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Building on two studies, this research explored thriving at work by considering task identity and autonomy as its antecedents and job satisfaction as its outcome, with a focus on the moderating role of mentoring. Through a three-wave survey conducted among 140 Chinese university students with volunteer work, Study 1 found that task identity and autonomy positively predicted thriving, which in turn was positively related to job satisfaction. This mediation effect of thriving was verified in Study 2 with a sample of 522 Australian student nurses undertaking a clinical placement job. Supporting the moderating role of mentoring, Study 2 also found that the effect of task identity on
thriving as well as its indirect effect on job satisfaction via thriving became weaker when the quality of mentoring increased. These results not only offer important theoretical insights by confirming relatively new antecedents of thriving and their boundary condition (i.e., mentoring), but also generate practical implications regarding how to use motivating
job characteristics and relational resources to foster positive individuals with enhanced well-being at work.
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.
... Recent studies also indicate that thriving employees are more likely to engage in takingcharge behavior, which can bring constructive change for organizations . Besides the practical benefits, many scholars regard thriving at work as a mediator that can explain the impact of individual characteristics (e.g., Alikaj et al., 2020), leadership (e.g., Niessen et al., 2017;Xu et al., 2017;Li et al., 2019), and organizational contextual factors (e.g., Chang and Busser, 2020;Jiang et al., 2020) on favorable organizational outcomes (e.g., creativity, job satisfaction, and taking charge). For example, Hildenbrand et al.'s (2018) empirical study demonstrated that transformational leadership can decrease burnout via enhancing thriving at work. ...
... For example, it has been shown that authentic leadership (Xu et al., 2017), empowering leadership (Li et al., 2016), service leadership (Jo et al., 2020), and transformational leadership (Lin et al., 2020) are all positively related to employees' thriving. The third part of the research explores the effect of job and organizational factors (e.g., Prem et al., 2017;Jiang et al., 2020;Strecker et al., 2020). Along with this research stream, some scholars demonstrated that job autonomy (Strecker et al., 2020), workplace civility (Abid et al., 2018), and organizational justice (Kim and Beehr, 2020) are key variables in fostering employees' thriving. ...
Employees who thrive contribute to their organization’s competitive advantage and sustainable performance. The aim of this study was to explore how employees’ thriving is shaped by their leaders’ behavior. Drawing on social learning theory, we examined the relationship between perceived leader’s helping behavior and employees’ thriving. Positing voice behavior as a mediator and perceived leader’s role overload as a moderator, we constructed a moderated mediation model. Using 205 daily data points from 51 employees in various industries, we found that perceived leader’s helping behavior had a positive effect on employees’ thriving at work and that employees’ voice behavior mediated this effect. With the increase of perceived leader’s role overload, the positive relationship between perceived leader’s helping behavior and employees’ voice behavior as well as the indirect effect of perceived leader’s helping behavior on employees’ thriving via employees’ voice behavior were increasingly strong. The findings of our study have implications for research on employees’ thriving at work, leaders’ helping behavior, and social learning theory. There are also practical implications for the behavior of leaders who experience role overload.
Thriving at work refers to a positive psychological state characterized by a joint sense of vitality and learning. Based on Spreitzer and colleagues’ (2005) model, we present a comprehensive meta-analysis of antecedents and outcomes of thriving at work (K = 73 independent samples, N = 21,739 employees). Results showed that thriving at work is associated with individual characteristics, such as psychological capital (rc = .47), proactive personality (rc = .58), positive affect (rc = .52), and work engagement (rc = .64). Positive associations were also found between thriving at work and relational characteristics, including supportive coworker behavior (rc = .42), supportive leadership behavior (rc= .44), and perceived organizational support (rc = .63). Moreover, thriving at work is related to important employee outcomes, including health-related outcomes like burnout (rc = -.53), attitudinal outcomes like commitment (rc = .65), and performance-related outcomes like task performance (rc = .35). The results of relative weights analyses suggest that thriving exhibits small, albeit incremental predictive validity above and beyond positive affect and work engagement, for task performance, job satisfaction, subjective health, and burnout. Overall, the findings of this meta-analysis support Spreitzer and colleagues’ (2005) model and underscore the importance of thriving in the work context.
Ample research demonstrates that workplace incivility has individual and organisational costs, but an important question remains unanswered: might it have benefits as well? We investigate this possibility by focusing on incivility appraisals—both negative and challenge appraisals (i.e. as an opportunity for learning, growth)—and their correlates. To explain this diversity of appraisals, we examine whether attributions (i.e. perceived intent to harm, perceived perpetrator control) predict perceptions. We conducted two multi-method (quantitative and qualitative) surveys, one of which was multi-source, of employees across a range of occupations. In Study 1, attributions that perpetrators acted with control and malicious intent fuelled negative appraisals of incivility, which undermined job satisfaction. Study 2 added to these findings by demonstrating that some targets formed challenge appraisals of uncivil encounters, especially when they attributed low malicious intent to perpetrators; challenge appraisal related to boosts in job satisfaction and thriving. These attitudinal outcomes then positively related to organisational citizenship behaviour, as reported by targets' coworkers. Showing paths to incivility harm (and potential benefit), our findings can inform interventions to alter the impact of workplace incivility.
Conservation of resources theory is employed to examine the effect of workplace support on thriving at work and the mediation of thriving at work on the workplace support and life satisfaction relationship using data on white-collar workers in China. We find that workplace support is positively related to thriving at work and thriving at work is positively related to life satisfaction. We also find that thriving at work fully mediates the relationship between life satisfaction and supervisor support, while the relationship between life satisfaction and coworker support is partially mediated by thriving at work. Consistent with the COR caravan and spillover hypothesis, we conclude that thriving at work is a mechanism that transmits the positive effects of workplace support on life satisfaction. The research findings suggest that an increase in workplace support can benefit both individuals and organizations by improving individuals’ thriving at work and life satisfaction.
This theoretical paper differentiates work engagement from the burnout concept by using a task-level perspective. Specifically, I argue that work engagement (i.e., the experience of vigor, dedication and absorption, Schaufeli & Bakker, 2004) emerges during the process of working. It does not only differ between persons and does not only fluctuate from one day to the other (or even within the course of a day), but can vary largely between different work tasks. Burnout (and particularly exhaustion) as a chronic state does not differ from one work task to the other. I describe task features derived from the job characteristics model (Hackman & Oldham, 1976) as predictors of task-specific work engagement and discuss interaction effects between task features on the one hand and job-level social and personal resources on the other hand. I outline possible avenues for future research and address practical implications, including task design and employee's energy management throughout the workday.
Common method variance (CMV) is an ongoing topic of debate and concern in the organizational literature. We present four latent variable confirmatory factor analysis model designs for assessing and controlling for CMV—those for unmeasured latent method constructs, Marker Variables, Measured Cause Variables, as well as a new hybrid design wherein these three types of method latent variables are used concurrently. We then describe a comprehensive analysis strategy that can be used with these four designs and provide a demonstration using the new design, the Hybrid Method Variables Model. In our discussion, we comment on different issues related to implementing these designs and analyses, provide supporting practical guidance, and, finally, advocate for the use of the Hybrid Method Variables Model. Through these means, we hope to promote a more comprehensive and consistent approach to the assessment of CMV in the organizational literature and more extensive use of hybrid models that include multiple types of latent method variables to assess CMV.
Despite an increasing number of studies investigating the effects of mentoring on employee work outcomes, limited attention has been placed on the relationship between mentoring functions and turnover intentions. In this study, we examined the relationship between mentoring functions and turnover intentions, and the mediating role of perceived organizational support (POS) on this relationship. Using data collected from 176 employees in three Chinese banks, we found that POS partially mediated the relationship between mentoring functions and employees' turnover intentions.
In this research, we develop a theoretical model that links a 2-dimensional model of stressors to individual thriving, resilience, and life satisfaction to examine the possibility that some stressors may actually be beneficial. We test this model across a 10-week period with 189 university students. Our findings indicate that while hindrance stressors diminish appraisals of life satisfaction, challenge stressors promote life satisfaction. Additionally, we find that thriving mediates the relationships between stressors and life satisfaction. A further moderated mediation examination demonstrates how resilience influences thriving as an intervening mechanism by buffering the negative indirect effects in the hindrance stressor-life satisfaction relationship. Our results provide initial support for understanding the psychological mechanisms that explain the differential relationships between stressors and life satisfaction. Although stressful experiences can never be fully avoided, our results provide some hope that resilient individuals can still thrive in stressful environments that promote personal challenges and achievement.
We conceptualize a multilevel framework that examines the manifestation of abusive supervision in team settings and its implications for the team and individual members. Drawing on Hackman's (1992) typology of ambient and discretionary team stimuli, our model features team-level abusive supervision (the average level of abuse reported by team members) and individual-level abusive supervision as simultaneous and interacting forces. We further draw on team-relevant theories of social influence to delineate two proximal outcomes of abuse-members' organization-based self-esteem (OBSE) at the individual level and relationship conflict at the team level-that channel the independent and interactive effects of individual- and team-level abuse onto team members' voice, team-role performance, and turnover intentions. Results from a field study and a scenario study provided support for these multilevel pathways. We conclude that abusive supervision in team settings holds toxic consequences for the team and individual, and offer practical implications as well as suggestions for future research on abusive supervision as a multilevel phenomenon. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
Many theories in management, psychology, and other disciplines rely on moderating variables: those which affect the strength or nature of the relationship between two other variables. Despite the near-ubiquitous nature of such effects, the methods for testing and interpreting them are not always well understood. This article introduces the concept of moderation and describes how moderator effects are tested and interpreted for a series of model types, beginning with straightforward two-way interactions with Normal outcomes, moving to three-way and curvilinear interactions, and then to models with non-Normal outcomes including binary logistic regression and Poisson regression. In particular, methods of interpreting and probing these latter model types, such as simple slope analysis and slope difference tests, are described. It then gives answers to twelve frequently asked questions about testing and interpreting moderator effects.
Much research shows it is possible to design motivating work, which has positive consequences for individuals and their organizations. This article reviews research that adopts this motivational perspective on work design, and it emphasizes that it is important to continue to refine motivational theories. In light of continued large numbers of poor-quality jobs, attention must also be given to influencing practice and policy to promote the effective implementation of enriched work designs. Nevertheless, current and future work-based challenges mean that designing work for motivation is necessary but insufficient. This review argues that work design can be a powerful vehicle for learning and development, for maintaining and enhancing employees' physical and mental health, and for achieving control and flexibility simultaneously (for example, in the form of ambidexterity); all these outcomes are important given the challenges in today's workplaces. The review concludes by suggesting methodological directions. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Psychology Volume 65 is January 03, 2014. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/catalog/pubdates.aspx for revised estimates.
According to balance theory (Heider, 1958), when 2 coworkers develop different levels of leader-member exchange (LMX) relationships with their supervisor, a triadic relational imbalance will arise among the 3 parties that may result in hostile sentiments and poor social interactions between them. This study examines the consequences and psychological processes of (dis)similar levels of LMX on the interpersonal interactions between coworkers. Using data from 2 independent studies, the results of social relations analyses show that (a) actual (dis)similarity in LMX between Coworkers A and B increases Coworker A's feelings of contempt for Coworker B and decreases Coworker A's perception of help received from Coworker B (Study 1); (b) Coworker A is more likely to experience contempt for Coworker B when Coworker A perceives that he/she has a higher or lower level of LMX compared to Coworker B than when Coworker A perceives that his/her level of LMX is similar to Coworker B's (Study 2); and (c) these relationships only hold true for employees with a high social comparison orientation (SCO) in both Studies 1 and 2. Particularly, in Study 1, we also show that contempt is a crucial mediator that transmits the interactive effect of LMX (dis)similarity and SCO on perceptions of help received from coworkers. Furthermore, an average level of perceived help from coworkers is positively related to the sales performance of individual employees. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).
As organizations seek to increase flexibility and reduce costs, temporary work arrangements have increased. In this article, the authors argue that these workers can be the targets of devalued treatment. They develop a model of the individual and organizational antecedents and consequences of temporary worker stigmatization. Then, they articulate the implications of this model for research on workplace stigma and effective utilization of temporary workers.
hriving describes an individual's experience of vitality and learning. The primary goal of this paper is to develop a model that illuminates the social embeddedness of employees' thriving at work. First, we explain why thriving is a useful theoretical construct, define thriving, and compare it to related constructs, including resilience, flourishing, subjective well-being, flow, and self-actualization. Second, we describe how work contexts facilitate agentic work behaviors, which in turn produce resources in the doing of work and serve as the engine of thriving. Third, we describe how thriving serves as a gauge to facilitate self-adaptation at work. We conclude by highlighting key theoretical contributions of the model and suggesting directions for future research.
This study aimed to better understand the psychologicalmechanisms, referred to in the job demands–resourcesmodel as the
energetic and motivational processes, that can explain relationships between job demands (role overload and ambiguity),
job resources (job control and social support), and burnout (emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal
accomplishment). Drawing on self-determination theory, we examined whether psychological resources (perceived
autonomy, competence, and relatedness) act as specific mediators between particular job demands and burnout as well as
between job resources and burnout. Participants were 356 school board employees. Results of the structural equation
analyses provide support for our hypothesized model, which proposes that certain job demands and resources are involved
in both the energetic and motivational processes—given their relationships with psychological resources—and that they
distinctively predict burnout components. Implications for burnout research and management practices are discussed.
The purpose of the present study is to investigate relationships between mentoring others, perceptions of career plateauing, and job attitudes. A total of 306 government employees located in the southeastern United States completed surveys (50.08% response rate). Of these, 110 reported experi- ence as a mentor. As expected, the results indicated that mentoring others was associated with more favorable job attitudes, whereas greater job content and hierarchical plateauing was associated with less favorable job attitudes. The results provided mixed support that mentoring others may alleviate the negative consequences associated with career plateauing. Specifically, the results indicated that mentor experience and psychosocial mentoring moderated the relationship for job content plateauing. Similar relationships were not found for hierarchical plateauing. Implications and future research suggestions are provided.
We introduce social networks theory and methods as a way of understanding mentoring in the current career context. We first introduce a typology of "developmental networks" using core concepts from social networks theory - network diversity and tie strength - to view mentoring as a multiple relationship phenomenon. We then propose a framework illustrating factors that shape developmental network structures and offer propositions focusing on the developmental consequences for individuals having different types of developmental networks in their careers. We conclude with strategies both for testing our propositions and for researching multiple developmental relationships further.
The authors of this study sought to examine the relationships among teachers' years of experience, teacher characteristics (gender and teaching level), three domains of self-efficacy (instructional strategies, classroom management, and student engagement), two types of job stress (workload and classroom stress), and job satisfaction with a sample of 1,430 practicing teachers using factor analysis, item response modeling, systems of equations, and a structural equation model. Teachers' years of experience showed nonlinear relationships with all three self-efficacy factors, increasing from early career to mid-career and then falling afterwards. Female teachers had greater workload stress, greater classroom stress from student behaviors, and lower classroom management self-efficacy. Teachers with greater workload stress had greater classroom management self-efficacy, whereas teachers with greater classroom stress had lower self-efficacy and lower job satisfaction. Those teaching young children (in elementary grades and kindergarten) had higher levels of self-efficacy for classroom management and student engagement. Lastly, teachers with greater classroom management self-efficacy or greater instructional strategies self-efficacy had greater job satisfaction. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
The increasing number of self-report surveys being collected using computers has led to a body of literature examining the response rates for computerized surveys compared with the more traditional paper-and-pencil method. However, results from individual studies have been inconsistent, and the meta-analyses available on this topic have included studies from a restricted range of years and did not use proper statistical procedures for examining comparability. Consequently, we conducted a meta-analysis with 96 independent effect sizes spanning over two decades of studies; we also assessed potential moderators. Comparability was determined using confidence interval equivalence testing procedures. The meta-analysis indicated nonequivalence, with those in the paper-and-pencil condition being almost twice as likely to return surveys as those in the computer condition. There was large heterogeneity of variance, and 11 of the 18 potential moderators were significant. Two meta-regressions yielded only two significant unique moderators: population and type of measure. Results highlighted issues within the response rate literature that can be addressed in future studies, as well as provided an example of using equivalence testing in meta-analyses.
We develop and test a model of successful aging at work in 2 studies. The first identifies key human resource (HR) practices that late-career workers find valuable, and explores workers’ experiences of them. The second examines the role of those practices along with individual behavioral strategies in successful aging at work, as expressed by a
sense of thriving and by 3 dimensions of job performance. We also introduce the new construct of surviving at work, contrasting with thriving. Study 1 reports qualitative data from interviews with 37 older workers (nearly all 55+) and 10 HR managers in the United Kingdom and Bulgarian healthcare and information and communication technology
sectors. Study 2 employs quantitative data from 853 U.K. older workers in the same 2 sectors. We find (Study 1) 8 types of HR practices that seem particularly salient to older workers, and which they experience to varying extents. These practices cut across existing typologies, and we recommend them for future research. In Study 2 we find that
selection, optimization, and compensation strategies adopted by individuals are directly related to self-rated job performance, and mediate some of the effects of HR practices on job performance. In addition, optimization specifically affects performance via thriving, and to a lesser extent via surviving. The same is true for availability of HR practices.
The results demonstrate the importance of both HR practices and individual strategies in fostering successful aging at work, and the important role of thriving in this process.
In a fast changing and fast-paced global workplace, where maintaining competitive advantage is paramount to success, identifying ways of sustaining employee well-being is of increasing importance to a range of stakeholders, both within the context of work and beyond. Within the workplace, well-being is important not only to individual employees in terms of maintaining their own good health, but also to managers and organisations as there is evidence to suggest that poor well-being at work can have adverse effects on performance and overall productivity. Beyond the workplace, health service providers must manage the potential burden of poor individual and population health, exacerbated in many nations by ageing workforces. Given the existing evidence linking employee well-being to key organisational outcomes such as performance and productivity, identifying ways to enhance employee well-being is, arguably, a core function of contemporary human resource professionals. However, the juxtaposition of an increased focus on well-being at work and the current business climate of needing to do more with less can pose significant challenges for HRM professionals in contemporary organisations. In this paper we examine some of the key issues of pertinence to researchers in the field of HRM and well-being, and propose a number of areas for future research.
Self-regulating work groups are a promising alternative to traditional forms of work design. Their emergence from socio-technical systems theory and field experimentation is discussed, and their theoretical bases and implementation strategies presented. Managerial functions appropriate to their design and supervision are also proposed.
We examined whether job engagement mediated the effects of organizational justice dimensions on work behaviors and attitudes. Considering distributive and procedural justice from a motivational perspective, we proposed that job engagement would mediate these two dimensions' relations with the work outcomes of task performance, organizational citizenship behavior, and job satisfaction. We also expected this mediation effect would be magnified when senior management trust (SMT) was high. Our results showed that the simple mediation model was supported only for distributive justice. Alternatively, the indirect effect of procedural justice on work outcomes through job engagement was significant only when SMT was high. Implications of our findings and areas for future research are discussed. Copyright
Studies that combine moderation and mediation are prevalent in basic and applied psychology research. Typically, these studies are framed in terms of moderated mediation or mediated moderation, both of which involve similar analytical approaches. Unfortunately, these approaches have important shortcomings that conceal the nature of the moderated and the mediated effects under investigation. This article presents a general analytical framework for combining moderation and mediation that integrates moderated regression analysis and path analysis. This framework clarifies how moderator variables influence the paths that constitute the direct, indirect, and total effects of mediated models. The authors empirically illustrate this framework and give step-by-step instructions for estimation and interpretation. They summarize the advantages of their framework over current approaches, explain how it subsumes moderated mediation and mediated moderation, and describe how it can accommodate additional moderator and mediator variables, curvilinear relationships, and structural equation models with latent variables.
This article presents two studies that examine the moderated serial multiple mediation model between Family Supportive Supervisors Behaviors (FSSB) and individual’s thriving at work through psychological availability and work-family enrichment at conditional levels of need for caring. Drawing on the Resource-Gain-Development framework (Wayne et al., 2007) and self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985), the results of the 6-month time-lagged data demonstrate, in Study 1 (Italian sample = 156), that FSSB is associated with greater individual
thriving at work via work-family enrichment and that this indirect relationship is significant exclusively for those who perceive a higher need for caring. In Study 2 (Chinese sample = 356), the results demonstrate the relationship between FSSB and thriving at work is serially mediated by both psychological availability and work-family enrichment at conditional level of need for caring. In particular, the results demonstrate that individuals with a higher need for caring responded more favorably to the presence of a family supportive supervisor than those
experiencing a lower need for caring. Implications for research and practice are discussed.
– The purpose of this paper is to test the relation between employee goal orientation and occupational withdrawal intentions and behaviors considering employee satisfaction a mediator in the relations.
– Survey data were obtained from a sample of 241 licensed real estate professionals using a self-administrated questionnaire. Mediation hypotheses were tested using Smart PLS.
– The results indicate that job satisfaction fully mediates the relation between learning goal orientation and occupational withdrawal intentions and behaviors. A direct positive relation was found between avoid goal orientation and occupational withdrawal intentions and behaviors.
– Worker shortages in many occupations increases the importance of the ability to understand and predict occupational withdrawal behaviors.
– This study adds to the literature by considering goal orientation as an individual employee characteristics central in predicting and understanding occupational attitudes and withdrawal intentions and behaviors.
This study was designed to test the relationship between perceived social impact, social worth, supervisor-rated job performance (one month later), and mediating effects by commitment to customers and work engagement. The hypotheses were tested with SEM analysis in a field study with 370 customer service employees from bank, retail, and sales positions. Results confirm that perceived social impact is associated with better job performance and that this relationship is mediated by work engagement. Furthermore, results support a second mediating mechanism in which perceived social impact and social worth are associated with engagement through affective commitment to customers. Finally, it was found that engaged employees are rated as better performers by supervisors one month later. This study supports the motivational approach to performance and highlights the role that interactions with customers may play in motivating service employees. Practical implications are discussed highlighting the need to consider the social dynamics in service contexts.
This study began with the premise that people can use varying degrees of their selves. physically. cognitively. and emotionally. in work role performances. which has implications for both their work and experi ences. Two qualitative. theory-generating studies of summer camp counselors and members of an architecture firm were conducted to explore the conditions at work in which people personally engage. or express and employ their personal selves. and disengage. or withdraw and defend their personal selves. This article describes and illustrates three psychological conditions-meaningfulness. safety. and availabil ity-and their individual and contextual sources. These psychological conditions are linked to existing theoretical concepts. and directions for future research are described. People occupy roles at work; they are the occupants of the houses that roles provide. These events are relatively well understood; researchers have focused on "role sending" and "receiving" (Katz & Kahn. 1978). role sets (Merton. 1957). role taking and socialization (Van Maanen. 1976), and on how people and their roles shape each other (Graen. 1976). Researchers have given less attention to how people occupy roles to varying degrees-to how fully they are psychologically present during particular moments of role performances. People can use varying degrees of their selves. physically, cognitively, and emotionally. in the roles they perform. even as they main tain the integrity of the boundaries between who they are and the roles they occupy. Presumably, the more people draw on their selves to perform their roles within those boundaries. the more stirring are their performances and the more content they are with the fit of the costumes they don. The research reported here was designed to generate a theoretical frame work within which to understand these "self-in-role" processes and to sug gest directions for future research. My specific concern was the moments in which people bring themselves into or remove themselves from particular task behaviors, My guiding assumption was that people are constantly bring ing in and leaving out various depths of their selves during the course of The guidance and support of David Berg, Richard Hackman, and Seymour Sarason in the research described here are gratefully acknowledged. I also greatly appreciated the personal engagements of this journal's two anonymous reviewers in their roles, as well as the comments on an earlier draft of Tim Hall, Kathy Kram, and Vicky Parker.
This study examined the role of subordinate voice in creating positive attitudes in the performance appraisal context. Two aspects of voice, instrumental and non-instrumental, were assessed. Both aspects of voice were related to satisfaction with the appraisal, while only non-instrumental voice had an impact on attitudes toward the manager. Implications for procedural justice and performance appraisal are discussed.
In this paper, we establish the relationship between de-energizing relationships and individual performance in organizations. To date, the emphasis in social network research has largely been on positive dimensions of relationships despite literature from social psychology revealing the prevalence and detrimental impact of de-energizing relationships. In 2 field studies, we show that de-energizing relationships in organizations are associated with decreased performance. In Study 1, we investigate how de-energizing relationships are related to lower performance using data from 161 people in the information technology (IT) department of an engineering firm. In Study 2, in a sample of 439 management consultants, we consider whether the effects of de-energizing relationships on performance may be moderated by the extent to which an individual has the psychological resource of thriving at work. We find that individuals who are thriving at work are less susceptible to the effects of de-energizing relationships on job performance. We close by discussing implications of this research. (PsycINFO Database Record
(c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
I describe a test of linear moderated mediation in path analysis based on an interval estimate of the parameter of a function linking the indirect effect to values of a moderator—a parameter that I call the index of moderated mediation. This test can be used for models that integrate moderation and mediation in which the relationship between the indirect effect and the moderator is estimated as linear, including many of the models described by Edwards and Lambert (200710.
Edwards, J.R., & Lambert, L.S. (2007). Methods for integrating moderation and mediation: A general analytical framework using moderated path analysis. Psychological Methods, 12, 1–22.[CrossRef], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]View all references) and Preacher, Rucker, and Hayes (200743.
Preacher, K.J., Rucker, D.D., & Hayes, A.F. (2007). Assessing moderated mediation hypotheses: Theory, methods, and prescriptions. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 42, 185–227.[Taylor & Francis Online], [Web of Science ®]View all references) as well as extensions of these models to processes involving multiple mediators operating in parallel or in serial. Generalization of the method to latent variable models is straightforward. Three empirical examples describe the computation of the index and the test, and its implementation is illustrated using Mplus and the PROCESS macro for SPSS and SAS.
Theory suggests that thriving, the feeling of vitality and experience of learning, is in large part determined by the social environment of employees’ workplace. One important aspect of this social environment is the position of an individual in the communication network. Individuals who are sources of communication for many colleagues often receive benefits because other employees depend heavily on these individuals for information; however, there may also be drawbacks to this dependence. In particular, employees who are central in the communication network may experience more role overload and role ambiguity and, in turn, lower levels of workplace thriving. Individual differences are also likely to explain why some individuals are more likely to thrive. Relying on research that views organizations as political arenas, we identify political skill as an individual difference that is likely to enhance workplace thriving. Using a moderated-mediation analysis, we find support for the indirect cost of communication centrality on workplace thriving through role overload and role ambiguity. Furthermore, we identify both direct and moderating effects of political skill. Specifically, political skill mitigates the extent to which employees experience role ambiguity, but not role overload, associated with their position in the communication network, and these effects carry through to affect thriving. Star employees are often central in communication networks; with this in mind, we discuss the implications of our findings for employees and organizations.
In this article, the author describes a new theoretical perspective on positive emotions and situates this new perspective within the emerging field of positive psychology. The broaden-and-build theory posits that experiences of positive emotions broaden people's momentary thought-action repertoires, which in turn serves to build their enduring personal resources, ranging from physical and intellectual resources to social and psychological resources. Preliminary empirical evidence supporting the broaden-and-build theory is reviewed, and open empirical questions that remain to be tested are identified. The theory and findings suggest that the capacity to experience positive emotions may be a fundamental human strength central to the study of human flourishing.
We know little about what determines an effective placement experience, yet vocational placements are an integral part of many professional degree programmes. The aim of this research was to examine the influence of job (task variety, task identity, task significance, feedback, and autonomy) and supervisor (relationship quality and mentoring) characteristics on placement outcomes. The findings were tested on samples from two professions for which placement were a compulsory part of their course. Sample 1 consisted of 266 undergraduate nurses, and sample 2 consisted of 176 postgraduate psychologists. The findings showed that job and supervisor characteristics explained unique variance in professional development and placement satisfaction. Of the five job characteristics examined, skill variety, feedback from the job, and task significance influenced placement outcomes. Mentoring emerged as the most important supervisor characteristic that was associated with professional development and placement satisfaction, and to a slightly less extent, supervisor–student relationship quality was also important. The research and practical implications of the findings were discussed.
Purpose ‐ Based on soft HRM and self-determination theory, the aim of this paper is to test whether basic need satisfaction mediates the relationship between five HR practices and HRM outcomes. An important distinction (in line with soft HRM and self-determination theory) is made between the presence of, and the quality of, a practice's implementation (in terms of the degree to which employees' talents, interests and expectations are taken into account). Design/methodology/approach ‐ A theoretically grounded model is developed and tested using survey data from 5,748 Belgian employees. Findings ‐ The results indicate that autonomy and relatedness satisfaction partially mediate the relationship between HR practices and HRM outcomes. Taking into account talents, interests and expectations within HR practices is associated with higher basic need satisfaction and subsequently HRM outcomes in addition to the presence of practices. Research limitations/implications ‐ Future research could focus on HR practices and job design as both might affect basic need satisfaction and subsequently HRM outcomes. Additionally, behavior of the supervisor when administering HR practices can be further explored as a catalyst of basic need satisfaction. Practical implications ‐ HR actors should be aware that merely implementing soft HR practices may not suffice. They should also devote attention towards sufficiently taking into account individual talents, interests and expectations of employees when implementing them. Originality/value ‐ This paper contributes to the HRM literature by integrating soft HRM and self-determination theory into one model. In doing so, it sheds light on the possible pathways through and conditions under which HR practices lead to favorable outcomes.
Self-determination theory (SDT) posits the existence of distinct types of motivation (i.e., external, introjected, identified, integrated, and intrinsic). Research on these different types of motivation has typically adopted a variable-centered approach that seeks to understand how each motivation in isolation relates to employee outcomes. We extend this work by adopting cluster analysis in a person-centered approach to understanding how different combinations or patterns of motivations relate to organizational factors. Results revealed five distinct clusters of motivation (i.e., low introjection, moderately motivated, low autonomy, self-determined, and motivated) and that these clusters were differentially related to need satisfaction, job performance, and work environment perceptions. Specifically, the self-determined (i.e., high autonomous motivation, low external motivation) and motivated (i.e., high on all types of motivation) clusters had the most favorable levels of correlates; whereas the low autonomy (i.e., least self-determined) cluster had the least favorable levels of these variables.
Mentoring has been studied extensively as it is linked to protégé career development and growth. Recent mentoring research is beginning to acknowledge however that mentors also can accrue substantial benefits from mentoring. A meta-analysis was conducted where the provision of career, psychosocial and role modeling mentoring support were associated with five types of subjective career outcomes for mentors: job satisfaction, organizational commitment, turnover intent, job performance, and career success. The findings indicated that mentors versus non-mentors were more satisfied with their jobs and committed to the organization. Providing career mentoring was most associated with career success, psychosocial mentoring with organizational commitment, and role modeling mentoring with job performance. Turnover intent was not linked significantly with any of the subjective career outcome variables. The findings support mentoring theory in that mentoring is reciprocal and collaborative and not simply beneficial for protégés. Longitudinal research is needed however to determine the degree to which providing mentoring impacts a mentor’s career over time. By alerting prospective mentors to the possible personal benefits of providing career, psychosocial, and role modeling mentoring support for protégés, HRD professionals can improve recruitment efforts for mentoring programs.
It has been proposed that a clear separation of measurement from structural reasons for model failure can be obtained via a procedure testing 4 nested models: (a) a factor model, (b) a confirmatory factor model, (c) the anticipated structural equation model, and (d) possibly, a more constrained model. Advocates of the 4-step procedure contend that these nested models provide a trustworthy way of determining whether one's model is failing as a result of structural (conceptual) inadequacy, or as a result of measurement misspecification. We argue that measurement and structural issues can not be unambiguously separated by the 4 steps, and that the seeming separation is incomplete at best and illusory at worst. The prime difficulty is that the 4-step procedure is incapable of determining whether the proposed model contains the proper number of factors. As long as the number of factors is in doubt, measurement and structural assessments remain dubious and entwined. The assessment of model fit raises additional difficulties because the researcher is implicitly favoring of the null hypothesis, and the logic of the root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) as a test of "close fit" is inconsistent with the logic of the 4-step. These discussions question whether factor analysis can dependably determine the proper number of factors, and argue against the routine use of. 05 as the probability target for structural equation model chi-square fit.
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the moderating role of mentoring on the relationships between perceived organizational support, supervisor support, and job fit on turnover intentions. Design/methodology/approach – The paper explains the topics, provides background and discussion of the main concepts. The study uses regression analyses to test the moderating relationships using a total sample of 610 employees split among three separate organizations. Findings – The results suggest that mentoring becomes more effective in reducing turnover intentions as employees experience increasing levels of perceived organizational support, supervisor support, and job fit. Practical implications – The results suggest mentoring can be beneficial to both organizations and individuals. Organizations benefit by improving employee retention. Likewise, individuals benefit through strengthened relationships provided by mentoring and the associated positive outcomes. Originality/value – The paper makes a contribution to the literature by being among the first to examine mentoring as a potential moderator in the context of perceived organizational support, supervisor support, job fit, and turnover intentions.
Translated but unstandardised psychological instruments are widely used in non-English speaking countries. For many of these instruments meagre information is available on the method of translation, extent of adaptations, reliability, validity and other psychometric properties. This lack of information has unforeseen consequences for test-takers and decision making in clinical and other applied settings. In this paper it is argued that there is a need for guidelines outlining the minimum requirements to justify professional and ethical use of unstandardised psychological instruments. Eight criteria are suggested and all of these should be met in order to justify the use of unstandardised instruments in applied settings. Finally, it is emphasised that the use of unstandardised instruments should be viewed as temporary and tentative; the final aim of all translations and adaptations of psychological instruments that are to be used in a clinical or other applied context should be proper standardisation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Murray provides step-by-step guidelines for putting together cost-effective mentoring programs that foster employee learning and growth, are personally rewarding for mentors, and contribute measurably to both individual and organizational performance. Using seven case examples of thriving and highly valued mentoring programs, Murray shows the diverse forms mentoring programs can take and how they serve a variety of needs, such as developing leadership skills, increasing employee versatility through cross-training, and encouraging top-drawer people to commit their careers to the organization.
This book reveals what successful programs have in common and offers advice on how to avoid common pitfalls. The author details how to select competent, committed mentors who have the interpersonal skills to develop productive relationships with their protégés. She explains how to match protégés with compatible mentors and create useful working agreements between them. She demonstrates how to build in opportunities for vital midstream course corrections by making evaluation an integral part of the program rather than merely a report card at the end. And she provides frank advice about what to do when a mentoring relationship just isn't working. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Describes the Job Diagnostic Survey (JDS) which is intended to (a) diagnose existing jobs to determine whether (and how) they might be redesigned to improve employee motivation and productivity and (b) evaluate the effects of job changes on employees. The instrument is based on a specific theory of how job design affects work motivation, and provides measures of (a) objective job dimensions, (b) individual psychological states resulting from these dimensions, (c) affective reactions of employees to the job and work setting, and (d) individual growth need strength (interpreted as the readiness of individuals to respond to "enriched" jobs). Reliability and validity data are summarized for 658 employees on 62 different jobs in 7 organizations who responded to a revised version of the instrument. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
This study investigated the relationships among leader–member exchange (LMX), perceived job security, and employee performance. Drawing on the job demands–resources model and conservation of resources theory, we expected both LMX and perceived job security would affect employee altruism and work performance in a positive manner. In addition, LMX and perceived job security were expected to interact to predict the two outcome variables. The hypotheses were tested with a sample of 184 employees in a state-owned enterprise in China. Our results showed that LMX, but not perceived job security, was positively related to employee altruism and work performance. Additionally, the effect of LMX on altruism was stronger for employees perceiving less job security. The findings indicated that LMX as a job resource becomes more impactful to altruistic performance when employees feel less secure at work.