This chapter focuses on a discussion of surgical complications – their presentation, treatment, prognosis, and, most importantly, prevention. It defines “surgical complications” as “any unexpected/unplanned/unwanted experience or outcome for the patient that causes either mortality, or sufficient morbidity to require further medical attention.” Every aspect of surgical complications – monitoring, preventive measures, management, reporting – must be assigned a central role in spay and neuter surgery, no different from any other major surgical procedure. In order to make an organized discussion of the topic of surgical complications, they can be categorized as intraoperative complications versus post‐operative complications, according to the timeframe in which the complication first becomes evident. This is a somewhat arbitrary categorization, as many complications that become evident in the post‐operative period occur because of some error or oversight during surgery. The chapter describes the surgical complications of spay and neuter surgery in terms of its recognition, cause, treatment, and prevention.