Book

Dangerous Games: What the Moral Panic over Role-Playing Games Says about Play, Religion, and Imagined Worlds

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... Incorporating fantasy elements, the seminal RPG, Dungeons & Dragons (D&D), broke off as a noncompetitive wargame in 1973. 29 In D&D, a "dungeon master" acts as a referee and narrator, guiding the actions of the other players as they take on the roles of heroes undergoing a quest. By nature, RPGs are a very social ac- tivity. ...
... The moral panic of the 1980s concerning RPGs, specifically directed at D&D, was partially the result of coincidental timing. 29 RPGs were already associated with the antiwar and counterculture movements. RPGs typically lack the element of competi- tion, the traditional hallmark defining mainstream board games. ...
Article
The Internet changed the way the global community interacts and communicates. This cultural shift allows like-minded individuals to connect and share ideas. It creates spaces for stigmatized communities to gather in a virtual presence. Youth now have greater options to explore identity, and to reach peers with niche interests. From a clinical perspective, it is helpful to understand the nature of communities our patients join on the Internet. This article focuses on the broad umbrella of “geek” culture, exploring a variety of interests such as cosplay, fanfiction, and gaming.
... Sur les pro-et antidestinataires, voir l'article de CédricTerzi et Alain Bovet (2005). 6 À ce propos, voir l'ouvrage de Joseph P.Laycock (2015) sur la « panique morale » entourant les jeux de rôles dans les années 1980 à 2000. ...
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L’article propose une alternative à l’approche constructiviste des paniques morales. Il présente les grandes lignes de la sociologie pragmatiste, inspirée des travaux fondateurs de la philosophie pragmatiste et de l’ethnométhodologie, pour saisir à nouveaux frais les paniques morales comme des troubles partagés qui entourent le vivre-ensemble. Cette invitation s’appuie d’une part sur l’analyse de l’emploi de la panique morale comme a priori pour comprendre le problème des jeux vidéo violents, tel qu’il est présenté majoritairement dans la littérature académique des game studies. D’autre part, une enquête empirique montre qu’un tel problème public ne donne pas systématiquement lieu à une panique morale, comme l’indique le cas de l’interdiction des jeux vidéo violents en Suisse.
... If play is not properly framed, it can also create unintended conflicts-especially if it challenges dominant social norms or moral rules (233,234). Among the risks of digital media and play that have been identified are stigmatization through social media (235), cyberbullying in massive multiplayer online games (236), and compulsive behavior in Internet gaming disorders (236)(237)(238). ...
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The value of understanding patients' illness experience and social contexts for advancing medicine and clinical care is widely acknowledged. However, methodologies for rigorous and inclusive data gathering and integrative analysis of biomedical, cultural, and social factors are limited. In this paper, we propose a digital strategy for large-scale qualitative health research, using play (as a state of being, a communication mode or context, and a set of imaginative, expressive, and game-like activities) as a research method for recursive learning and action planning. Our proposal builds on Gregory Bateson's cybernetic approach to knowledge production. Using chronic pain as an example, we show how pragmatic, structural and cultural constraints that define the relationship of patients to the healthcare system can give rise to conflicted messaging that impedes inclusive health research. We then review existing literature to illustrate how different types of play including games, chatbots, virtual worlds, and creative art making can contribute to research in chronic pain. Inspired by Frederick Steier's application of Bateson's theory to designing a science museum, we propose DiSPORA (Digital Strategy for Play-Oriented Research and Action), a virtual citizen science laboratory which provides a framework for delivering health information, tools for play-based experimentation, and data collection capacity, but is flexible in allowing participants to choose the mode and the extent of their interaction. Combined with other data management platforms used in epidemiological studies of neuropsychiatric illness, DiSPORA offers a tool for large-scale qualitative research, digital phenotyping, and advancing personalized medicine.
... Samtidig har spillet, av ulike grunner, fått en del oppmerksomhet siden begynnelsen av 1980-tallet, både positivt (rollespill i E.T. The Extra-Terrestial) og negativt (beskyldninger om satanistisk praksis på 1980-tallet, se Laycock 2015). De siste 20 årene har rollespill, og saerlig D&D, fått et stort oppsving og en mye mer positiv omtale, mye takket vaere suksessen til filmtrilogien The Lord of the Rings (2001Rings ( -2003 basert på Tolkiens bøker av samme navn, TV-serier som Big Bang Theory (2007-2019), med sin hyllest av nerdekulturen, og ikke minst Stranger Things (2016-), hvor D&D spiller en viktig rolle i handlingen. ...
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Myths of the ancient Greek gods have always been popular in a range of different media within popular culture, especially on screen, in literature and games. This article takes a closer look at the reception of ancient Greek religion within a somewhat overlooked genre, role-playing games. Focusing on the role-playing game Dungeons and Dragons, I examine the sources of inspiration the creators have used when creating the world of Theros. Using modern theories of myth, I show how the creators combine two opposite views from Ancient Greece on the nature of the gods and their origins. I also take a closer look at the choices the creators have made, and how they can be explained using reception theories.
... (Russell 1962), 1942(Capcom 1984, and others. Even the history of role-playing games like Dungeons and Dragons traces its origins to war-gaming (Laycock 2015). ...
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Love and Electronic Affection: A Design Primer brings together thought leadership in romance and affection games to explain the past, present, and possible future of affection play in games. The authors apply a combination of game analysis and design experience in affection play for both digital and analog games. The research and recommendations are intersectional in nature, considering how love and affection in games is a product of both player and designer age, race, class, gender, and more. The book combines game studies with game design to offer a foundation for incorporating affection into playable experiences. The text is organized into two sections. The first section covers the patterns and practice of love and affection in games, explaining the patterns and practice. The second section offers case studies from which designers can learn through example. Love and Electronic Affection: A Design Primer is a resource for exploring how digital relationships are offered and how to convey emotion and depth in a variety of virtual worlds. This book provides: • A catalog of existing digital and analog games for which love and affection are a primary or secondary focus. • A catalog of the uses of affection in games, to add depth and investment in both human-computer and player-to-player engagement. • Perspective on affection game analyses and design, using case studies that consider the relationship of culture and affection as portrayed in games from large scale studios to single author independent games. • Analysis and design recommendations for incorporating affection in games beyond romance, toward parental love, affection between friends, and other relationships. • Analysis of the moral and philosophical considerations for historical and planned development of love and affection in human–computer interaction. • An intersectionality informed set of scholarly perspectives from the Americas, Eurasia, and Oceania.
... Dill and Dill (1998) for an overview research in the 1990s). Yet, clear echoes remain here of other 'effects'-based moral panics focused on a procession of earlier new media forms: for example, comic books and rock'n'roll in the 1950s-1960s (Cohen 2002), and heavy metal music (Gay 2000) and Dungeons and Dragons in the 1970s-1980s (Laycock 2015). Alongside the concerns over gender relations we examine in this book, video game addiction represents the other contemporary cause célèbre (e.g. ...
Chapter
This chapter outlines the theoretical resources we deployed in our analysis of gendered commentary on r/gaming. Our use of masculinity theorising rests on an understanding of the subreddit as a ‘masculinised space’. While Reddit’s own data suggests that users are predominately male, r/gaming is not approached here per se as an online community comprised mostly of boys and men. Rather, we seek to make sense of r/gaming as an online forum in which all users, regardless of their gender, operate within a space governed by a particular normative system.
... Dill and Dill (1998) for an overview research in the 1990s). Yet, clear echoes remain here of other 'effects'-based moral panics focused on a procession of earlier new media forms: for example, comic books and rock'n'roll in the 1950s-1960s (Cohen 2002), and heavy metal music (Gay 2000) and Dungeons and Dragons in the 1970s-1980s (Laycock 2015). Alongside the concerns over gender relations we examine in this book, video game addiction represents the other contemporary cause célèbre (e.g. ...
Book
“In this compelling account of the aftermath of the #GamerGate controversies the authors trace how misogynistic discourses and feelings were expressed and contested. The book tells an important story of how gendered harassment and hate speech against women can be both intensified and challenged via these kinds of online engagements.” -Deborah Lupton, University of New South Wales, Australia “Recognising the genuine desire to see positive social change within the industry and the wider gaming community, alongside the limitations to progress so far, this important book should inform thinking on how gender inequality is further eroded moving forward.” -Mark McCormack, University of Roehampton, UK “A timely and much needed text: well written, and theoretically and empirically informed. This is an important source for any scholar or student interested in gamers, game communities, and how these are changing." -Garry Crawford, University of Salford, UK This book examines gender attitudes in Reddit’s popular video gaming community subreddit, r/gaming. Video gaming has long been understood as a masculinised social space and, while increasing numbers of girls and women now engage in the pastime, boys and men remain the predominant social actors. Furthermore, the gaming community has been widely identified as a prime case study in broader concerns around ‘toxic’ masculinity and gendered online harassment. However, there is also underexamined evidence of a growing movement in the community coming forward to voice its collective opposition. Utilising an innovative combination of computational and qualitative methods, the research undertaken here exposes this fuller picture, revealing significant contestation and a spectrum of attitudes that mark out this popular gaming community as a battleground for gender (in)equality. Students and scholars across a range of disciplines, including gender studies, media studies, cultural studies, sociology,games studies and computer sciences, will find this book of interest. Marcus Maloney is Lecturer in Sociology, Coventry University, UK. Steven Roberts is Associate Professor in Sociology, Monash University, Australia. Timothy Graham is Senior Lecturer in Sociology and Communication, Queensland University of Technology, Australia.
... Video games as a part of popular culture have received their share of critical discussion in popular media (Laycock 2015). For example, different writers have questioned the morality of playing violent games (Heidbrink, Knoll and Wysocki 2014, 14). ...
Article
In the following article, I explore YouTube videos and forum discussions on Reddit with content related to the theme or titled How video games changed my life , focusing especially on the mainstream video game The Last of Us (Naughty Dog 2013/2014). My aim is to understand how players use and follow an emerging and shared narrative describing a positive life-change. Through communal sharing online, the narratives afford a testimonial format or model. I see that the life-change narratives - or, in other words, transformational speeches - serve both as individual identity reflections, affirmations, and testimonies. Furthermore, through the act of public sharing on video platforms or through forum discussion, they can bring together an emerging community. Following Tuija Hovi s (2007, 2016) conceptualisations of religious narrative, the article shows how the argued testimonial tone underlines a unified and newly formed The Last of Us fan community. In addition, it presents a case study of how meaningful connections are built through shared narratives in today s online spaces. The article joins the scholarly conversations examining active meaning-making in popular culture. http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:gbv:46-00107540-18
... Moral and religious rhetoric finds its resonance in a similar unifying of the intended public audience against folk devils -in line with the Judeo-Christian American ethos, spiritual rhetoric has historically aided presidents in unifying the country in times of crisis, as well as in use as a tool to generate fear among American listeners (Domke and Coe 2008). The use of religious ideals in moral panic frameworks is well-documented and explored as a tool of Othering against non-participatory deviants (Laycock 2015). Similarly, the isolation of the speaker and the corresponding in-group as righteous leaders in a moral battle helps to solidify social distance between the in-group and out-group. ...
Article
This thesis analyzes how presidential speeches in the War on Terror (2001 through the present) and the War on Drugs (1964 through the present) defined the out-group, characterized a righteous American in-group, and aided in the creation of atmospheres of escalating fear and anxiety to gain support for specific policy ends. To observe and quantify these trends of fear and crisis, out-group isolation, and in-group emphasis, the author uses quantitative and qualitative content analysis. The results reflect a higher concentration of rhetoric espousing punitive policymaking, characterization of the out-group in each era as immoral, violent, and ubiquitous, and a definition of each time period as one filled with chaos and threat to the “Good American.” These shared patterns reflect an intentionality in speech to rely on cues of fear and anxiety to reach certain policy ends and public opinion changes. From a political perspective, the power of fear and anxiety in political speechmaking is often accompanied by negative policy and social outcomes for a homogenized out-group, as well as a vulnerability in the public to misinformation, trends documented in the War on Drugs and the War on Terror.
Article
Based on a corpus of 40 U.S. news articles and transcribed news videos, I bring together techniques from Critical Discourse Analysis with concepts from cognitive linguistics in analyzing mainstream portrayals of The Satanic Temple (TST), a newer, non-supernaturalist religion. I probe quotation, lexis, and metaphor, and interrogate patterns through the lenses of framing, radial category structure, and Lakoff’s Idealized Cognitive Models. I draw form-based parallels between mainstream U.S media portrayals of TST and accounts from the CDA literature of othering portrayals of other marginalized groups, in the U.S. and elsewhere. I submit that many accounts of TST are sensationalist, and propose reclamation as a useful lens for understanding the contemporary Satanist identity. I suggest that research on news values, particularly Bednarek and Caple’s concept of Negativity, is a useful avenue for further research.
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This article examines the methods of discursive erasure of gender occurring in gaming spaces dominated by men. Tom Digby postulates a warrior masculinity honed among boys throughout their early experiences of gender socialization. This indoctrination valorizes manhood acts encouraged in male-dominated spaces. I use critical discourse analysis to examine 45 articles from Dragon magazine, a popular periodical associated with Dungeons & Dragons. I highlight textual characteristics of gender erasure, including pronoun usage, characterization of women as sources of protection, and humor surrounding women’s issues to illustrate how women were sidelined in early gaming subculture. I argue a historical reduction of women’s participation and a persisting male preserve set the stage for the contemporary concerns about gatekeeping and poor treatment of women in gaming and other fandoms.
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This paper situates gamer discussions of the fantasy race the drow, or dark elves, in masculinity theory. I examine threads from a Facebook group discussing the topic, and code the reactions of men participating. I discuss how some gamer masculinities that are displayed reinforces a belief of epistemic privilege among White men that allows for hegemonic responses to discussions that involve structural racism. I propose larp gamer masculinity as a hybrid masculinity, complicit in its support of hegemonic models but appropriating elements of subordinated populations to allow individuals to feel like an “outsider.” In these gaming discourse spaces, men employ an anti-intellectualized form of digital hooliganism as a rationale for their claims. These men dismiss claims of discrimination as they see those as characteristics outside the scope of the game. The resistance exhibited by these men reacting to changes should be viewed differently than extremist discourses.
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This chapter sketches the commercial dimensions of idols. Positioned in contemporary Japan, the author identifies three major paradigms since the 1970s, namely the integrated media-commodity system or television model, the direct experience or affective model and the virtual model. In the wake of a deteriorating television model, dominated by male idols such as SMAP and Arashi since the 2000s, there is tension today between the competing affective and virtual models, specifically concerning the demand for bodies and authenticity, but both are proving enormously successful. This chapter presents the contrasting examples of AKB48 and Hatsune Miku, as well as their historical predecessors Onyanko Club and “two-dimensional idols.” Importantly, Japan is not unique—even something as seemingly novel as “virtual reality characters” can be traced back to England in the late 1800s—but rather serves as a well-developed case study of pop idolatry for comparative analysis.
Article
Since its release in the late 1990s, the transmedia universe Pokémon has crystallized many controversies while its religious dimension is secondary. This article proposes to analyse the Christian world criticisms on this fictional universe through the speeches of people who are close to the ecclesiastical spheres, as well as those who are not. In order to reveal the emerging themes but also the stakes of religious speeches, we invested the diagram of the functions of the point of view proposed by Marie-France Grinschpoun who states three complementary functions: the informative function that targets the problem as objectively as possible according to the author; the emotional function that tends to show the emotional state of the transmitter and the intentional function that aims to influence the audience. For this reason, we will show that Pokémon has many references to the sacred without the religious being decisive. The attacks on the game mainly reveal a moralizing dimension and testify to the fear of a loss of influence in the religious spheres. Finally, contextualization is central and allows to emphasize the conditions of speech production. In that, they are not disconnected from the realities of the secular world. Thus, Pokémon suffered from several religious criticisms witch take place in the very special socio-economic and cultural context. They stem as much due to the Japanese origin of the game as an internal questioning within the Church on the place of the media.
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Of all the nostalgic pop cultural references and Easter eggs populating the Duffer Brothers’ Stranger Things, the archetypal tabletop role-playing game Dungeons & Dragons is key to the series’ cult appeal.
Article
The twenty-first century has seen a surge of speculative fiction from the cultural margins into the mainstream, among which must be reckoned the remarkable renaissance of tabletop roleplaying games (Dungeons & Dragons especially), which generate fictional narratives through collaborative, improvisational, rule-constrained storytelling. D&D, this article argues, not only contains a remarkable array of politically and theologically implicative contents (such as agonistic cosmologies and racial hierarchies) but also entails and incentivizes theopolitically significant social practices on the part of participants – most significantly, narrating player-characters into and through moral dilemmas. Attending to players’ testimonies of personal renewal and political resistance, we find that D&D is an arena for what I theorize as edification: an enrichment of one’s subjectivity that is experienced as beneficial, transformational, or even salvific (that is, as effecting rescue or liberation from ruinous ways of life), even as it proves culturally contested and socially divisive.
Article
The Handmaid’s Tale is a novel by Margaret Atwood that has won numerous awards for its frightful dystopian imagery. It was recently adapted for series television, an adaptation that has led some to see beyond the confines of the printed word. Columnists for a number of newspapers and magazines have suggested the television series provides insights into contemporary politics and religion. This study examines the way these essayists wrestled with various interpretations of the show. Some writers based their fearful reaction to the show on the Trump administration. Others, though, scoffed at this interpretation and seemed to enjoy doing so. In this study I examine how these dissonant interpretations might raise very good questions about how scholars think about media, religion, and fear.
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The D&D scare phenomenon is often explained as the result of unreasonable and deluded conservative and Christian parenting communities. However, to claim a whole generation of parents lacked the mental capacity to see that D&D was not problematic is to fail to understand the situation these parents lived in. The parents of the 1980s were not irrational in their condemnation of D&D; rather, a perfect storm of more universally acknowledged occult/satanic concerns, the return of combative traditional/fundamentalist Christian worldviews to the public sphere, and a precedent of anxious parents considering forms of children’s media to be fundamentally corrupting made concerns about D&D a natural outcome. This thesis explores these factors using analysis from historians, journalists, and psychologists.
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This chapter outlines the shape of the discourse about role-playing games (RPGs) from their emergence in the mid-1970s through to the end of the millennium, including both the conversation among RPG hobbyists about the role-playing experience and the public discourse about Dungeons & Dragons and its potential impact on its players transpiring in the mass media. It shows how the conversation inside the hobby sought to establish what a role-playing game was or should be, accompanied by a conversation in the mass media that framed role-playing as an activity for youth and made either condescending or alarmist normative judgments about those who engaged in it. It offers those conversations as the context in which two seminal essays written by a tabletop RPG (TRPG) designer named Ron Edwards served as the impetus for the Forge as a place to pursue the internal discourse—in other words, as a place to take role-playing games seriously.
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Game map interfaces provide an alternative perspective on the worlds players inhabit. Compared to navigation applications popular in day-today life, game maps have different affordances to match players' situated goals. To contextualize and understand these differences and how they developed, we present a historical chronicle of game map interfaces. Starting from how games came to involve maps, we trace how maps are first separate from the game, becoming more and more integrated into play until converging in smartphone-style interfaces. We synthesize several game history texts with critical engagement with 123 key games to develop this map-focused chronicle, from which we highlight trends and opportunities for future map designs. Our work contributes a record of trends in game map interfaces that can serve as a source of reference and inspiration to game designers, digital physical-world map designers, and game scholars.
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Background. The history of larp, live-action role-play, in Japan may be rather short but documents exponential growth in the entertainment sector as well as in educational gaming. Following trends of related forms of analog role-playing games, the horror genre functions as a motor of increasing popularity. Aim. This article explores the development of non-digital role-playing games in the Japanese context in light of the online video platform niconico popularizing horror role-playing and practical considerations of adopting the genre to live-action play. Method. Cyberethnographic fieldwork including participant observation at larps between 2015 and 2018 forms the data basis for this article, followed by qualitative interviews with larp organizers, larp writers, and designers of analog games as well as observations online in respective webforums. Results. Replays, novelized transcripts of play sessions, have been an entry point into analog role-playing in Japan since the 1980s. With the advent of video sharing sites, replays moved from the book to audio-visual records and a focus on horror games. Creating a fertile ground for this genre, the first indigenous Japanese larp rulebook built on this interest and the ease of access, namely that players do not need elaborate costumes or equipment to participate in modern horror. Discussion. The dominant form of larps in Japan are one-room games, that work well with horror mysteries and function as a low threshold of accessibility. Furthermore, the emotional impact of horror larps, the affective interaction between players and their characters, allows for memorable experiences and so continues to draw in new players and organizers.
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This dissertation examines uses of history and expressions of cultural memory in Norwegian black metal. Formed in the late 1980s and early 1990s, Norwegian black metal seemed at odds with many of the stereotypes of Norway. The genre is an extreme style of heavy metal music that has been associated with burning churches, desecrating graves, and committing murders. Yet, Norway is often perceived as wealthy with sublime natural beauty and high levels of equality. Since the late 1990s, Norwegian black metal has increasingly received positive recognition and support from Norwegian government agencies and cultural institutions who have deemed this style of music a cultural product of Norway. In exploring the relationship between Norwegian black metal and Norway, two primary questions are asked: what makes Norwegian black metal ‘Norwegian’ and what are its influences? To answer these questions, a theoretical approach based on Astrid Erll’s cultural memory complex is used. Included in this cultural memory complex are notions of individual and collective memory, both of which include concepts of nationalism as outlined by Benedict Anderson and Michael Billig. The source base for this dissertation includes the musical releases of over five hundred Norwegian black metal bands which were gathered and analyzed. Three primary categories, with corresponding subcategories, were identified to account for the ways Norwegian black metal bands have used history and expressed cultural memory over a twenty-five-year period from 1988 to 2013. This dissertation shows that Norwegian black metal has made frequent use of history and has actively negotiated parts of the identity-making process from nineteenth-century Norway. In connecting to Norwegian identity in such a way, these bands link to historically construed notions of likhet and egalitarian individualism as identified by the Norwegian anthropologists Marianne Gullestad and Thomas Hylland Eriksen. They actively reproduce many of the same essentialized notions of Norwegian identity that create and maintain ethnic boundaries on Norwegian identity. By using history and expressing cultural memory in the way that they do, Norwegian black metal bands communicate that they are firmly Norwegian while, at the same time, reinforcing ethnocentric notions of Norwegian identity.
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In 2010, a group of teenagers in the rural Yucatecan town of Dzitas were reportedly possessed by the devil while playing with a Ouija board in a local cemetery. This fed into a moral panic regarding the corrupting moral influence of transnational media and consumerism on local young people whose livelihood prospects look increasingly precarious. This bore a superficial resemblance to the 1980s “Satanic Panic” of the United States, which also embodied parental fears of cultural change and neoliberal precarity. However, the Yucatecan case bears the particular mark of a culture in which belief in divination and sorcery is more wide-spread than in the United States on the 1980s, and where neoliberal precarity did not emerge amidst the decay of an older Fordist stability. A comparison of the cultural dimensions of these two moral panics highlights important differences in the experience of neoliberalism at different points in the global system.
Article
This article considers responses to RapeLay (2006), an adult computer game that allows the player to rape virtual women. RapeLay sparked controversy when it circulated globally and this filtered back into debates in Japan, which at times explicitly retrod the ground of feminist critiques of pornography in North America from the late 1970s into the 1980s. The return of ‘the sex wars’ in Japan in the new millennium confronts us with a fundamental question that those battles left unresolved: is fantasy itself a problem? To put it another way, are adult computer games, which involve humans in the production and reception of virtual sex acts but not in the depicted sex acts, a problem? Is it all right to fantasize about sexual violence or, as some critics argue, does such fantasy normalize sexual violence against women? Critical and cultural approaches to sexual fantasy, play and harm in Japan are considered.
Article
Historically, reported cases of self-identified vampirism typically have been associated with psychopathology and sometimes a propensity for violence. However, scholars recently have noted a wide range of diverse practices and meanings that all fall under the general description of self-identified vampirism. This brief report focuses on a homicide case (male and female partnered offenders), wherein a single victim was murdered and dismembered. Due to specific case evidence, there was controversy regarding whether or not the homicide was motivated by ritualistic self-identified vampirism. Court documents were reviewed and assessed, and findings suggest that the evidence used to support assertions that homicidal motivations occurred due to ritualistic vampirism was misinterpreted due to the omission of a growing multidisciplinary literature on self-identified vampirism. It is important for forensic experts to be aware of emerging research on alternative identities, including vampirism, that challenge traditional theories and assumptions.
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Desde sus orígenes, los juegos de rol han estado vinculados con la literatura fantástica, que a su vez reelabora el material mítico. Juegos de rol y literatura fantástica establecerán un diálogo ejerciéndose una influencia recíproca y entrando en contacto con otros medios como el cine, los cómics o los videojuegos. En este diálogo, la mitología estará bien presente. Este artículo pretende indagar en las diversas relaciones que se establecen entre la mitología, la cultura popular y los juegos de rol, desde sus influencias y fuentes de inspiración, hasta las propias estructuras de las historias narradas en los juegos de rol, donde los jugadores toman el papel de héroes que interpretan en sus viajes iniciáticos, un viaje con un gran potencial educativo en el que tanto los jugadores como los personajes madurarán a través de sus propias historias interminables.
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