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Tracking the Travels of Adam Olearius

Authors:
Tracking the Travels of Adam
Olearius
Nancy S. Kollmann
(Stanford University)
I
am a big fan of Gary Marker’s first book—a study of printing and
publishing in Russia’s eighteenth century. There he showed how
Russia’s reading public took shape and how its interests changed,
moving steadily towards belles-lettres and secular philosophy with a
good dose of lowbrow adventure tales and garishly illustrated romances.
So Gary understands the early modern publishing world, with its
penchant for illustration and its dynamism, which is what this paper is
about. It stems from an encounter I had in Houghton Library with a
curious version of Adam Olearius’ Travels to Russia and Persia.
Students of early modern Russian history are unavoidably fast
friends with Adam Olearius (1599-1671). His account is fascinating and
is one of the few to provide contemporary illustrations, problematic as
they may be. Olearius served Duke Frederick III of Schleswig-Holstein,
who was endeavoring to win a monopoly for Holstein on trade to Persia,
for which he needed Russian permission for transit travel. Frederick
sent two embassies—to Moscow in 1633-35 and through Russia to Persia
in 1635-39—and Olearius served on both. He returned briefly to Russia
in 1643. In 1647 Olearius published an account of his voyages, as he
134 Tracking the Travels of Adam Olearius
said, upon the urging of friends (a common trope in introducing such
books). The 1647 edition appeared at the Schleswig press—a handsome
volume in 536 folio pages with about 70 copper engravings approxi-
mately evenly divided between the Russian and Persian parts of the
account (plus nine dedicatory portrait engravings). Olearius’ images
were primarily ethnographic scenes of daily life and panoramic city-
scapes, with three large maps (the cities of Moscow and Ardabil, and a
map of Persia celebrated as including the first accurate depiction of the
Caspian Sea).1 In 1656, noting that the 1647 edition was sold out and
that he had had time to prepare material and images that had not made
it into the first edition, Olearius published an even more lavish volume,
a folio edition of 766 pages with about 120 illustrations, including
around 70 in the Russian portion; in addition to more ethnographic
scenes and cityscapes, it added a large map of the course of the Volga
River.2 Olearius’ intent in both these editions was to illustrate daily life
and mores, as well as to share his scientific and geographic expertise.
Olearius was a distinguished scholar in the late Renaissance
tradition of the humanist scientist. A linguist, theologian, and geog-
rapher, after his Russian and Persian travels Olearius served Duke
Frederick as counselor, court mathematician, and antiquarian, as well
as curator of the duke’s library and Kunstkammer. Fascinated with
Persia, Olearius translated a classic Persian collection of verse and
stories (Sa’di’s Gulistan or Rose Garden), prepared Persian-
Latin and Latin-Persian-Turkish-Arabic-Hebrew dictionaries,
expanded the duke’s cabinet of curiosities (including flora and fauna
he collected in Russia and Persia), corresponded with scholars
throughout Europe, and amassed a library of over twenty-four
hundred volumes, including rare Persian manuscripts. He also built
scientific instruments, including an astrolabe, a microscope, a tele-
scope, and the Great Celestial Globe that the duke of Gottorp gave
to Peter I in 1713.3
Olearius was an inveterate promoter of information about Persia,
India, and points east, areas on which Duke Frederick had set his sights
for trade. Olearius managed the publication of several works related to
these areas at the Schleswig press. He personally oversaw reprinting or
135Nancy S. Kollmann
revisions of his 1656 edition (in 1661, 1663, and 1671) and included in
all his editions an account of travel to Madagascar and India by his
friend John Mandelsloh that Olearius himself had edited.4 In 1654 he
published his translation of the Gulistan and in 1666 Heinrich von
Uchteritz’s account of Barbados; in 1669 Olearius edited a Schleswig
publication of Jürgen Andersen and Volquard Iversen’s travels to India
and the Spice Islands. Trade was not his only motivation; this was a
time when Europeans were fascinated by foreign travel, presaging
Enlightenment universalism. One contemporary French writer asserted
that travel accounts were “more popular than the novel,” and Olearius
strikes notes of edification and entertainment in introducing his 1663
edition, justifying travel accounts as a way for those at home to learn
lessons from other societies and to virtually enjoy a society through the
eyes of a faithful observer like himself.5
Olearius’ account is one of the more valuable foreigners’ accounts
of Russia, despite his evident prejudices. He perpetuated the trope of
Russia as a despotism and brought a Reform Protestant moralizing to
his commentary. Condemning Russians’ crudeness and barbarity, he
scathingly described drunkenness and sexual debauchery, uncleanli-
ness, foul language, and street fighting. At the same time, nothing
human was foreign to him, and his book is a wide-ranging ethnography
of Russian society, politics, and religion. He declared that he would
only present information that he personally saw or could verify: “I
present here a true and exact description of that state and also of other
countries, regions, and peoples, which we visited, in the very view and
condition in which we found them in the present time.”6 So, modern-day
readers, reading critically, can learn a lot about Muscovy from Olearius’
encyclopedic account.7
A fascinating aspect of his account is the illustrations, whose
veracity Olearius personally vouched for. In the 1647 edition he wrote,
As for the copper engraved pictures of this edition, one should not
think that they are, as is sometimes done, taken from other books or
other engravings. Rather, I myself drew the majority of them from
life (some of them—by our former doctor G. German, my close
friend). Then they were turned into a final form with the help of the
136 Tracking the Travels of Adam Olearius
excellent artist Avgust Ion, who many years ago taught me drawing
in Leipzig. For that they used models, dressed in national costumes
that I brought here. So that, however, during the work of engraving
no degree of accuracy would be lost, for a long time I kept three
engravers, not without great expense, at my house. They were to
work under my direction.8
Nevertheless, Olearius’ engravers took what he told them and
interpreted it using the conventions of early modern European
engraving; these pictures are a few problematic steps removed from
direct eyewitness.9
What concerns us here is the fate of Olearius’ Travels in transla-
tion. Marshall Poe has detailed the many languages and editions the
most popular European travel accounts to Russia appeared in early
modern Europe.10 I had blithely assumed that such translations repre-
sented the same texts (and illustrations) as the originals. An afternoon
in the Houghton Library at Harvard disabused me of this idea and
piqued my curiosity about the uses to which travel accounts were put in
early modern Europe.
Houghton Library possesses a Dutch translation of Olearius’ 1647
edition by Dirck von Wageninge, published in Utrecht in 1651. Looking
at it de visu when researching Olearius’ images of punishment was
eye-opening. This is a tiny book (about five and a half inches tall) that
would fit into a pocket or satchel; produced in duodecimo in 925 pages
of thickly packed text and scant margins, it is small and fat. It seems to
contain the full text of Olearius’ 1647 edition, including the Russian
and Persian parts and John Mandelsloh’s letters. But the illustrations
are greatly pared down—only four of the nine dedicatory portraits are
included, and of the travel illustrations, only six of the 1647’s seventy
illustrations appear. Distributed through the text, they form three
matched pairs: the Russian and Persian alphabets and numerals,
portraits of Tsar Mikhail Fedorovich and the Safavid Shah Safi, and
images of diplomatic receptions by these two rulers. Out of Olearius’
compendious folio volume, this editor has crafted a handy travel guide
for a diplomat or merchant; recall the Dutch Republic’s aggressive
trade across the Middle East and Asia at the time.11
137Nancy S. Kollmann
Translations of Olearius had a life of their own, apparently, and I
became curious to see what others were like. Surveying the major early
modern translations, Olearius’ Travels emerges as a malleable object,
the text being excerpted or edited, the illustrations and maps omitted,
pared down, or redone, all to suit the perceived readership in a given
place and later time.
Let’s start with the 1647 edition. Interest was fierce in Olearius’
book as soon as it appeared in the Dutch republic; in 1651 three dierent
versions came out. In addition to the diminutive Utrecht one, in
Amsterdam, two publishers put out rival versions, one in quarto and a
smaller one in octavo. I have been able to look at the quarto, published
by Hartgers.12 This is an entirely dierent presentation than the Utrecht
translation. It appears to include the Russian and Persian travels, but
has little interest in imagery. Its title page dedicates the top half to a
banner, held by stereotypic Russian and Persian figures, on which the
title appears; the bottom half is a truncated version of Olearius’ image
of the Moscow diplomatic audience. Otherwise, the book seems to
select a random group of only five images—a storm at sea in Livonia,
Russian burials, Cheremis pagan rites, a market in Persia, and men
shooting a cannon and crossbow in a Persian square. These are scat-
tered through the 134-page book. I am unable to tell whether the few
introductory remarks spell out who the editor thought his audience
would be; clearly, rather than a book for travel, this one seems to be a
book for reading.
A French translation quickly followed the Dutch; in 1656
Abraham de Wicquefort published the 1647 edition in Paris. A medi-
um-sized book in quarto (about eight and a half inches tall) in 543
pages, it includes the full account and Mandelsloh’s letters, but no
illustrations, not even the dedicatory portraits of Olearius’ patrons.
De Wicquefort presents his work to an audience interested in learning
about exotic peoples and lands. “Urged by his friends” to translate
this “excellent and very interesting” work, de Wicquefort assures his
readers that Olearius will accurately teach them the geography of
lands that are currently “very confusing.” He praises Olearius the
linguist, mathematician, and geographer for knowing the languages of
138 Tracking the Travels of Adam Olearius
the Muscovites and “Arabs” (Persian, actually), for interviewing locals
and reporting eye-witness observations, for citing true latitudes and
longitudes, and for providing maps of rivers, towns, and regions that
are so good that all contemporary maps should be revised on their
basis. For de Wicquefort, this work appeals to general interest readers
and practical travelers. 13
Olearius’ 1656 German edition proliferated in translation. All the
German reprints and editions produced in Olearius’ lifetime used his
1656 text and the original copper engraving plates.14 Its first transla-
tion, into Italian, appeared in 1658 in Viterbo. In quarto, this version
included only the parts relevant to Russia (Books I and II, interestingly
omitting three chapters on religious rituals) and was published with
the first appearance of Rafaello Barberini’s account of visiting Moscow
at the start of the Oprichnina (1564-65). It reproduces only four of
Olearius’ engravings, crudely copied: the reception in Moscow, a grand
religious procession, a panorama of the city of Novgorod, and the map
of Moscow. Dedicating the book to the “Cardinals of the Congrega-
tion of the Propagation of the Faith,” the editor expresses the hope
that this volume will aid in the propagation of the faith in “Moscovia,”
by which he might have meant to reference the struggles of the Uniate
Church (established by the Orthodox-Vatican Union of Brest, 1596) to
survive and expand in Ukraine and Belarus’.15
Italian was quickly followed by French: in 1659 the translator of
Olearius’ first edition, Abraham de Wicquefort, published in Paris a
translation of the 1656 edition. This became the basis of Paris editions
of 1666 and 1679. A medium-sized book in quarto, this version liber-
ally revised Olearius’ text. John Emerson critiques de Wicquefort for
omitting key introductory parts of Olearius’ text, rearranging mate-
rial, and adding information from other sources without identification.
In addition, de Wicquefort dispensed with all but one of Olearius’
illustrations—the immense map of the Volga—and added two maps in
French of Livonia and “Moscovie” (European Russia).16 De Wicque-
fort praises the map of the Volga for giving would-be French travelers
essential information theretofore unknown. His introduction makes
clear that his purpose was also to produce a good read. Of all the genres
139Nancy S. Kollmann
of philosophy, history, the novel, and the travel account, de Wicque-
fort wrote, the travel account is the most edifying and most entertaining:
“in seeing the customs and cities of diverse peoples one can understand
their spirit, and one acquires much enlightenment and prudence . . .
one takes part in the pleasure that charms voyagers and . . . an infinity
of dangers, fatigues, and inconveniences that accompany them.”
Entertainment was not the only goal of such translations, however,
as the English versions attest. Editions published in London in folio
in 1662 and 1669 were based on de Wicquefort’s 1659 Paris text and
restored some illustrations from the 1656 German version. The 1662
edition translated into English the maps in the French edition (Livonia,
European Russia, the course of the Volga), but returned to Olearius to
add his map of Persia, to craft a frontispiece with five of the nine dedi-
catory portraits (Crusius, Bruggemann, Olearius, Duke Frederick, and
Mandelsloh), and to reproduce the portraits (slightly redone) of Tsar
Mikhail Fedorovich and the Persian Shah Safi.17 The English 1669
edition made minor textual corrections and was simpler in illustration,
with only the maps of European Russia, the Volga, and Persia, and the
portrait of the Shah.18
John Davies saw his goal dierently than did his French prede-
cessor. He included an English version of de Wicquefort’s introduction
where the French translator presents travel accounts as edifying and
entertaining; like de Wicquefort, Davies also praises Olearius for accu-
racy and expertise, citing his long-time first-hand experience in these
countries, his scientific knowledge of geography and mathematics, and
“his acquaintance with the languages of the countries, through which
they travelled.” But his dedication strikes a more nationalistic and util-
itarian note than had that of de Wicquefort. Presenting his work to
“The Governour and Fellowship of English Merchants, for discovery
of new Trades, in Muscovy, Russia, etc.,” Davies justified its worth
this way:
The more reasonably at this time, inasmuch as this Kingdom, espe-
cially this city, begins to disperse its industrious inhabitants, and
spread the wings of its trade into the most remote cantons of the
world. Which that it may do, till its wealth at home and honour
140 Tracking the Travels of Adam Olearius
abroad be so highly improved as that this corner of the universe may
give laws to the noblest parts thereof.19
Entertainment and edification, trade and travel were all notes
struck by the last full editions of Olearius in translation. Long after
Olearius’ original publications, de Wicquefort’s French translation was
edited and published in Leiden by the prolific scientific editor and
publisher Peter van der Aa in 1718 and 1719. In folio with copious maps
and engravings, these editions were predecessors to the lavish version
that van der Aa produced in 1727 in Amsterdam in collaboration with
an eminent scientific publisher, Michel Charles de Ce’ne.20 De Ce’ne
explained in his introduction that all previous editions had omitted
Olearius’ maps and images, usually “to save costs,” but that Olearius’
illustrations were essential for understanding the text and many would
be included in his edition. He uses the de Wicquefort translation,
praising its “beauty, elegance and [the] general esteem in which it is
held,” but notes that van der Aa and he have added a new index, topics
in the margins, more material from the Olearius original, and new
headers, all for the reader’s convenience.
Van der Aa and de Ce’ne produced something in the spirit of
Olearius’ intentions. Admittedly, in de Wicquefort’s translation they
used what Emerson considered a bowdlerized text, but they respected
the author’s scientific goals by updating Olearius’ work. These two
men used their connections with geographers to add several new maps
(at least eleven in the Russia section of the book), including some of
areas not so relevant to Olearius’ journey as to the dedicatee, King
Frederick IV of Norway and Denmark (maps of Denmark, Poland,
and Royal Prussia). The edition includes copies—often more decora-
tive, often substantively altered—of about forty of the approximately
seventy images in the Russian part of the book, a representative
sample of Olearius’ ethnographic images and cityscapes. It also adds
six new pictures of Russian peasants and clerics, not included in
editions that Olearius oversaw. Where they came from I have not
been able to establish, but they are of a sort as would have been
included in the popular European genre of costume book.21 All in all,
this lavish folio edition should have appealed to those interested in
141Nancy S. Kollmann
foreign lands and exotic images, vicariously tracing on updated maps
imagined routes east.
In addition to van der Aa’s eorts in Leiden and Amsterdam (1718-
27), a flurry of activity in the 1690s continued to disseminate Olearius’
work. In 1696 the major accounts that Olearius had published—his
Travels, his translation of the Persian Gulistan, Mandelsloh’s letters,
and the Andersen and Iversen account—were published in a large folio
collection “edited by the world-renowned Adam Olearius.”22 In this
form, his work spoke to a German audience for at least another century:
at the end of the eighteenth century German romantics—Herder,
Schiller, Goethe—reported reading these accounts of the exotic East.23
Image erroneously attributed to Olearius, one of six new pictures of
Russian peasants and clerics added to the edition put out by Peter van
der Aa and Michel Charles de Ce’ne in 1727 (http://commons.wikimedia.
org/wiki/File%3AOlearius_peasants.jpg). Freely adapting and modi-
fying Olearius’ work, they included updated maps and images not in the
original edition.
142 Tracking the Travels of Adam Olearius
The 1696 edition in turn brought Olearius to Russia. The Library
of the Academy of Sciences in the 1720s owned publications of several
foreign travel accounts, including an unidentified edition of Olearius’
Travels.24 Apparently, at least one translation of the 1696 Hamburg
edition was made in Russia at this time as well. A. I. Sobolevskii dates
two manuscripts to the late seventeenth century: one (BAN 34.3.1)
includes the entire Travels, with the addition of a translation of Nicholas
Sanson’s travels to Persia. This resides in the Academy of Sciences in
Saint Petersburg; it is in folio in 760 pages in chancery cursive and was
purchased in 1763 in Moscow from a private collector, I. Il’in.25 The
other (GPB F IV 15) contains only Olearius’ Books 5 and 6 (concerning
Persia), but the pagination suggests that the manuscript originally
included the entire Travels. Sobolevskii does not clarify if one is a copy
of the other or if they are separate translations. Sobolevskii also cites a
manuscript translation of the other works in the 1696 Hamburg edition,
not including the Travels.26 But the Persian focus and timing of the
creation of these manuscripts—when Peter the Great was focused on
the Black Sea coast and Persia (Russia held Azov from 1696 to 1711 and
extensive parts of the western and southern Caspian shore, with
Derbent and Baku, from 1722 to 1732)—suggest that these translations
might have been associated with Russia’s Foreign Aairs Chancery,
which had been importing and translating news from Europe since the
mid-seventeenth century. The Saint Petersburg manuscript, alas, includes
no illustrations.27
There was clearly a European readership for Olearius, particularly
among those interested in Persia. Editors chose him to present an enter-
taining book, to appeal to people’s interest in exotic lands, and even to
aid real travelers and traders. And they did not mangle his text as badly
as they might have. Olearius, that energetic publisher, would have
been pleased to see his work disseminated. But he would have been
disappointed, as were Peter van der Aa and Michel Charles de Ce’ne,
at the fate of his illustrations, which were generally not reproduced in
translations. Olearius would have agreed with them that the images are
essential for understanding the text; he had worked hard to ensure that
they represented what he wanted to convey and he made sure that the
143Nancy S. Kollmann
editions that appeared in his lifetime included all of them. We will
leave for a later article how exactly those images shaped an impression
of Russia, and conclude by reflecting on how fertile a genre travel liter-
ature was for the early modern reading public.
NOTES
1 Adam Olearius, et al., Ot begehrte Beschreibung Der Newen Orientalischen Reise,
So durch Gelegenheit einer Holsteinischen Legation an den König in Persien geschehen:
Worinnen Derer Oerter vnd Länder, durch welche die Reise gangen, als fürnemblich
Rußland, Tartarien vnd Persien, sampt jhrer Einwohner Natur, Leben vnd Wesen
fleissig beschrieben, vnd mit vielen Kuperstücken, so nach dem Leben gestellet,
gezieret ; Item Ein Schreiben des WolEdeln [et]c. Johan Albrecht Von Mandelslo,
worinnen dessen OstIndianische Reise über den Oceanum enthalten ; Zusampt eines
kurtzen Berichts von jetzigem Zustand des eussersten Orientalischen KönigReiches
Tzina (Schleßwig: ZurGlocken, 1647); for the microfiche of the 1647 edition, see
Axel Frey and Leopold Hirschberg, Bibliothek der deutschen Literatur: Mikro-
fiche-Gesamtausgabe nach den Angaben des Taschengoedeke (München: K.G. Saur,
1990), fiche 21: 9454-56; for the 1647 edition online, see Adam Olearius, et al. Ot
begehrte Beschreibung Der Newen Orientalischen Reise. . . . (Wolfenbüttel: Herzog
August Bibliothek, 1647), Wolfenbütteler Digitale Bibliothek http://diglib.hab.
de/drucke/263-1-hist-2f/start.htm (accessed September 10, 2014). I consider the
Russia part to extend to the account of the city of Samara, through Book 4, chap.
7 of the 1656 edition.
2 For a modern facsimile of the 1656 edition, see Adam Olearius, Vermehrte newe
Beschreibung der Muscowitischen und Persischen Reyse, ed. Dieter Lohmeier
(Tübingen: Niemeyer, 1971). Also available on fiche in Frey and Hirschberg,
Bibliothek der deutschen Literatur, fiche 21: 9457-60.
3 Elio Christoph Brancaforte, Visions of Persia: Mapping the Travels of Adam Olearius
(Cambridge: Harvard University Department of Comparative Literature, 2003),
5-25.
4 The 1661 and 1671 editions survive in very few copies; Pavel Barsov does not
consider them true editions: Pavel Barsov, “Podrobnoe opisanie, puteshestviia
Golshtinskogo posol’stva v Moskoviiu i Persiiu v 1633, 1636 i 1638 godakh . . . ,”
Chteniia v imperatorskom obshchestve istorii i drevnostei rossiiskikh pri Moskovskom
universitete, nos. 1-4 (1868), ix-x. For full publication data, see ibid., nos. 1-4
(1868); ibid., nos. 1-4 (1869); and ibid., no. 1 (1870); and separately Podrobnoe
opisanie puteshestviia Golshtinskogo posol’stva v Moskoviiu . . . (Moscow: Universi-
tetskaia tipografiia, Katkov i ko., 1870).
5 On the 1663 introduction, see Barsov, “Podrobnoe opisanie,” 7. On the publishing
history of the Travels, see John Emerson, “Adam Olearius and the Literature of
the Schleswig-Holstein Missions to Russia and Iran, 1633-1639,” in Etudes safa-
vides, ed. Jean Calmard (Paris: Institut français de recherche en Iran, 1993), 31-55;
and Barsov, “Podrobnoe opisanie,” iii-xii. On Olearius’ publication of travel liter-
ature, see Jürgen Andersen and Volquard Iversen, Orientalische Reise-Beschreibungen
144 Tracking the Travels of Adam Olearius
in Der Bearbeitung von Adam Olearius, Schleswig, 1669, ed. Dieter Lohmeier
(Tübingen: Niemeyer, 1980), 14-15, 22l For Uchteritz’s account, see A. Gunkel
and J. S. Handle, “A German Indentured Servant in Barbados in 1652: The
Account of Heinrich von Uchteritz,” Journal of the Barbados Museum and Histor-
ical Society 33 (1970): 91-100.
6 Barsov, “Podrobnoe opisanie,” 7.
7 For modern translations, see (with selected Russian sections into English from the
1656 edition) Adam Olearius, The Travels of Olearius in Seventeenth-Century Russia,
ed. and trans. Samuel H. Baron (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1967); the
entire text into Russian from the 1663 German edition, Barsov, “Podrobnoe
opisanie”; primarily the Russia sections into Russian, using an edition close to that
of 1656, Adam Olearius, Opisanie puteshestviia v Moskoviiu, trans. A. M. Loviagin
(reprint of Saint Petersburg, 1906 edition) (Smolensk: Rusich, 2003).
8 Olearius, Opisanie puteshestviia, trans. Loviagin, 14-15.
9 Lohmeier remarks on how some illustrations in the Andersen and Iversen account
of 1669, under Olearius’ supervision, were based on stock European engravings:
Orientalische Reise-Beschreibungen, 22. In Olearius’ Travels, this is less pronounced;
the tropes are more subtle.
10 Marshall Poe, A People Born to Slavery: Russia In Early Modern European Ethnog-
raphy, 1476-1748 (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2000).
11 Adam Olearius, Johan Albrecht von Mandelslow, and Dirck van Wageninge,
Beschrijvingh vande nieuwe Parciaensche ofte orientaelsche reyse, welck door gelegen-
theyt van een Holsteynsche ambassade, aen den koningh in Persien gheschiet is: waer
inne de ghelegentheyt der plaetsen en landen, door welcke de reyse gegaen is (Utrecht:
Lambert Roeck, 1651).
12 Adam Olearius, Persiaensche reyse, uyt Holsteyn, door Lijflandt, Moscovien,
Tartarien in Persien. Door Philippus Crusius, en Otto Brughman, gesanten, des Doorl:
Hoogh: Heere, Heer Frederick (Amsterdam: Hartgers, 1651). Available online at
Munich Bayerische Staatsbibliothek Digital.
13 Adam Olearius, Johann Albrecht von Mandelslo, and Abraham de Wicquefort,
Relation du voyage de Moscouie, Tartarie, et de Perse: fait a l’occasion d’vne ambas-
sade, enuoyée au grand-duc de Moscouie, & du roy de Perse, par le duc de Holstein
depuis l’an 1633 iusques en l’an 1639 (Paris: Chez Geruais Clouzier, 1656). Online
at Munich Bayerische Staatsbibliothek Digital and also as a Google EBook.
14 Emerson, “Adam Olearius and the Literature,” 31-55. On the 1661 and 1671 print-
ings, see note 4 above. The 1663 edition: Olearius, Adam. Adam Olearii
Auszfuehrliche Beschreibung der kundbaren Reyse nach Muscow und Persien, so durch
Gelegenheit einer holsteinischen Gesandschat von Gottor auß an Michael
Fedorowitz den grossen Zaar in Muscow, und Schach Sefi Koenig in Persien geschehen:
worinnen die Gelegenheit derer Orter und Länder, durch welche die Reyse gangen, als
Liand, Rußland, Tartarien, Meden und Persien . . . zu befinden (Schleswig:
[Holwein?], 1663). Online Wolfenbütteler Digitale Bibliothek (WDB).
15 Adam Olearius and Raaello Barberini, Viaggi di Moscovia de gli anni 1633. 1634.
1635. e 1636.: libri tre cavati dal Tedesco (Viterbo, 1658). Available online at
Munich Bayerische Staatsbibliothek Digital and also as a Google EBook. Thanks
to Chris Babich for translating the Italian editor’s introduction. On the Uniate
Church at this time, see Barbara Skinner, The Western Front of the Eastern Church:
145Nancy S. Kollmann
Uniate and Orthodox Conflict in Eighteenth-Century Poland, Ukraine, Belarus, and
Russia (DeKalb: Northern Illinois University Press, 2009).
16 I have been unable to see the 1659 and 1679 French editions. For the 1666 edition,
see Adam Olearius, Abraham von Wicquefort, and Johann Albrecht von
Mandelslo, Relation du voyage d’Adam Olearius en Moscouie, Tartarie, et Perse:
augmentee en cette nouuelle edition de plus d’vn tiers, & particulierement d’vne
seconde partie: contenant le voyage de Jean Albert de Mandelslo aux Indes Orientales
(Paris: Chez Iean du Puis, 1666). Available as a Google EBook (maps not visible)
and fully scanned on Gallica, the French national digital catalog, http://gallica.
bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k118549z (accessed September 9, 2014).
17 1662 English version, see Adam Olearius, Johann Albrecht von Mandelslo, and
John Davies, The Voyages & Travels of the Ambassadors Sent by Frederick Duke of
Holstein, to the Great Duke of Muscovy, and the King of Persia: Begun In the Year
M.DC.XXXIII, and Finish’d In M.DC.XXXIX: Containing a Compleat History of
Muscovy, Tartary, Persia, and Other Adjacent Countries . . . (London: Printed for
Thomas Dring and John Starkey . . ., 1662).
18 For the 1669 English version, see Adam Olearius, Johann Albrecht von Mandelslo,
and John Davies, The Voyages and Travells of the Ambassadors Sent by Frederick,
Duke of Holstein, to the Great Duke of Muscovy and the King of Persia . . ., second
edition, corrected (London: Printed for John Starkey and Thomas Basset . . ., 1669).
19 1662 English version, unpaginated “Dedication” in the front matter.
20 Barsov praises the 1727 as more expanded and luxurious than the 1718 and 1719
editions: “Podrobnoe opisanie,” xi-xii. For the 1718 edition, see Adam Olearius,
Voyages très curieux et très renommez faits en Moscovie (Leide: P. Vander Aa, 1718);
for that of 1719, see Adam Olearius and Abraham de Wicquefort, Voyages très-cu-
rieux & très-renommez faits en Moscovie, Tartarie et Perse (Leide: P. Vander Aa,
1719); for the 1727 edition, see Johann Albrecht von Mandelslo, Adam Olearius,
and Abraham de Wicquefort, Voyages celebres & remarquables, faits de Perse aux
Indes Orientales (Amsterdam: M.C. Le Céne, 1727). Barsov mentions later French
editions that I have not tracked down: The Hague, 1727; Amsterdam, 1732; Paris,
1759.
21 They are not in the 1656, 1663, or 1696 Olearius editions. I have not seen the 1661
and 1671 versions, but they are unlikely to be dierent. These new images are not
based on Augustin von Meyerberg’s images.
22 Adam Olearius, Johann Albrecht von Mandelso, Jürgen Andersen, and Volquard
Iversen, Des Welt-berühmten Adami Olearii colligirte und viel vermehrte Reise-Bes-
chreibungen bestehend in der nach Muszkau und Persien: wie auch Johann Albrechts
von Mandelslo Morgenländischen, und Jürg: Andersens und Volq: Yversens Orien-
talische Reise: : mit angehängter Chinesischen Revolution, und wie solch mächtiges
Reich vor kurtzen Iahren von den Tartarn überwältiget und eingenommen: auch: wie
der flüchtende chinesische Mandarin und See-Räuber Coxinga, die von den Holländern
besetzte Insul Formosa angefallen und erobert: : nebenst beygefügtem Persianischen
Rosen-Thal und Baum-Garten: . . . durchgehends mit vielen, meist nach dem Leben in
Kuper gestochenen Figuren, Abbildungen und Land-Taeln geziehret (Hamburg: In
Verlegung Zacharias Herteln und Thomas von Wiering, 1696). On microfilm, see
Kurt von Faber du Faur, German Baroque Literature (New Haven: Research Publi-
cations, 1970), reel 65, no. 326.
146 Tracking the Travels of Adam Olearius
23 Lohmeier in Andersen and Iversen, Orientalische Reise-Beschreibungen, 22.
24 Istoricheskii ocherk i obzor fondov Ruskopisnogo otdela Biblioteki Akademii nauk.
Vol. 1. XVIII vek (Moscow-Leningrad: Izd. Akademii nauk SSSR, 1956), 168, 260,
337.
25 For a description of the complete manuscript, see BAN 34.3.1: Istoricheskii
ocherk, 450, no. 10; Sobolevskii on these manuscripts: Perevodnaia literatura
Moskovskoi Rusi XIV-XVII vekov. Bibliograficheskie materialy in Sbornik Otdele-
niia russkogo iazyka i slovesnosti Imp. Akademii nauk, vol. 74, no. 1 (1903): 69-75.
Sobolevskii reports that Sanson’s book (Voyage ou relation de l’état present du
royaume de Perse: avec une dissertation curieuse sur les moeurs, religion & gouver-
nement de cet état [Paris: Chez la veuve Mabre Cramoisi, 1695]) was translated
into Russian from a German version of the French: Perevodnaia literatura, 70.
26 For the partial manuscript, see (National Library of Russia GPB F IV 15):
Sobolevskii, Perevodnaia literatura, 74; for the manuscript of the Russian transla-
tion of 1696 Hamburg edition, not including Olearius’ Travels, see (National
Library of Russia GPB F XVII 4): Sobolevskii, Perevodnaia literatura, 75.
27 Correspondence with BAN Senior Archivist Vera G. Podkovyrova, March 27-28,
2014.
... The number of images from Adam Olearius' first to second edition expanded by adding about 50 additional engravings. 80 Although the panorama of Tobol'sk appeared already in a 1692 edition, the 1705 update features a redone panorama, more elaborate than the image in the North and East Tartary (1692), Ides (1706), or de Bruin (1718) publications. The arrangement of buildings is modified; the buildings and landscape are more sharply defined. ...
A German Indentured Servant in Barbados in 1652: The Account of Heinrich von Uchteritz
in Der Bearbeitung von Adam Olearius, Schleswig, 1669, ed. Dieter Lohmeier (Tübingen: Niemeyer, 1980), 14-15, 22l For Uchteritz's account, see A. Gunkel and J. S. Handle, "A German Indentured Servant in Barbados in 1652: The Account of Heinrich von Uchteritz," Journal of the Barbados Museum and Historical Society 33 (1970): 91-100.
Podrobnoe opisanie"; primarily the Russia sections into Russian, using an edition close to that of 1656
  • Adam Olearius
For modern translations, see (with selected Russian sections into English from the 1656 edition) Adam Olearius, The Travels of Olearius in Seventeenth-Century Russia, ed. and trans. Samuel H. Baron (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1967); the entire text into Russian from the 1663 German edition, Barsov, "Podrobnoe opisanie"; primarily the Russia sections into Russian, using an edition close to that of 1656, Adam Olearius, Opisanie puteshestviia v Moskoviiu, trans. A. M. Loviagin (reprint of Saint Petersburg, 1906 edition) (Smolensk: Rusich, 2003).
Beschrijvingh vande nieuwe Parciaensche ofte orientaelsche reyse, welck door gelegentheyt van een Holsteynsche ambassade, aen den koningh in Persien gheschiet is: waer inne de ghelegentheyt der plaetsen en landen, door welcke de reyse gegaen is
  • Adam Olearius
  • Johan Albrecht Von Mandelslow
  • Dirck Van Wageninge
Adam Olearius, Johan Albrecht von Mandelslow, and Dirck van Wageninge, Beschrijvingh vande nieuwe Parciaensche ofte orientaelsche reyse, welck door gelegentheyt van een Holsteynsche ambassade, aen den koningh in Persien gheschiet is: waer inne de ghelegentheyt der plaetsen en landen, door welcke de reyse gegaen is (Utrecht: Lambert Roeck, 1651).
Available online at Munich Bayerische Staatsbibliothek Digital
  • Adam Olearius
  • Persiaensche Reyse
  • Uyt Holsteyn
Adam Olearius, Persiaensche reyse, uyt Holsteyn, door Lijflandt, Moscovien, Tartarien in Persien. Door Philippus Crusius, en Otto Brughman, gesanten, des Doorl: Hoogh: Heere, Heer Frederick (Amsterdam: Hartgers, 1651). Available online at Munich Bayerische Staatsbibliothek Digital.
Relation du voyage de Moscouie, Tartarie, et de Perse: fait a l'occasion d'vne ambassade, enuoyée au grand-duc de Moscouie, & du roy de Perse, par le duc de Holstein depuis l'an 1633 iusques en l'an 1639
  • Adam Olearius
  • Johann Albrecht Von Mandelslo
  • Abraham De Wicquefort
Adam Olearius, Johann Albrecht von Mandelslo, and Abraham de Wicquefort, Relation du voyage de Moscouie, Tartarie, et de Perse: fait a l'occasion d'vne ambassade, enuoyée au grand-duc de Moscouie, & du roy de Perse, par le duc de Holstein depuis l'an 1633 iusques en l'an 1639 (Paris: Chez Geruais Clouzier, 1656). Online at Munich Bayerische Staatsbibliothek Digital and also as a Google EBook.
Available online at Munich Bayerische Staatsbibliothek Digital and also as a Google EBook. Thanks to Chris Babich for translating the Italian editor's introduction. On the Uniate Church at this time, see Barbara Skinner
  • Adam Olearius
  • Raffaello Barberini
Adam Olearius and Raffaello Barberini, Viaggi di Moscovia de gli anni 1633. 1634. 1635. e 1636.: libri tre cavati dal Tedesco (Viterbo, 1658). Available online at Munich Bayerische Staatsbibliothek Digital and also as a Google EBook. Thanks to Chris Babich for translating the Italian editor's introduction. On the Uniate Church at this time, see Barbara Skinner, The Western Front of the Eastern Church:
On microfilm, see Kurt von Faber du Faur
  • Adam Olearius
  • Johann Albrecht Von Mandelso
  • Jürgen Andersen
  • Volquard Iversen
Adam Olearius, Johann Albrecht von Mandelso, Jürgen Andersen, and Volquard Iversen, Des Welt-berühmten Adami Olearii colligirte und viel vermehrte Reise-Beschreibungen bestehend in der nach Muszkau und Persien: wie auch Johann Albrechts von Mandelslo Morgenländischen, und Jürg: Andersens und Volq: Yversens Orientalische Reise: : mit angehängter Chinesischen Revolution, und wie solch mächtiges Reich vor kurtzen Iahren von den Tartarn überwältiget und eingenommen: auch: wie der flüchtende chinesische Mandarin und See-Räuber Coxinga, die von den Holländern besetzte Insul Formosa angefallen und erobert: : nebenst beygefügtem Persianischen Rosen-Thal und Baum-Garten:... durchgehends mit vielen, meist nach dem Leben in Kupffer gestochenen Figuren, Abbildungen und Land-Taffeln geziehret (Hamburg: In Verlegung Zacharias Herteln und Thomas von Wiering, 1696). On microfilm, see Kurt von Faber du Faur, German Baroque Literature (New Haven: Research Publications, 1970), reel 65, no. 326.
Sobolevskii reports that Sanson's book (Voyage ou relation de l'état present du royaume de Perse: avec une dissertation curieuse sur les moeurs, religion & gouvernement de cet état
For a description of the complete manuscript, see BAN 34.3.1: Istoricheskii ocherk, 450, no. 10; Sobolevskii on these manuscripts: Perevodnaia literatura Moskovskoi Rusi XIV-XVII vekov. Bibliograficheskie materialy in Sbornik Otdeleniia russkogo iazyka i slovesnosti Imp. Akademii nauk, vol. 74, no. 1 (1903): 69-75. Sobolevskii reports that Sanson's book (Voyage ou relation de l'état present du royaume de Perse: avec une dissertation curieuse sur les moeurs, religion & gouvernement de cet état [Paris: Chez la veuve Mabre Cramoisi, 1695]) was translated into Russian from a German version of the French: Perevodnaia literatura, 70.