural Conflict (/chapter/the-
benefits-and-challenges-of-new-media-for-intercultural-conflict/235654) (pages 716-
735)
Amy Janan Johnson, Sun Kyong Lee, Ioana A. Cionea, Zachary B. Massey
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Challenges of New Media for Intercultural Conflict&isxn=9781522598695)
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Chapter 42
Art, Values, and Conflict Waged in Satirical Cartoons: The 10-Year Rhetorical Crisis
(/chapter/art-values-and-conflict-waged-in-satirical-cartoons/235655) (pages 736-
756)
Z. Hall
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Waged in Satirical Cartoons: The 10-Year Rhetorical Crisis&isxn=9781522598695)
$37.50
Chapter 43
Postracial Justice and the Trope of the “Race Riot” (/chapter/postracial-justice-and-
the-trope-of-the-race-riot/235656) (pages 757-774)
Jennifer Heusel
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Trope of the “Race Riot”&isxn=9781522598695)
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Chapter 44
Using Media to Resolve Media Engendered Ethnic Conflicts in Multiracial Societies:
The Case of Somalis of Kenyan Origin (/chapter/using-media-to-resolve-media-
engendered-ethnic-conflicts-in-multiracial-societies/235657) (pages 775-795)
Agnes Lucy Lando
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Media Engendered Ethnic Conflicts in Multiracial Societies: The Case of Somalis of Kenyan
Origin&isxn=9781522598695)
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Chapter 45
Boko Haram Insurgency in Cameroon: Role of Mass Media in Conflict Management
(/chapter/boko-haram-insurgency-in-cameroon/235658) (pages 796-814)
Afu Isaiah Kunock
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Cameroon: Role of Mass Media in Conflict Management&isxn=9781522598695)
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Index View Full PDF (/pdf.aspx?
tid=235659&ptid=224372&ctid=17&t=Index&isxn=9781522598695)
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ISIS Discourse in Radical Islamic Online News Media in Indonesia: Supporter or Opponent: Social Sciences & Humanities Book Ch
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... terrorists and their supporters have been known to publicise their perceived grievances via social media (Carter et al., 2014;Pearson, 2018), whilst at the same time, highlight their frustration and hatred (Erikha et al., 2016;Torok, 2016). ...
... These scholarly works contribute insights about the motivations, such as perceived grievances, pursuit for significance, need for excitement, need for belonging, that motivate self-radicalised individuals. c) Persuasive features of radical online discourse and discussions (e.g.,Andre, 2012;Bhui & Ibrahim, 2013;Cohen & Kaati, 2018;Dauber & Winkler, 2014;Erikha et al., 2016;Macnair & Frank, 2017;Mahood & Rane, 2017;Torok, 2016). Insights gleaned from these studies enhance our knowledge about how the radical narratives propagated by terrorists may appeal to certain individuals. ...
Thesis
Full-text available
The ubiquity of online radicalisation warrants the need for law enforcement to learn how to harness open-source intelligence to assess the threat posed and identify potential terrorists in advance. Although much is known about the online radicalisation process, there is a lack of risk assessment instruments developed specifically for online radicalisation, as well as little empirical research in this field. To address these research gaps, this thesis aims to articulate a set of person-centric and psychosocial risk factors and protective factors for identifying radicalisation in social media posts. Five studies were conducted. The first study (chapter 3) involved the use of a modified Delphi technique and literature review to derive a list of 12 factors and 42 indicators. The second study (chapter 4) served as a pilot to map the said factors and indicators to two groups of supporters of terrorists who have been influenced by radical online propaganda. These two groups comprise individuals who travelled to join the Islamic State in Iraq and Syria [ISIS] (i.e., foreign fighters), and individuals who did not travel to join ISIS (i.e., sympathisers). Next, the third study (chapter 5) built upon study 2 and incorporated changes to the research design (e.g., use of multidimensional scaling, logistic regression) to map the factors and indicators to a larger sample of ISIS foreign fighters and sympathisers. The fourth study (chapter 6) was designed to replicate the research methodology of study 3 using a different sample (i.e., Kurdish fighters) to compare against ISIS fighters. Finally, the fifth study (chapter 7) detailed a survey conducted with members of the community (NTU undergraduates and MTurk workers) on their perceptions towards the indicators and their general understanding of online radicalisation and terrorism. The practical, methodological, and theoretical implications of this research as well as suggestions for future studies are discussed in chapter 8.
Article
Full-text available
This paper focuses on the emergence of nuanced political radicalism in various official forums and social media, which are believed to have implications for the integrity of the Unitary Republic of Indonesia. This research is qualitative with a literature review. The literature review is under discussion by looking for references related to issues and acts of radicalism that threaten national unity. The data analysis collects various references related to the discussion carried out and examines them from several references. This research finds that the issues and actions that occur in Indonesia are not new because of the existence of groups that are not in line with the government's thinking so that in political nuances, this becomes a very urgent matter. The state considers this problem to have implications for the existence of the current ruler. At the same time, radicalism has been increasingly heard since the digital era, where all citizens, who practice and sympathize with others, will all be channeled through the internet so that issues of radicalism and the power of unity can be found through internet access.
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter seeks to answer the question of whether a microblog can function as a promising form of public sphere. Utilizing a combined framework of public sphere based on the theories of Mouffe and Dahlgren, it examines the political discussion and interrogation on Sina Weibo, China's leading microblog site, concerning the Wenzhou high-speed train derailment accident in July of 2011 through a critical discourse analysis. Its results suggest that Weibo enables the creation of new social imaginary and genre of discourse as well as the construction of new social identities.
Article
Full-text available
The article addresses the use of the internet by Islamic social movement organizations (SMOs), focusing on the case of Justice and Charity (JC), the biggest opposition political group in Morocco. It examines the extent to which the SMO exploits the potential of the medium in collective action, and the implications of this use for the SMO’s capacity to advance its cause and resist state repression. Drawing on social movement and radical democracy theories, the study highlights the implications of the internet for collective identity‐building in the political project of the Islamic SMO. The article argues that while JC draws extensively on the internet to enhance collective identity‐construction and build an antagonistic public sphere, it fails to benefit from the potential of the medium to promote gender equality and genuine participative communication, and to build an agonistic political sphere.
Chapter
Full-text available
Our aim in this chapter is to show how discursive psychology (DP) deals with psychological states and characteristics. We do this in several ways: by defining what DP is, by demonstrating it analytically, and by discussing various criticisms and misunderstandings of it. As for defining it, DP works in three closely related ways: Respecification and critique. Standard psychological topics are respecified as discourse practices. Topics recognized in mainstream psychology such as ‘memory’, ‘causal attribution’, ‘script’ knowledge, and so on, are re-worked in terms of discourse practices.We study how people ordinarily, as part of everyday activities, report and explain actions and events, how they characterize the actors in those events, and how they manage various implications generated in the act of reporting. DP often generates a critical stance on cognitive psychology. For example, cognitive theory and measurement of ‘attitudes’ is criticized and replaced by the study of argumentative and evaluative practices in discourse (Billig, 1987; Potter, 1998a; Potter and Wetherell, 1987; Wiggins, 2002; Wiggins and Potter, 2003). Similarly, cognitive methods and theory on ‘causal attribution’ are critically opposed by analyses of how people manage accountability in everyday talk (Antaki, 1994; Edwards and Potter, 1992a, 1993). The psychological thesaurus. DP explores the situated, occasioned, rhetorical uses of the rich common sense psychological lexicon or thesaurus: terms such as angry, jealous, know, believe, feel, want, and so on. For example, expressions such as ‘I don't know’, or ‘your angry stage’ are examined for the local contrasts and interactional work for which they are used (e.g., Edwards, 1995; Potter, 1998b). By grounding such studies in empirical materials, we are able to explore the ways in which concepts such as ‘know’ or ‘angry’ are used interactionally and rhetorically, with regard to specific, locally relevant alternative descriptions. We develop some examples in this chapter.
Article
Full-text available
The current study aims to understand victim blaming of Ahmadiyya group by majority Sunni Islam in Indonesia. We included ingroup essentialisation, outgroup essentialisation, identity undermining and belief in conspiracy theory as predictors of victim blaming. Results of a survey among 147 Muslims majority Sunni Islam shows that the relationship between identity undermining and victim blaming is stronger for individuals holding ingroup de-essentialisation compared to those with ingroup essentialisation. Moreover, belief in conspiracy theory was found to mediate the effect of the interaction variable of identity undermining and ingroup essentialisation on victim blaming. In addition, outgroup essentialisation was found correlated with belief in conspiracy theory but did not play a significant role to moderate the effect of identity undermining on belief in conspiracy theory and victim blaming. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.
Chapter
Due to varied reasons, all nations host people of diverse cultural backgrounds. Kenya, a nation of 40 million people with over 40 tribes, is not exempt. Further, Kenya, like any other nation, suffers ethnic conflicts. The most pronounced ethnic conflicts have been the 2007-2008 Post Election Violence and the 1990s land clashes. These clashes were visible to the local and international community because people were killed, displaced and properties destroyed. However, there is a covert ethnic conflict in Kenya. This is the subtle plight of the Somalis of Kenya origin who find themselves in constant conflict with the “other” Kenyans. Based on 2014 research findings, this chapter exposes the ethnic conflicts Somalis of Kenyan origin endure. From the findings, it is apparent that the ethnic plights of Somalis of Kenyan origin are media engendered and can, to a great extent, be resolved by media.
Chapter
Historical discourse analysis has reached maturity in the past 30 years, the result, in part, of improving sources of, and access to, data, as well as expanded conceptions of both discourse analysis and historical linguistics. The field encompasses both the (synchronic) study of discourse-pragmatic categories in one particular historical period of a language and the (diachronic) study of the development of discourse-pragmatic categories over time. It intersects with historical linguistics proper, which is increasingly interested in the discourse-pragmatic factors responsible for language changes. The field may be interpreted either more broadly, with a focus on interactional aspects of the situation of discourse, such as speech acts and politeness, or more narrowly, with a focus on formal aspects of texts, such as discourse markers and information-structuring
Article
There is no simple or quick solution to rid the Middle East of ISIS because it is a manifestation of the breakdown of state institutions and the spread of sectarian fires in the region.