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Pharmacognostical, Pharmacological Studies and Traditional uses of Plectranthus Ambonicus: A Review



In this review, information about the Phytochemistry, Traditional uses, medicinal uses, side effects and future prospective of Plectranthus Ambonicus are given. PA was used in herbal medicines for the treatment of various disorders like asthma, flu, eczema and cardiovascular disorders. The plant shows these properties due to the presence of various important constituents or secondary metabolites like flavanoids, glycosides, phenols, tannins, and steroids, etc. which were already identified by various spectroscopic methods. The different parts of the plant were used to prepare medicines. As the plant contain various important constituents and also found effective in traditional system of medicine there is the future scope of this plant so that it can be used to prepare medicines which are effective against diseases without side effects.
Research Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry. 11(4): October- December, 2019
ISSN 0975-2331 (Print)
0975-4385 (Online)
DOI: 10.5958/0975-4385.2019.00041.4
Vol. 11 |Issue-04|
October- December| 2019
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Pharmacognostical, Pharmacological Studies and Traditional uses of
Plectranthus Ambonicus: A Review
Punet Kumar1*, Sangam2, Nitin Kumar3
1Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Shri Gopichand College of Pharmacy, Baghpat, 250609, (U. P.) India
2Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Oxford College of Pharmacy,
Hapur, 201001, (U.P.) India.
3Department of Pharmacogonosy, Faculty of Parmarth College of Pharmacy, Hapur, 201001, (U.P.) India.
*Corresponding Author E-mail:
In this review, information about the Phytochemistry, Traditional uses, medicinal uses, side effects and future
prospective of Plectranthus Ambonicus are given. PA was used in herbal medicines for the treatment of various
disorders like asthma, flu, eczema and cardiovascular disorders. The plant shows these properties due to the
presence of various important constituents or secondary metabolites like flavanoids, glycosides, phenols, tannins,
and steroids, etc. which were already identified by various spectroscopic methods. The different parts of the
plant were used to prepare medicines. As the plant contain various important constituents and also found
effective in traditional system of medicine there is the future scope of this plant so that it can be used to prepare
medicines which are effective against diseases without side effects.
KEYWORDS: Plectranthus Ambonicus, Phytochemicals, Antineoplastic activity, Antifungal activity,
Antimicrobial activity, alcoholic extract.
Plectranthus Ambonicus is a well known plant which
belongs to Lamiaceae family. These plants are found in
almost all over in India and it is a medicinal plant which
is used to treat in folkloric medicines. In other diseases
like Flu, bronchitis and epilepsy it can also be used.
Phytochemical study shows that it contains flavanoids
like apigenin, luteoliln, salvigenin [1]
Received on 25.09.2019 Modified on 12.10.2019
Accepted on 25.10.2019 ©A&V Publications All right reserved
Res. J. Pharmacognosy and Phytochem. 2019; 11(4):244-250.
DOI: 10.5958/0975-4385.2019.00041.4
As with many plants, the botanical name of this herb
Plectranthus Ambonicus helps us to identify its place. In
this case amboinicus refers to Ambon, a mountainous,
fertile island located in the Maluku Islands near
Indonesia. From there the plants propagation spread
throughout the East Indies, Africa, and was eventually
naturalized in Latin America by the Spanish, who named
this herb 'oregano de la Hoja Ancha‘. Cuban oregano can
still be found growing wild in the rainforests of
Indonesia and Malaysia, and because it is easy to grow,
and can survive considerable neglect, it is a popular
house plant found worldwide. [25]
Herb Coleus aromaticus is the plant which is of botanical
family Lamiaceae (family Labiatae) and genus Coleus
(now known as Plectranthus). It is a big juicy perennial
aromatic herb with 30-90 cm height, with a thick, fleshy
Research Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry. 11(4): October- December, 2019
leaves and stem. This is much branched, succulent herb
with very unique smelling leaves which are aromatic.
This plant is found in allover india and it is also
cultivated in gardens Because of taste and aroma the
leaves of this plant are ideal for flavoring meats and fish,
as it increase the taste of the dishes and also useful to
cover bad odour. [1]
Karpurvalli herbs (Coleus aromaticus) are an herb which
is used as households in the countries of Asia. For the
purpose of cooking this plant can be grown in the
gardens. The antimicrobial, flavoring, antioxidant
properties are being continuously processed to test
potential by researchers in world. There's enough space
for the research on the application in the food industry,
however, the properties by which this plant shows its
effect on stomach and assure about its use is still have to
prove. [6]
Figure 1. Plectranthus Ambonicus [7]
1.1 Distribution:
Plectranthus Ambonicus is cultivated throughout India
and in Malaysia. It is also found growing in various
Asian and American countries and it can also be grown
in gardens. Lamiacae is a family that contain
approximately 200 genera and species in the 3200 with a
history of treatment in diseases and use in food. The
plants of this family consist of essential oils including
basil, mint, lavender, sage and oregano with a
rectangular trunk
This plant is widely cultivated and naturalized in the Old
and New World Tropics. It is also known as Cuban
oregano, Spanish thyme, Orégano Brujo (Puerto Rico),
Indian Borage, Mexican thyme, or Mexican mint; syn.
Coleus amboinicus Lour., Coleus aromaticus Benth. [8]
1.2 Plant Morphology:
Herbs are perennial aged 3-10 years old and highly
fragrant. This plant can climb, or progress, and can reach
about 1m height and leaves are thick, simple and light
blade, a fat green opposite arrangement of leaves (2.5 - 3
cm long, 2.5 - 3 cm). Shape of the leaves is broadly oval
or triangular shapes (cutting base and apex acute
Margins of the leaf are having crenate surfaces below
contain numerous glandular hairs make winter trunk:
trunk has tomentose (densely covered with soft short
hairs). The flowers are 10-20 verticil with inflorescences
(10-20cm long). The flower is surrounded by many
flower stalks dot flowers with the score close together
where the Flower ends not where the base. The flowers
are bell-shaped sepals. Fruits are light brown nutlets are
flat. This plant flowers in Singapore [9]
1.3 Classification:
Division : Magnoliophyta
Kingdom : Plantae
Clade : Angiosperms
Class : Magnoliopsida
Order : Lamiales
Family : Lamiaceae
Genus : Plectranthus
Species : C. aromaticus
Synonyms : Coleus amboinicus Lour. [8]
1.4 Common Names of Plectranthus Ambonicus:
This Plant is commonly known by different names at
different places:
Kannada :Dodda pathre. dodda pathre soppu
Hindi :Patta ajavayin, Patharchur, Amroda,
English :Country borage, Indian borage,
Indian mint
Bengali :Amalkuchi
Malayalam :Panikoorka
Gujarathi :Ovapan
Marathi :Pan ova
Sanskrit :Karpuravalli, Sugandhavalakam,
Marathi :Pathurchur [10]
Coleus aromaticus (Lamiaceae) is very popular drug in
India which is also called as oregano. In some countries
this herb is used in treatment of ulcers. It's kind of a big
juicy herb and has aromatic smell and it is very common
without widespread cultivation. When crushed or
squeezed the leaves gives smell of mint and also they are
thick and juicy. Different kind of phytochemicals is
present in different parts of the plant like Fruits, flower
stems, leaves, roots etc. Few nutrients of this plant are
found to have important role in the treatment of diabetes.
C. aromaticus is able to lower blood glucose levels so it
can be used as an antidiabetic agent and also helps in
other problems caused due to high sugar levels like it
may be useful in terms of diabetic wound healing to heal
faster, because of its ability to prevent or it can decrease
the risk of infection and complications. [3]
Research Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry. 11(4): October- December, 2019
This herb has traditional history. From many years this
Golden herb is very effective in folkloric medicines.
This plant is effective in wound healing with very less
side effects so this herb is pretty impressive in this sense.
The fatal toxic dose of this particular herb is tested in
laboratory mice which shows that the plant Plectranthus
Ambonicus is a herb which has no side effects or we can
say this amazing herb have no side-effects [3]
P. Ambonicus is a herb which is used in the treatment of
famous diseases like cephalgia, otalgia, anorexia,
dyspepsia bloating, Colic, diarrhea, cholera, gums,
seizures, asthma, cough, chronic bronchitis, kidney
calculi, vesical calculi, hiccough, strangury,
hepotopathy, fever and malaria. In Malaysia bruised
spasm of P.Ambonicus leaves poultice is used on bites of
Scorpion and centipede. Mouth corners cracks are
treated with this plant in jawa. P.Ambonicus shows
antihelminthic activity which is already reported and it is
cultivate widely because of this reason. In order to
accommodate the increase in demand for herbal
medicines, constant research and analysis has been
conducted which will prove antioxidant activity of P.
Ambonicus after that this will be used as a tool in the
treatment of diseases. [3]
Members of the genus Coleus are very important
because they provide food, medicine, and as
ornamentals, Ayurvedic practitioners have used the
Coleus varieties in chronic cough and asthma includes
calculus, gonorrhea, heart disease, fever, piles,
Dyspepsia. Since ancient times the plant was also widely
studied for activities, such as previous biochemical anti
mutagenic, cancer, etc, these components are antigen
toxic in characteristics and also they are a good source
for the treatment of diseases. [4]
2.1 Antimicrobial Activity:
Microorganisms such as viruses, bacteria, fungi and
protozoa are responsible for the various diseases.
throughout life of a human being. Everyone suffered
from at least a few infections. Many infections require
antimicrobial treatment to prevent further spreading
which is major complication in treatment of disease by
the drug. In ancient time extracts from plants and
essential oils with antimicrobial agents is evoked from
the natural source. They are being investigated for use as
alternative remedies in treating infectious diseases.
Antimicrobial activity of oil of this plant and extract has
been reported. [5]
2.2 Antifungal activity:
Fungi are the reason for destruction of food materials,
plants and grains during storage. After that the food will
release their nutritional value which makes it useless for
consumption. From Total world's grain approximately
25% are contaminated by the mycotoxins known& also
by the metabolites of fungi 300 or more which are
known to be toxic for humans and animals. P.
Ambonicus nanoparticle, made from its Extracts from
various solvents and essential oil were effective as
antifungal. C. aromaticus leaves have activity against
Aspergillus Niger and Candida albicans and botrytis
cinerea. [5]
2.3 Anti-inflammatory activity:
Tissue proteins de-nutrition is a very common factor
which is responsible for problems like inflammation and
arthritis. Auto Antigen production inside the body is also
caused by metamorphism process of tissue proteins.
Agents that prevent denaturation variables are
worthwhile to develop as anti-inflammatory drugs. By
doing A comparison of reference standard drug and the
plant extract we can find the concentration that inhibit
the protein denaturation. When compared with standard
drug the effects were more effective. Extracts of P.
Ambonicus were used to study the effect on
inflammation at different concentrations using egg
albumin. The Acetaminophen is used as a standard drug.
Depending on potency of extract inhibition of proteins
varies. After study we found that plant extract shows
anti-inflammatory activity as it prevents in-vitro
denaturation. Effects are due to the presence of
Polyphenolic content and may be due to synergistic
activity of more than one compound. [1]
2.4 Antibacterial activity:
Plectranthus Ambonicus ethanol extracts have
antibacterial properties, with a concentration of 50g/ml
against streptococcus mutants. Leaves of Plectranthus
Ambonicus were selected in the study against bacteria is
due to various reasons. The leaves were used in the
traditional system for the treatment of nasal congestion,
bronchitis, asthma, cold, cough, e tc. Now it is also used
in cancer treatment as it has anti tumour and cytotoxic
activities. So we can say that this plant is effective
against streptococcus mutans. This plant is very well
known in india and is also cultivated widely so parts of
the plants are easily available and they are also
cheap. [17]
2.5 Skin Care:
The most popular uses of Plectranthus Ambonicus are in
the treatment of skin. In case of bites and stings of bugs
to other skin diseases like psoriasis and eczema,
Plectranthus Ambonicus shows the anti-inflammatory
compounds which are capable of reducing swelling and
redness in a very less time. To eliminate irritation and
itching this plant is very useful. [23]
2.6 Antidiabetic activity:
Increased levels of sugar are reported in fasting rats after
Control of diabetes mellitus in subsequent experiment
Research Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry. 11(4): October- December, 2019
date than basal value which is stored within 2-weeks.
When treated daily with oral dose of Plectranthus
Ambonicus we found that the levels of blood sugar
decreases in the subsequent trial date than their basal
values, when given 400mg/kg anti hyperglycemic dose
of Plectranthus Ambonicus extract it displayed dose-
dependent decrease in enzymes. When the levels of
enzymes were determined after fifteen days of plant
extract treatment the enzymes such as Plectranthus
Ambonicus withdrawal of glycolytic
phosphoglucoisomerase which results in increase and on
the other side decrease in the activity of aldolase. The
diabetic rats which were receiving coleus aromaticus
extract in a dose of 400mg/kg the Glucose-6-phosphate
depletion were significantly improved. The activity of
Plectranthus Ambonicus extracts as anti diabetic is
evaluated by carbohydrate metabolism enzyme activity.
Plectranthus Ambonicus alcohol extract control the
metabolism of carbohydrate in the alloxan induced
diabetic rats. There are lots of Phytochemicals are found
in different parts of plants such as in root, Fruit, flower,
stems and leaves. Some of the nutrients from the plant
found in P.ambonicus were proved as they act in
decreasing the level of blood sugar. P. Ambonicus is
capable in lowering of blood sugar, so it may be useful
in terms of diabetic wound healing to heal faster,
because it has ability to prevent infection and
complications. [12]
2.7 Anxiolytic activity:
Commonly we used Light/dark box for rat as a model for
screening drug having anxiolytic activity. It has been
observed that number of transfer are not give good
results the only measurement of the time spent in area of
light gives good results when anxiolytic activity is
determined. Extract of coleus aromaticus prepared from
alcohol can increase the amount of time in the area of
light so that is the proof that this plant has anxiolytic
property. [13]
2.8 Diuretic activity:
Diuretic properties of the extract were evaluated in male
rats which shows that Ethanolic extract of plant act as
diuretic. Furosemide is (10mg/kg) used as standard,
while the normal saline solution (0.9%) were used as
controls. Results shows that there are significant
increases urinary concentrations of ions like Na, K and
Cl and also in urine volume. So from this study it may be
concluded that Plectranthus. Ambonicus Spreng leaves
has diuretic activity. [14]
2.9 Antineoplastic activity:
This plant is very widely used as medicinal plant in
Brazil, especially in the north-eastern region for curing
the diseases, including cancer, Brazilian use
Plectranthus Ambonicus in many areas, especially as
coarse extracts for the treatment of diseases like
inflammation and tumors. Plectranthus Ambonicus
extract which is hydroalcoholic can cur embedding of
hematoma cells Intraperitoneal into rat subcutaneous
tissue and in lowering as cites and tumor cells. [15]
2.10 Wound Healing activity:
P.Ambonicus has many capabilities to increase the
healing process of wounds. The plant shows
antimicrobial properties and also it is a powerful immune
stimulant which aids the removal process of
microorganisms that retard healing process and for the
maintenance of path of normal progress. High content of
zinc is present which supports important functions to
promote and facilitate the healing of wounds. P.
Ambonicus known as an anti-inflammatory which makes
the process of healing fast, this is very important because
the longterm inflammation will slow wound healing. P.
Ambonicus also noted is a good antibacterial and
antibacterial are the ones which can increase the healing
activity of wounds. Therefore P. Ambonicus is regarded
as antibacterial agent and also the best wound healing
agent proved by preventing the infection in various
cases. [3]
2.11 Respiratory Disorders:
Coleus aromaticus leaves infusion or aromatic syrup is
found very effective against cough. The details regarding
this are not explained and only in the Zulu Medicine its
use is reported. To flavor food the leaves of the plant are
used. Further, this species uses in cattle. [21] In
treatment of sore throat, a stuffy nose, congestion,
painful sinuses etc. After chewing leaves gives relief as
it contains those types of chemical compounds which act
as good expectorant and remove the phlegm and mucus
which helps to clear the sinuses. It also prevents
development of bacteria and other pathogens which
helps to increase the immunity.[23]
2.12 Reduces Stress and Anxiety:
This plant is not well known for its use against anxiety
and stress, Plectranthus Ambonicus contains some
compounds and also some minerals which are mild
sedative in nature. Because of this Plectranthus
Ambonicus is used particularly in the form of tea to treat
the patients suffering from stress & anxiety which helps
to induce peace of mind, relaxation and restful sleep.[23]
2.13 Antiurolithiatic Activity:
There is a water extract of the leaves of C. aromaticus
which is used for determination of antiurolithiatic
activity on calcium stones in male rats. Extract prepared
from Water of C. aromaticus was found effective in
decreasing the build-up of calcium oxalate. These results
demonstrate that the C. aromaticus is effective in the
treatment o calcium oxalate stones in the kidneys and
urinary tract. The study revealed that there is high level
of crystals of calcium oxalate in kidney and also high
Research Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry. 11(4): October- December, 2019
lipid levels in the blood serum. This shows that when
hydro alcoholic extract of Plectranthus Ambonicus
leaves was given it helps in decreasing the level of
cholesterol and also other lipids like triglycerides in the
urolithiatic rats. [4]
2.14 Analgesic Activity:
When Evaluated the ability of PA as analgesic on two
animal models using Intraperitoneal injection of acetic
acid which causes an increase in abdominal fluid
prostaglandins such as PGE2, PGF2, serotonin and
histamine .A study found that PA reduce the cramps
caused by acetic acid in rats and also the pain response
but Not neurogenic (phase) Pain caused by intraplantar
injection of formalin. Such results suggest that
Plectranthus Ambonicus shows effective analgesic
activity. The PA exert analgesic effects and also anti
inflammatory effect which is associated with inhibition
of iNOS expression and NF-b COX-2 by inactivate them
and this is possible reason for the use of this plant as an
anti-inflammatory agent. [22]
2.15 Cancer Prevention:
As per earlier reports Plectranthus Ambonicus shows
antioxidant activity that came into the news recently and
also studies are going on now days to detect its effect on
breast cancer and prostate cancer. Earlier studies shows
that it can slow breast cancer and as this plant is
effective in treating prostatitis so we can say that this can
be helpful in prostate cancer. [23]
2.16 Rheumatiod Arthritis:
Plectranthus Ambonicus may show different activity
from the Indomethacin that act on the enzyme
cyclooxygenase. According to previous observation
prednisoline is the only drug which efficiently decreases
production of Cytokines and provides maximum
protection in joint problems. Plectranthus Ambonicus
activity against Rheumatoid Arthritis is based on the
different mechanisms from NSAIDs P. Ambonicus may
improve healing and the use of NSAIDs is reduced so
side effects produced are also less. Ingredients should be
identified. An information which is unpublished says
that when it is given in a dose of 5000mg/kg once it does
not produced toxicity. We can say that the plant can be
developed as disease modifying drugs against
2.17 Antiplatelet Aggregation Activity:
Stem extract of Plectranthus Ambonicus was evaluated
for determination of activity against platelet aggregation
using different concentrations (50 - 250 g/ml, PRP) &
ADP is the agonist used for this study, after the study the
findings said that capacity of platelets to aggregate
depends on dosage means higher is the concentration
higher is the ability, We knew that platelets plays an
important role in blood and also have important role in
the cardiovascular diseases. Activity of platelets can
affect the disease profession and also the stability of
atherosclerosis, so the natural antithrombotic agents
which are useful in improving platelet function are of
great interest these days, which can show their effect in
improving platelets function and also helpful in
preventing cardiovascular disease.[26]
2.18 Antimalarial Activity:
Indian borage is a plant which is aromatic in nature and
found growing in American and Asian countries and also
in Malaysia. Traditional medical practioners have
claimed that this ancient medicinal plant can be effective
as antimicrobial, able to act against fungi, can prevent
malaria and can reduce fever. Studies shows that extract
of P. Ambonicus found in Malaysia can act against
malaria and it is also found that extract of this plant
which is Indian variety can decrease the Plasmodium
berghei yoelli parasitemia in suppression tests in rats,
from this we can say that leaves of this plant can be used
in the treatment of malaria. [27]
2.19 Anti-biofilm Efficacy:
Methanol and ethyl acetate extract of Plectranthus
Ambonicus showed a dose-dependent inhibition on film-
forming S. pyrogens which are inflammatory conditions
like pharyngitis. From both the extracts Methanolic
extract gives good results against test pathogen at
minimal concentration. Extract prepared from Methanol
contains various Phytochemicals which have effects on
biofilm formed by the pathogen. We can also say that
this is the first plant which shows activity against s.
pyrogens which are present in upper respiratory tract.
2.20 Anticancer Activity:
In vitro Properties of extracts which is obtained in crude
form from leaves of Plectranthus Ambonicus (Lour.) was
tested and found that the extract prepared from n hexane,
ethyl acetate and ethanol inhibited HeLa cells to and
shows the cytotoxic effects with inhibitory concentration
50% and also have toxic effects on MCF7 cell lines.
there is a phytosterol named sitosterol having chemical
structure similar to cholesterol. It is a key ingredient in
meals and is considered as a good biomarker because of
the biological activity against diabetes and is also used
as an antioxidant. It is also very effective in the
treatment of prostate gland enlargement, to increase the
behavior of T-cells and primes the immune system so
that it will work effectively. The studies of human liver
microsome show that sitosterol inhibits the absorption of
cholesterol. [30]
2.21 Other Uses:
Plectranthus Ambonicus Leaves are used in the laundry
and they are also used to scent hairs when they are fresh.
Leaves are also rubbed on hairs and body after bath.
Research Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry. 11(4): October- December, 2019
They can also be rubbed on body to protect the body
from insects. Essential oils from plant have medicinal
properties. Leaves and stems contain essential oil which
are used in skin cream and used commercially to prepare
cosmetics. [24]
2.22 Culinary Uses:
Plectranthus Ambonicus is called as Indian Borage in
India because of its flavor. It is used to give flavor to
Curry fish and lamb dishes because the flavor similar to
oregano thyme or ajowan caraway spices. It is also
changeable with those herbs. In the west indies this herd
is used with some of jerk seasoning after drying and in
Cuba it is used with black beans and salsa, leaves of the
plant are cooked and prepared like spinach in Japan. [25]
The sums of the elements which are non-volatile, 30
have been identified from P. Ambonicus. The chemical
compositions of these are the total phenolic acid,
flavanoids, sesquiterpene hydrocarbon monoterpene
hydrocarbons and oxygenated monoterpenes, ester,
Caffeic acid. Phytocompounds are Rosmarinic acid,
acid, p-Coumaric acid, Shimobashiric acid, chloroform
extract from the P. amboinicus was dried under air and
the separation was done by chromatography using silica
gel column technique to separate compounds that do not
evaporate [17,18]. Later the compounds were identified
by using ultraviolet (UV), nuclear magnetic resonance
(NMR) and 2 D NMR spectroscopy and the three
compounds Cirsimaritin, Salvigenin and Chrysoeriol
were identified. High pressure liquid chromatography
(HPLC) analysis was performed, to detect the presence
of Carvacrol P. amboinicus aqueous extract. [19]
The leaves of the plant contain alkaloids, flavanoids,
tannins and phenols, steroids, saponins, carbohydrate
and glycosides. These Phytochemicals are known to be
of therapeutic importance since they have biological
roles. For example, flavanoids are shown to have
antibacterial activity. Phenols are shown to have
antioxidant activity. Tannins are shown to have antiviral,
antitumor, wound healing and antiparasitic effects.
Saponins being steroidal glycosides could be precursors
for the synthesis of steroidal drugs like corticosteroids,
sex hormones and contraceptives.
2.23 Adverse effects of Country borage:
No adverse effect is known after the use of P.
Ambonicus. Some people suffer from burning sensation
of the tongue and esophagus after the intake of juice of
the leaf. [11]
As discussed above Results from various studies shows
that Plectranthus can be used for the treatment of various
diseases like antineoplastic, anti-inflammatory &
antianxiety and it also have influence on the other body
systems like urinary and more. Clinical studies are
required; including studies in animal models by the help
of biochemical marks which helps to understand what
the mechanism behind this is. It should also be examined
for any effects or prevent diseases. For its action which
is responsible to fight against cancer studies must be
performed. One model is not sufficient but other studies
are also required to confirm its effects as anticancer.
Studies should also be required to verify the results that
Plectranthus is antitumor agent when it is used in
combination with the other anticancer drugs. The effect
of this plant in the endocrine system and the heart of
animals are not clear. Studies show a possible benefit of
Plectranthus Ambonicus in the diseases associated with
the CNS. The lack of systematic toxicity study is of
some concern about the quality of the existing toxicity
studies. The above data regarding Plectranthus explain
that plant may be useful in several diseases, including
wound healing, skin diseases, in respiratory disorders
and as an antitumor agent. Some of the preliminary
studies into existing uses which form the basis for
further studies, but the evidence is not sufficient to
provide a scientific basis for the clear treatment given by
the drug.
The results from this review show that this plant can be
used for treatment of various diseases. As the plant was
successfully used in traditional system of medicine from
ancient times there is requirement of more research on
this plant to identify its use so that it can be use
therapeutically. One of the important thing about this
plant shows more effect if given in combination with
The authors report no conflict of interest.
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Full-text available
The objective of the study was to evaluate the phytobiotic activity of Larrea tridentata, Origanum vulgare and Plectranthus amboinicus on Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria of common presence that endanger human health directly or indirectly. Extracts of leaves from each of the three plants under study were prepared in 75% ethyl alcohol, in proportions of 30, 35 and 40%, for a total of nine treatments. The bacterial strains were divided into two groups, depending on their staining properties: Gram (+) and Gram (-). The response variable was the size if the inhibition halo of bacterial growth. The data was analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test. Differences were found (P<0.05) in the type of extract, concentration level and type of bacteria, as well as in the interaction of the extract and level (P<0.04), and in the interaction of extract, level and bacteria (P<0.002). It is concluded that L. tridentata at 35% had a higher phytobiotic activity, compared with O. vulgare and P. amboinicus.
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In this study, we evaluated the antimildew effects on paper of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng leaf essential oil prepared through hydrodistillation. The oil was isolated with a Clevenger-type apparatus and then characterized through gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 43 compounds were identified, representing 99.5% of the oil. The main ingredients were carvacrol (50.0%), γ-terpinene (13.1%), and β-caryophyllene (11.3%). The leaf oil had excellent antimildew effects; its minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values against Aspergillus clavatus, A. niger, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Chaetomium globosum, Myrothecium verrucaria, Penicillium citrinum, and Trichoderma viride were 100, 200, 75, 75, 100, 150, and 150 μg/cm ² respectively. The leaf oil was further partitioned into 6 derivative fractions (PO1-PO6). PO2 had excellent antimildew effects on the abovementioned strains; at a concentration of 100 μg/cm ² , all were 100% inhibited, except A. niger, which was 75.8% inhibited. Carvacrol, the main ingredient of PO2, was then isolated and used for antimildew tests; carvacrol had excellent antimildew activities. Since both P. amboinicus leaf essential oil and carvacrol were proved to have excellent antimildew effects on paper, they are worth further research and development.
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Uncontrolled inflammation may produce massive inflammatory cytokines, in which interleukin 1β (IL-1β) plays a key role, resulting in tissue damage and serious disorders. The activation of NLRP3 inflammasome is one of the major mechanisms in maturation and release of IL-1β. Plectranthus amboinicus is a perennial herb. Several pharmacological activities of natural components and crude extracts from P. amboinicus have been reported including anti-inflammation; however, the underlying mechanism is not clear. Phorbol-12-myristate 13-acetate-differentiated THP-1 monocytic leukemia cells were used as a reliable model in this study to examine the effect on inflammasome signaling pathway by PA-F4, an extract from Plectranthus amboinicus. PA-F4 inhibited ATP-induced release of caspase-1, IL-1β, and IL-18 from lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-primed cells. PA-F4 induced a concentration-dependent inhibition of both ASC dimerization and oligomerization in cells under LPS priming plus ATP stimulation. Co-immunoprecipitation of NLRP3 and ASC demonstrated that PA-F4 significantly blunted the interaction between NLRP3 and ASC. Furthermore, PA-F4 completely abolished ATP-induced K+ efflux reaction in LPS-primed cells. Taken together, PA-F4 displayed an inhibitory activity on NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Moreover, PA-F4 also inhibited LPS-induced p65 NF-κB activation, suggesting an inhibitory activity on LPS priming step. Further identification showed that rosmarinic acid, cirsimaritin, salvigenin, and carvacrol, four constituents in PA-F4, inhibited LPS-induced IL-6 release. In contrast, rosmarinic acid, cirsimaritin and carvacrol but not salvigenin inhibited ATP-induced caspase-1 release from LPS-primed cells. In conclusion, PA-F4 displayed an inhibitory activity on activation of NLRP3 inflammasome. PA-F4 inhibited LPS priming step through block of p65 NF-κB activation. It also inhibited ATP-induced signaling pathways in LPS-primed cells including the inhibition of both ASC dimerization and oligomerization, K+ efflux reaction, and the release reaction of caspase-1, IL-1β, and IL-18. Rosmarinic acid, cirsimaritin, salvigenin, and carvacrol could partly explain PA-F4-mediated inhibitory activity on blocking the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome.
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Objectives: Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. is a plant which has the potential as an anti-cancer agent. To enhance the bioavailability of an extract, it is necessary to transform the extract into nanoparticles. This research aimed to create nanoparticles of the extract and investigate the anti-proliferative and pro-apoptosis effects on T47D breast cancer cell lines. Materials and Methods: The extraction with ethanol was performed using maceration method. The nanoparticles were prepared by using the ionic gelation method. Cytotoxic assay method evaluation of the proliferation of T47D cell line (using doubling time) was carried out using the MTT assay. Apoptosis was observed using the flow cytometry assay. Results: Treatment with Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. ethanolic extract nanoparticles (PAEEN) inhibited the proliferation of T47D cell lines after 48 hours and 72 hours of incubation at concentrations of 22.3 μg/mL, 44.6 μg/mL, and 89.2 μg/mL. The viable cells were 93%, 86%, 54% (48 hours), and 98%, 71%, 57% (72 hours), respectively. The nanoparticles of extract also induced apoptosis at concentrations of ¼ IC50 (2.16%), ½ IC50 (1.57%), and IC50 (2.43%). Conclusion: PAEEN exhibits the anti-proliferative effect on T47D breast cancer cells via apoptosis. Further study is required to confirm the mechanism of PAEEN in the cell cycle arrest and apoptosis induction on T47D cells.
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The effect of boiling on antioxidant activity, total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) in the ethanol extracts from Plectranthus amboinicus leaves were studied. The dried leaves were boiled in water for 0 (control), 30, 60, 90 and 120 minutes, then extracted with ethanol to produce ethanol extracts. The ethanol extracts were subjected to three antioxidant assays, i.e., 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2, 2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). TPC and TFC in extracts were determined by Folin-Ciocalteu assay and aluminium chloride colorimetric assay, respectively. The results of DPPH, ABTS and FRAP assays indicated that the antioxidant of extracts were significantly (p < 0.05) more potent than the control and also increased when the boiling time was increased. Furthermore, TPC and TFC in extracts from boiled samples were significantly (p < 0.05) higher than the control and correlated with antioxidant activity. This study revealed that boiling of P. amboinicus leaves were increased its antioxidant activity, TPC and TFC as determine in ethanol extracts, and suggested that boiling can be used as a method for enhancing antioxidant activity of P. amboinicus.
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Objective: β-sitosterol is the steroid compound which is an important nutrient in the diet meal, hydrophobic and soluble in organic solvents and considered as a good biomarker due to its biological activity.Methods: In vitro study was using 2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide method towards T47D, MCF-7, HeLa, and WiDr cell lines. In silico docking using PLANTS program and visualized by Yasara program. The model of three dimension enzyme structures used in this research were epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K), estrogen receptor-alpha (ER-α), ER-beta (ER-β), and human EGFR 2 (HER-2). Two and three dimensions of β-sitosetrol, ZSTK474, and tamoxifen as the standard were generated using Marvin Sketch program.Results: β-sitosterol was found to have inhibitory concentration 50% of 0.55; 0.87; 0.76, and 0.99 mM. β-sitosterol and ZSTK474 were inhibited EGFR and PI3K with docking score −92.8195; −91.7920 and −91.7470; −94.7491 β-sitosterol and tamoxifen were inhibited ER-α, ER-β and HER-2 with docking score −78.5570; −89.535, −68.7717; −52.008 and −90.4908; −50.5576, respectively.Conclusion: Based on the results above that shows β-sitosterol provide effective as anticancer.Keywords: β-sitosterol, Inhibitor, Anticancer, In vitro, In silico.
The unique properties of selective heating at the molecular level, and the resultant enhancement effect of microwave in agri-food sciences have been amply demonstrated. This study examined variations in microwave irradiation power level (0, 100, 200, 300 and 400 W) and exposure times (5 and 10 min) effects on the potency of municipal solid waste (MSW) compost tea and Plectranthus amboinicus plant growth and nutrient composition. A linear regression equation showed slopes of 0.160oC/W for the 10 min exposure and 0.114oC/W for the 5 min exposure. The turbidity of the microwaved compost tea reduced as the microwave power level and exposure increased. Electric conductivity, total dissolved solids and salinity of the MSW compost tea increased by a factor of 0.08 at the 400 W power level. Plant sap oBrix, nitrate and calcium concentrations were increased by power levels of ≥300 W. Stem diameter was increased by an average factor of 0.08 for the 5 min and 10 min exposure times following application of the 300 W microwaved MSW compost tea. Chlorophyll content rose by a factor of 0.09 at 10 mins between the 200 W and the 300 W after which it remained unchanged. On the other hand, anthocyanin content was consistently higher in plants treated with the 5 mins microwaved MSW compost tea compared to the 10 mins treatment irrespective of the microwave power level. To understand the mechanism of action of microwaved vermicast, current study is focused on microbial communities in MSW compost tea.
Medicinal plants are of great significance to health of individuals and communities. Due to their great importance, demand of medicinal plants has increased in numerous fields. Among various plants of medicinal importance, plants of genus Coleus belonging to family Lamiaceae or Labiatae are well known for their biological activities. Flavonoids, glycosides, volatile constituents, phenolic and many other compounds have been reported as the active phytoconstituents of the Coleus species. These isolated and identified bioactive compounds have been analyzed by using phytochemical screening assays, chromatographic techniques (HPLC and TLC), NMR, UV spectroscopy as well as GC-MS. The fundamental aspiration of current review stems for the availability of literature on phytochemicals compounds and biochemical activities of the prominent species of the genus Coleus. © 2016, Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research. All Rights Reserved.