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Mohammad Asaduzzaman et al. Heat and Carbon Emission due to Vehicle Traffic in Dhaka City

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Rapid growth and urbanisation has led to an increased number of vehicles and more movement between cities in Bangladesh. Road asphalt is produced at temperatures 20 to 46 0 C and temperature use bitumen emulsion. Carbon footprint is a term used to describe the total amount of carbon dioxide and other green house gas (GHG) emissions for which an individual/process/organization/activity is responsible. For that reason this study investigated the effects of traffic congestion and high population density on temperature and carbon dioxide concentrations. Field measurements were conducted in Dhaka and along a major highway to Tangail. Three measurements were taken: air temperature and corresponding humidity on a traffic lane; surface temperatures of roads, buildings and human bodies; and carbon dioxide concentration along the highway. Temperatures were measured in different traffic situations because most vehicles are inefficient, so carbon and heat emissions are higher in traffic lanes. The road surface temperature can be reached 60°C which directly affects passenger body temperature, the main source of heat stroke in humans. Location, traffic and weather conditions and population density were analysed. The road surface temperature in a densely inhabited area was higher than that in a low-density area. The air temperature and humidity on the highway reflected a variation in air temperature (5 °C) and humidity (25%), depending on location, traffic congestion and population density. A map (C1-C6) and table of carbon dioxide emissions for the chosen simulation were generated and indicate how emissions are distributed in Cities.
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Mohammad Asaduzzaman
et al.
Transylvanian Review: Vol XXVII, No. 40,May 2019
9791
Transylvanian
Review
Vol XXVII, No. 40, 2019
Transylvanian Review
Centrul de Studii Transilvane| str. Mihail Kogalniceanu nr. 12-14, et.5, Cluj-Napoca
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Online Submission System: http://transylvanianreviewjournal.org/
Mohammad Asaduzzaman
et al.
Transylvanian Review: Vol XXVII, No. 40,May 2019
9792
Heat and Carbon Emission due to Vehicle Traffic in
Dhaka City
Mohammad Asaduzzaman1, June-ichiro Giorgos Tsutsumi2, Ryo Nakamatsu3, Md. Sagirul Islam
Majumder4,
1Department of Civil Engineering & Architecture, Graduate School of Engineering and Science,
University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa 903-0213, Japan, Email: jamannoor@gmail.com
2Department of Civil Engineering & Architecture, Graduate School of Engineering and Science,
University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa 903-0213, Japan, Email: jzutsumi@tec.u-ryukyu.ac.jp
3Department of Civil Engineering & Architecture, Graduate School of Engineering and Science,
University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa 903-0213, Japan, Email: nkmt_ryo@tec.u-ryukyu.ac.jp
4The United Graduate School of Agricultural Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima, 890-
0065, Japan. Email: sagir_mjd@yahoo.com
Abstract
Rapid growth and urbanisation has led to an increased number of vehicles and more movement between cities in
Bangladesh. Road asphalt is produced at temperatures 20 to 460C and temperature use bitumen emulsion. Carbon footprint is
a term used to describe the total amount of carbon dioxide and other green house gas (GHG) emissions for which an
individual/process/organization/activity is responsible. For that reason this study investigated the effects of traffic congestion
and high population density on temperature and carbon dioxide concentrations. Field measurements were conducted in Dhaka
and along a major highway to Tangail. Three measurements were taken: air temperature and corresponding humidity on a
traffic lane; surface temperatures of roads, buildings and human bodies; and carbon dioxide concentration along the
highway. Temperatures were measured in different traffic situations because most vehicles are inefficient, so carbon and heat
emissions are higher in traffic lanes. The road surface temperature can be reached 60°C which directly affects passenger body
temperature, the main source of heat stroke in humans. Location, traffic and weather conditions and population density were
analysed. The road surface temperature in a densely inhabited area was higher than that in a low-density area. The air
temperature and humidity on the highway reflected a variation in air temperature (5 °C) and humidity (25%), depending on
location, traffic congestion and population density. A map (C1-C6) and table of carbon dioxide emissions for the chosen
simulation were generated and indicate how emissions are distributed in Cities.
Keywords: Air temperature, carbon emission, heat emission, traffic congestion.
Corresponding author: Md. Sagirul Islam Majumder, The United Graduate School of Agricultural Sciences, Kagoshima University,
Kagoshima, 890-0065, Japan. Email: sagir_mjd@yahoo.com
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Introduction'
Dhaka,' the' capital' city' of' Bangladesh,' is' one' of' the'
most'densely'populated'megacities'in'the'world.'With'over'
17'million'inhabitants,'it'is'also'the'national'focal'point'for'
socio-economic' and' administrative' activities.' Recent'
economic' development' in' the' city' has' significantly'
increased'the'number'of'mechanized'transport'systems'in'
Bangladesh.' Such' increase,' combined' with' the' lack' of' a'
mass'transit'system'and'inadequate'road'networks,'causes'
serious' traffic' congestion' in' Dhaka.' Compounding' these'
problems' are' the' unplanned' mixed' land' use' and'
centralized'government'structure' in' the'city.' Martin' et'al.'
(2012)' reported' that' a' driver' is' compelled' to' travel' for'
two'to'three'hours'in'dusty,' polluted'and'noisy'conditions'
to' cross' Dhaka' even' though' the' route' through' the'city' is'
only' 15' km' in' diameter.' Accordingly,' researchers' have'
proposed' various' solutions' to' reducing' traffic' congestion'
in' the' city.' Bowers' et' al.' (2011),' for' example,' highlighted'
the'need' for' more' public' transport'systems,' and' Taleb' et'
al.' (2012)' suggested' the' construction' of' additional'
infrastructure,' such'as' flyovers,' to' mitigate' traffic'
pressure.'
Pollutants,' such' as' smog' and' carbon' dioxide'
emissions' from' vehicles,' have' been' steadily' increasing' in'
Dhaka.' Other' pollution' sources,' including' particulate'
matter' (PM);' nitrogen' oxide;' sulphur' oxide;' toxic' heavy'
metals,' such' as' lead' and' mercury;'and' organic'pollutants,'
such'as' benzene' and'formaldehyde,' have' also'been' found'
in'the' city’s' atmosphere'(The'Daily' Star,' 2012).'Zhu' et' al.'
(2014)' and' Shen' et' al.' (2016)' measured' that' road' traffic'
congestion'has' also' occurred' in'advance,'resulting'in'slow'
dissipation' of' road' network' vehicles' during' the' morning'
and' evening' peak' hours' and' prolonging' the' time' of'
congestion.' A' joint' study' by' the' Bangladesh' government'
and'the'World'Bank'(2010)'estimated'that'an'air'pollution'
reduction'of' 20%'would' translate'to' a'savings' of'US$170'
to' US$500' million' in' health' care' costs.' The' report' also'
underscored' the' essentiality' of' good' air' quality' in'
improving'the'productivity'of'residents.'''
Gao' et' al.' (2013)' set' different' emission' reduction'
scenarios'in' which'they'showed'the'huge' carbon'emission'
reduction' potential' of' road' transportation' to' calculate'
carbon' emissions.' They' suggested' giving' priority' to' the'
development' of' public' transportation,' encouraging' the'
development' of' small-displacement' vehicles,' reducing'
vehicle' energy' consumption,' and' controlling' emission'
standards' to' achieve' road' traffic' energy' saving' and'
emission' reduction.' Sun' et' al.' (2017)' designed' and' used'
the' mobile' monitoring' system,' estimated' traffic' carbon'
emissions' by' collecting'traffic' flow,' meteorological'
conditions,'and'vehicular'carbon'emissions,'and'found'that'
the' arterial' roads' brought' about' 50%' of' the' road' traffic'
carbon'emissions.'In' addition,' Zhang'et'al.,' (2012),' Tao'et'
al.,' (2015),' and' Wang' et' al.' (2018)' used' the' “bottom-up”'
method' to' calculate' carbon' emissions' of' regional' road'
traffic.' The' effects' of' motorised' traffic' and' resultant'
emissions'have'been'studied'by'many'researchers'(Kean'et#
al.' (2003);' Brugge' et# al.' (2007);' and' Batterman' et# al.'
(2010).' Cai' et# al.' (2009)' measured' air' pollutant'
concentrations' in' urban' areas' and' found' that' such'
concentrations' have' a' complex' relationship' with' traffic,'
carbon' monoxide,' nitrogen' dioxide,' PM10,' ozone' gas' and'
meteorological' and' geographical' factors.' Zhang' et' al.'
(2010,' 2013)' discovered' a' relationship' between'
pulmonary' diseases' and' exposure' to' carbon' dioxide' and'
PM2.5.'Castelluccio'et#al.'(2015)'reported'similar'outcomes.'
Li'et'al.'(2014)' constructed' an'evaluation'system'for' road'
carbon' emissions,' and' explored' the' factors' affecting'
carbon' emissions' from' four' perspectives:' Energy'
efficiency,' transport' structure,' work' effect' of' energy'
saving'and'emission'reduction,'and'trade'policies.'Starting'
from' the' use' of' urban' electric' vehicles' and' new' energy'
vehicles,' Zhang' et' al.' (2014)' took' vehicle' speed,' traffic'
infrastructure,' load' rate,' and' fuel' type' as' the' main'
parameters'of'emission'measurement.'They'calculated'the'
public'energy'consumption'and'carbon'emission.'Han'et'al.'
(2012)'used'the'statistical'regression'method' to'study'the'
influencing'factors' affecting' road' traffic' carbon' emissions.'
Santero'et'al.'(2009)'explain'the'challenge'of'global'climate'
change' has' motivated' state' transportation' agencies'
involved' in' the' construction' and' maintenance' of'
transportation'infrastructure' to' investigate' strategies' that'
reduce' the' life' cycle' greenhouse' gas' (GHG)' emissions'
associated' with' the' construction' and' rehabilitation' of'
highway'infrastructure.''
Despite' these' significant' concerns' and' the' evidence'
that' traffic' jams' produce' different' types' of' greenhouse'
gases,' no' previous' study' has' focused' on' the' instant'
increases'in'temperature,'the'carbon'concentrations'in'the'
air' and' the' destruction' of' the' thermal' environment' that'
are' induced' by' traffic' congestion.' Moreover,' the' old'
vehicles'in' Dhaka'emit' burned' and' unburned' carbon'into'
the' air.' However,' no' previously' published' study' has'
focused' on' this' environmental' hazard,' and' no' data' are'
available' for' this' type' of' research.' A' few' evidence' like,'
khan'et' al.'(2016)' focused' on' the' relation'between' waste'
heat' emissions' and' carbon' dioxide' concentrations' in'
metropolitan'areas'around'the'world.'
Because'of'the'traffic'jams'that'occur'in'Dhaka'City,'as'
well'as' the'extremely'high'pedestrian'flow,'people'have'to'
wait' a' long' time' for' vehicles' to' pass.' During' t raffic' jams,'
vehicle'speeds'decrease'to'4' to'5'km'per'hour.'Because'all'
vehicles'move'very'slowly,'the'drivers'do'not'turn'off'their'
engines,' which' run' for' as' long' as1' to' 2' hours.' It' is' very'
likely'that'both'exhaust'gas'and'braking'are'major'sources'
of'heat'and'carbon'emission.'The'study'revealed'that'when'
the' engine' starts,' it' emits' smoke' and' releases' burned'
carbon.'However,'the'braking'function'was'not'included'in'
the' present' analysis' because' most' vehicles' in' Dhaka' City'
are'at'least'15' to' 20' years'old'and'are' of' different' makes,'
so' it' is' extremely' difficult' to' measure' the' heat' emission'
separately'from'the'breaking'function.'Furthermore,'direct'
solar' radiation' and' exhaust' gas' produce' extreme' heat'
during' traffic' jams.' The' temperature' of' the' road' surface'
becomes'extreme,' which' increases' the' air'temperature' in'
the'traffic'lanes.'As'a'result,'during'traffic'jams,'the'human'
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body' surface' temperature' is' always' higher' than' the'
surrounding' air' temperature.' This' high' human' body'
surface' temperature' may' be' linked' to' overcrowding,'
which' occurs' during' traffic' jams.' Therefore,' the' human'
body'becomes'an'artificial'heat'source'that'emits'heat'into'
the' air.' Moreover,' during' traffic' jams,' the' road' surface'
temperature' is' higher' than' when' traffic' is' flowing'
smoothly.'
The' present' study' therefore' hypothesizes' that' when'
they' occur,' traffic' jams' have' some' correlation' with' the'
increased' heat' and' carbon' emissions.' Therefore,' during'
times'of' high'traffic,'the'temperature'in'the'traffic'lanes'is'
higher'than'during'times' of' low' traffic.' In' addition,'the' air'
temperature' in' the' free' lanes' is' equal' to' that' of' the'
surrounding' areas.' However,' during' times' of' high' traffic,'
the'air'temperature'in'the'traffic'lanes'is'higher'than'in'the'
surrounding'areas.'The' carbon' emissions' follow'the'same'
pattern.'''
This' research' is' valuable' because' economic' growth'
and' urbanization' lead' to' increasing' numbers' of' vehicles'
and'the'movement'between'different'cities.'However,'most'
vehicles'have'poor'emission'efficiency.'To'date,'no'national'
study' has' been' conducted' to' examine' the' impact' of'
emissions'on'the'capital'city'and'its'residents.'
In'order' to'fill' this'gap,' the' researchers' conducted' a'
field'investigation'of'heavily'trafficked'routes'from'Tangail'
to'Dhaka'and'in'Dhaka'City'to'evaluate'the'effects'of'traffic'
congestion' and' slow-moving' vehicles' on' the' air'
temperatures,'surrounding' air' temperatures,' road' surface'
temperatures,' humidity' levels' and' carbon' dioxide'
concentrations'in'traffic'lanes'and'surrounding'areas.'
In'study' area,' any' government'organization'or' other'
national' laboratories' did' not' carry' out' the' analysis' of'
carbon' concentration' and' heat' emission' in' traffic' lane' so'
far.' Thus,' the' evaluation' of' roadside' emission' and' traffic'
lane' temperature' and' its' correlation' with' other'
parameters'in' understudy'area' was'the' need' of' the' hour.'
Therefore,' the' aim'of' current'study' was'to' determine'the'
carbon'contamination'and'extreme'heat'in' road'surface'of'
Dhaka' city,' Bangladesh' and' to' evaluate' the' possible'
contamination'sources' by' characterizing' the' experimental'
data.''
Materials/and/Methods/
Descriptions+of+the+study+area++
The'study'was'conducted'on'selected'roads'in'Dhaka'
and'on' a' nearby'major' interstate' highway' that' runs'from'
Dhaka'to'Tangail.'Tangail'is'a'medium-sized'city'located'at'
the' 24°01'and' 24°47'north' latitudes' and' between' the'
89°44'and' 90°18'east' longitudes,' approximately' 90' km'
from' Dhaka.' Dhaka' is' situated' at' 23°42N' 90°22E' on' the'
eastern'bank'of'the'Buriganga'River.'Traffic'congestion'has'
brought' great' inconvenience' to' the' road' traffic' in' Dhaka,'
which'has'seriously'affected'the'traffic'efficiency.'It'causes'
vehicles' to' spend' more' time' on' the' road,' start' and' stop'
more' frequently,' and' increase' energy' consumption' and'
carbon'emissions.'Therefore,'the'traffic'index'was'selected'
as'the'explanatory'variable.''
Figures'1(a)' to' 1(c)'show'the'studied'routes,'namely,'
routes' A' to' B' and' B' to' C,' which' are' entirely' paved' with'
asphalt' material.' Traffic' density' is' light' to' medium' on'
route' A' to' B' but' heavy' on' route' B' to' C.' This' study'
concentrated'on'the'city’s'eight'critical'entry'points,'which'
run' mainly' along' route' B' to' C,' as' shown' in' Figure' 1.' The'
entry'points'are'marked'T1'to'T8'in'the'figure.'
Although' both' routes' are' heavily' trafficked,'
congestion' on' the' city’s' roads' is' significantly' higher' than'
that' on' the' interstate' highway.' The' estimated' daily'
number'of'motorized'vehicles'in'the' city' is' approximately'
1' million' (The' News' Today,' 2016).' Additionally,' 500,000'
non-motorized' human-pull' vehicles,' locally' known' as'
rickshaws,' also' use' the' city’s' road' network' every' day'
(Bose,'2009).'Figure' 2' shows'typical'traffic' congestion' on'
three' types' of' roads' in' the' city.' The' following' statistical'
data'were'estimated'from'a'video'survey'count.''
In' road' 1' (Figure' 2(a)),' the' estimated' peak' hour'
traffic' volume' is' 7736' vehicle' units' per' hour' in' both'
directions.''
Road' 2' (Figure' 2(b))' is' a' link' road' with' an'
estimated' peak-hour' traffic' volume' of' 3734' vehicle' units'
per'hour.''
Road' 3' (Figure' 2(c))' is' a' road' in' the' city' center'
with' an' estimated' volume' of' 4766' vehicle' units' pe r' hour'
during'peak'hours.''
No'comprehensive'national' records' of'vehicle'counts'
are'available' in' Bangladesh.' Therefore,' the'vehicle' counts'
in' Table' 1' were' determined' on' the' basis' of' a' video' and'
photographic'survey' to'illustrate' the'number' and' various'
types'of'motorized'vehicles'that'traverse'the'city’s'roads'in'
an'hour'during'peak'periods.'Very'heavy'traffic'congestion'
occurs'at'Abdullapur'and'Mohakhali'(T1)' because' of' their'
proximity' to' the' intersections' of' main' roads' in' the' city'
center.''
The'estimated' total'number' of' motorized' vehicles' in'
Dhaka' is' 1.3' million' within' 815' km2' areas.' This' equates'
approximately' to' 1500' vehicles' per' square' kilometer.'
Although' no' updated' official' records' exist,' a' discussion'
with'the' road'authority' in'Bangladesh' indicated'that' only'
about' 3.8%' of' vehicles' are' less' than' 5' years' old,' around'
10%'are'5'to' 10' years'old'and'nearly' 85%' are'more'than'
10' years' old.' Approximately' 100,000' vehicles' are' also'
estimated'to'enter'Dhaka'every'day'from'different'parts'of'
the'country.'These'observations'suggest'that'the'high'flow'
of'vehicles' worsens'traffic' congestion' in' the'city' and'that'
compared' with' new' vehicles,' old' vehicles' are' greater'
sources'of'pollutant'emissions.'
+
Tools+used+in+this+study+
Air'temperature'and' corresponding'humidity,'carbon'
dioxide' concentration,' road' surface' temperature' and'
human' body' temperature' were' measured' in' this' work.'
The'
parameters' considered' during' data' collection' were'
(i)'traffic'congestion;'(ii)'weather'conditions'(sunny,'rainy,'
cloudy);' (iii)' type' of' area' (busy' areas' inside/outside' the'
city' and' rural' locations);' (iv)' vehicular' temperature'
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(internal/external);' (v)' surrounding' temperature' (traffic'
lane,' road' surface,' passenger' bodies' and' local' inhabitant'
bodies);'and'(vi)'carbon'dioxide' emission.'The'procedures'
for'data'collection'are'explained'as'follows./
+
Air+temperature+and+humidity+
Air' temperature' and' humidity' were' measured' using'
Thermo' Recorders' RS-10,' RS-11,' RS-12' and' TR-3110'
(Manufacturer’s;' T' AND' D' CORPORATIONS,' 5652-169'
Sasaga' Matsumoto' City,' Nagano' 399-0033,' Japan),' which'
are' equipped' with' temperature/humidity' sensors' TR-
72Ui,' TR-72U,' TR-72S' and' TR-72,' respectively.' The'
recorder s' measure' tem perature' at' a ' range' of' 0°C' to' 50°C'
and' relative' humidity' at' a' range' of' 10%' to' 95%.' All' the'
sensors'were'tested'for'effective'reaction' time' before' use,'
and'no' related' problems' occurred' during'the' experiment.'
To ' me as u re ' th e ' ac tu a l' l oc a l' a i r' t em pe r at ur e' i n ' th e ' ci ty, ' t he '
temperature'recorders' were' installed' at' different' points'
along' the' studied' routes' and' in' the' city' centre.' The' city'
centre'was'chosen' as'an'observation'site'to'emphasise'the'
busiest' points' of' entry' into' the' city' (Figure' 1,' point' B).'
Secondary' data' were' collected' from' existing' surveys,'
various' reputable' national' newspapers,' online' journals'
and'police'traffic'reports.'
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''''''''(a)'Bangladesh'''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''(b)'Observation'Route'from'Tangail'(A)'to'Dhaka'(B)'''''''(c)'Observation'Route'in'Dhaka'
Fig.1'Observation'site'in'Bangladesh'from'Tangail'to'Dhaka'and'inside'Dhaka.'
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''''''''''''
'''''''''''''''''''(a)/Highway'from'Tangail'to'Dhaka'''''''''''(b)'Link'road'from'highway'to'city'center''''''(c)'City'center'road'in'Dhaka'
Fig.2'Road'traffic'congestion'on'a'highway,'a'link'road'from'the'highway'to'the'city'centre'and'a'city'centre'road'in'Dhaka.'
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Table/1:'Total ' n u m be r' and'types ' o f ' mo to r ised'vehicl e s ' a n d'traffic' t i m e ' (ve h ic les'per' h o u r ) 'in'Dhaka./
/
Point/in/
Fig./1/
/
/
Location/
Vehicle/
unit/
(ph)/
Point/in/
Fig./1/
Vehicle/
unit/(ph)/
Motorised/vehicle/
units/&/percentage/of/
old/vehicles/
/
/
Vehicle/types/
T1'
Abdullapur'
19636'
T5#
7736'
1.3'million'vehicles'
Cars'and'taxis:'67%'
T2'
Bishoroad'
2302'
T6'
3734'
3.8%'(15'years'old)'
Three-wheelers:'
vehicles'27%'
T3'
Banani'
12000'
T7'
4766'
7.7%'(510'years'old)'
Buses'and'trucks:'
5%'
T4'
Mohakhali'
16380'
T8'
2193'
88.5%'(over'10'years'
old)'
Motorcycles:'1%'
+
Table/2:'CO2'Concentration'in'Major'Cities'in'Bangladesh./
/
/
Fig.1/
/
/
Division/
/
Measurement/
Point/
/
Pop./Density/
(per/100m2)/
CO2/
Conc./
(ppm)/
/
/
Fig.1/
/
/
Division/
/
Measurement/
Point/
/
Pop./Density/
(per/100m2)/
CO2/
Conc./
(ppm)/
C1#
Dhaka'
Magbazar'
300'
1450'
C4#
Sylhet'
Sylhet'Agri.'Univ.'
50'
600'
Kawranbazar'
425'
1500'
Amborkhana'
200'
800'
Mirpur'1'
400'
1500'
Mazar'road'
225'
800'
Abdullapur'
550'
1550'
C5#
Chittagon
g'
Agrabad'
175'
700'
Khilkhet'
420'
1500'
Olonkar'
200'
750'
C2#
Tangail'
Tangail'sadar'
75'
1000'
GEC'
125'
700'
Tangail'rural'
15'
700'
C6#
Rajshahi'
Rajshahi'Univ.'
250'
900'
C3#
Gazipur'
(rain'
time)'
Gazipur'
200'
600'
Shaheb'bazar'
425'
1400'
List'of'notations''
SAU'is'Sylhet'Agricultural'University'
RU#is'Rajshahi'University'#
GEC#is'the'General'Electric'Company'of'Bangladesh/
PM'is'particulate'matter'
Traffic+lane+temperature+
The' experiment' on' traffic' lane' temperature' was'
conducted'inside' a' local'bus' carrying' 56' passengers.' This'
type'of'vehicle'was' selected' because' it' is'the'most'widely'
used' means' of' transport' yet' the' most' poorly' maintained,'
with' units' having' no' air-conditioning.' Temperature' was'
recorded' throughout' a' 90' km' journey' along' the' highway'
routes' and' 50' km' inside' Dhaka.' The' maximum'
groundspeed' of' the' bus' was' 60' km/h,' but' its' average'
speed' was' 25' km/h.' The' windows' of' the' bus' were' open'
throughout' the' journey.' The' experiment' was' initiated' at'
10:30' and' concluded' at' 21:30' on' May' 21,' 2013.' The' day'
was' sunny' with' clear' skies.' The' data' were' collected' at'
regular'intervals'throughout'the'11-hour'journey.'/
Air' temperature' and' humidity' were' carefully'
measured' to' avoid' or' minimise' effects' from' bus'
passengers' and' solar' radiation.' A' sensor' was' hung' in' the'
middle' of' a' bus' window' to' expose' the' instrument' to'
outside'air.'A'shading'shield'was'installed'above'the'sensor'
to'protect'it'from' direct'solar'radiation.'Whenever'the' bus'
was' idle' because' of' traffic'congestion,' the' time,' place,'
temperature' (body' temperatures' of' passengers' and'
surrounding' air' temperature)' and' carbon' dioxide'
concentration' were' recorded.' With' the' passengers’'
consent,' body' temperatures' were' recorded' with' an'
infrared' radiation' thermometer,' which' projected' infrared'
light' to' the' passengers.' Regardless' of' height' and' weight,'
passengers' seated' in' different' sections' of' the' bus' were'
randomly' selected' for' inclusion' in' the' measurements.' To'
maintain'consistency,'temperature'recording'was'set'at' 1-
minute'intervals'per' measurement' for' moving'traffic'data'
and' 10-minute' intervals' per' measurement' for' reference'
data.'''
+
Carbon+dioxide+concentration+
The'climate'in'Dhaka'is'tropical' wet' and' dry'climate,'
influenced'by'the'Asian'monsoons.'The'cooling'of'the'great'
Asian' land' mass' during' winter' and' its' heating' during'
summer' give' rise' to' monsoonal' winds' on' a' very' large'
scale,' which' leads' to' six' seasons' of' unequal' duration' in'
Dhaka.' An' examination' of' the' historical' climatology'
records' shows' that' meteorological' characteristics' during'
the' study' period' did' not' deviate' from' the' norm.' Daily'
meteorological'data'was'obtained'from'the'Dhaka'weather'
office.'CO2' samples'were'collected'at'the' Roadside'Station'
(23°42N'90°22E),'located'in'a'residential'and'commercial'
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area'near'Dhaka'city.'The'road'is'50'm'wide'with'six'lanes'
for'each'direction'leading'to'the'busiest'cross'Abdullahpur'
in' Dhaka.' During' the' sampling' period,' hourly' traffic' flow'
remained' at' roughly' 10000.' Traffic' data' were' obtained'
from' the' traffic' time' taken' video' analysis.' The' 24h' CO2'
sampling' was' performed' once' every' seventh' day' from'
January'2012' to' May'2013.' The' sampling'inlet' was' about'
1.5'm'above'street'level.'Carbon'dioxide'concentration'was'
measured'using'a'Gastec'GV-110'pump'and'a'Gastec'2L'gas'
detector' tube' system' (Manufacturer’s;' GASTEC'
CORPORATION,' 8-8-6' Fukayanaka,' Ayase-city,' Kanagawa'
252-1195,' Japan)' following' the' manufacturer’s'
instructions.'The'GV-110' pump,' which'is' equipped' with'a'
counter,'can'obtain'up'to'10'samples.'In'the'experiment,'an'
average' of' three' samples' from' each' point' was' used.' The'
time' necessary' to' measure' the' carbon' dioxide'
concentration' of' one' sample' was' two' minutes.' Because'
20%'of'emissions'come'from'braking'dust' and' 80%' come'
from'exhaust' gas,' only'exhaust' emissions' were'measured'
in'this'study.'
Results/and/Discussion/
Temperature+and+humidity+measurements++
inside+the+vehicle+
The' initial' local' air' temperature' and' humidity' were'
28.7°C'and' 93.6%,' respectively,' and' the'initial' traffic'lane'
temperature' and' humidity' were' 29.1°C' and' 82.0%,'
respectively' (Figure' 3).' Interestingly,' the' local' (outdoor)'
and'traffic'lane'temperatures'were'very'similar'despite'the'
large' variations' in' humidity' (10.0%)' between' the' inside'
and' outside' of' the' bus.' The' temperature' inside' the' bus'
increased' by' only' 1.3°C' within' the' first' 5' minutes' of' the'
journey' but' gradually' reached' 2.7°C' after' 10' minutes' of'
travel.' Humidity' increased' by' 1.0%' in' the' first' minute' of'
travel' but' dropped' to' 5.0%' after' 10' minutes' into' the'
journey.' The' internal' bus' temperature' was' very' close' to'
the' external' bus' temperature,' but' it' constantly' remained'
at' a' higher' level' than' the' local' temperature.' The' internal'
temperature'also' rapidly' increased' during' idle' times' that'
were'due' to'congestion.' Most' of' the' traffic' jams' occurred'
near' small' cities' and' industrial' areas' along' route' A' to' B.'
The'temperature'dropped'once'the'bus'passed'these'areas.'
Significant' temperature' changes' were' observed' between'
two' points' right' before' the' main' entry' point' to' Dhaka'
(Figure'1,'point'B).'The'entry'point'is'approximately'15'km'
from' Ashuliya' to' Abdullahpur;' it' is' situated' on' lowland'
and' runs' parallel' to' a' small' river' called' the' Turag' River.'
Given'the' presence' of' water'at'both' sides' of'the'road,' the'
temperature' decreased' to' 28.5°C' (13:14),' and' the'
humidity' increased' to' 85.0%.' Under' a' traffic' jam' that'
lasted' for' 5' minutes,' the' temperature' and' humidity'
suddenly' increased' and' decreased' to' 30.8°C' and' 69.0%,'
respectively.' As' the' bus' started' moving,' the' temperature'
dropped'to'28.6°C,' and' the'humidity' rose' to'84.0%.'Upon'
arrival'at'Abdullahpur'(Tongi),'which'is'the'main'entrance'
to' Dhaka,' the' bus' encountered' severe' traffic' congestion,'
thereby' increasing' temperature'to' 32.0°C' and' reducing'
humidity' to' 72.0%' (13:35).' These' findings' suggest' that'
light' or' heavy' traffic' congestion' increases' temperature'
inside'a'bus'but'decreases'the'corresponding'humidity.'
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Fig.3'Temperature'and'humidity'along'the'road'from'Tangail'to'Dhaka'(21/05/2013).'
Comparison+of+temperature+and+humidity++
inside+the+bus+and+in+a+local+area+(outdoor)+in++
Dhaka++
To' determine' daily' changes,' the' traffic' lane' data' in'
Figure' 3' can' be' compared' with' the' reference' data' in'
Figure'4.'The'chosen'reference'point'was'a'nearby'building'
that'was'unaffected'by'traffic'from'the'nearby'area.'Figure'
4'shows'some'unusual'data:'a'rapid'change'in'temperature'
and'fluctuations' in' humidity' in' parallel' with'temperature'
changes.'The' exact'causes' of'these' events'were' unknown'
but'were' assumed' to' be'stemming' from' human' activities.'
The' dubious' data' in' Figures' 4' and' 5' should' be' excluded'
from'the'comparison.''
The' comparison' of' 5-minute' average' air'
temperatures' and' relative' humidity' levels' on' the' traffic'
lane' and' reference' point' is' illustrated' in' Figure' 5.' The'
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fluctuation' in' air' temperature' along' the' traffic' lane' is'
shown' in' Figure' 5(a).' At' 10:33,' the' traffic' lane'
temperature' was' 29.3°C' and' the' local' temperature' was'
28.7°C' (Figure' 5(a)),' while' the' traffic' lane' humidity' was'
81.7%' and' the' local' humidity' was' 93.6%' (Figure' 5(b)).'
These'measurements'are'similar'to'the'initial'temperature'
and' humidity' recorded.' Figure' 5(a)' indicates' that' in' the'
afternoon,'the' local' temperature' (34.7°C)'was'higher'than'
the'traffic'lane'temperature'(30.1°C).'These'minor'changes'
in' traffic' lane' temperature' can' be' explained' by' the' mid-
noon' tropical' sunshine' and' free' traffic' movement' during'
the'afternoon.'In' addition,' the' road' is' very' wide' (12.5' m),'
and' traffic' flow' was' smooth' and' fast' during' the'
experiment' period.' The' low' traffic' lane' temperature' was'
observed' from' 13:00' to' 14:00,' after' which' such'
temperature' again' surpassed' the' local' temperature,' as' is'
usual'in'the'studied'site.'The'maximum'difference'in'traffic'
lane' temperatures' (inside' the' bus)' (+4.8°C)' occurred' at'
16:43,'and'the'maximum'temperature'recorded'was'due'to'
the'heavy' traffic'activities'at'this'time' of' day.'On'the'basis'
of' the' findings' (Figure' 5(a)),' the' bus' temperature' should'
be' lower' than' the' local' temperature' because' bus'
temperatures' are' affected' by' driving' speed' and' cool' air'
circulating'from'outside.'The'reality'reflected'the'opposite,'
indicating' that' when' vehicles' are' idle' because' of' traffic'
congestion,' the' emission' of' exhaust' gases' significantly'
influences' the' surrounding' temperature' and' the'
temperature' inside' a' bus.' The' fluctuation' in' relative'
humidity' is' depicted' in' Figure' 5(b).' This' study' used'
relative'humidity'instead'of'absolute'humidity'because'the'
former' is' easier' to' measure' and' interpret.' The' humidity'
followed' the' same' pattern' as' that' observed' in' the'
temperature;'that'is,'the'relative'humidity'on'the'highway'
was'lower'than'that'on'the'reference'point.'A'considerable'
difference'between'the'traffic'lane'and'reference'data'was'
found' during' the' first' three' hours' of' travel,' which'
corresponds' to' travel' along' route' A' to' B.' The' relative'
humidity' on' the' highway' was' lower' than' that' on' the'
reference' point,' but' the' humidity' levels' were' almost' the'
same' after' the' unusual' data' were'excluded' from' the'
analysis.' At' 16:03,' an' exception' was' observed
31.1°C/82.0%' versus' 27.2°C/56.0%.' During' this' period,'
the'traffic' lane' humidity'increased'to'26.0%'because' even'
though' traffic' congestion' was' at' its' worst,' the' bus' was'
running' through' a' lakeside' park' area' with' natural'
ventilation.' Under' this' severe' traffic' jam,' all'
transportations' and' commuters' emitted' extreme' heat'
resulting' from' the' heated' traffic' lane.' At' the' end' of' the'
experiment' (21:33),' similar' temperatures' and' humidity'
levels'were'measured'on'the'traffic'lane'and'local'area'(i.e.'
29.0°C/82.0%'vs.'29.0°C/83.7%).''
'
Measurement+of+road+surface,+infrastructure,++
traffic+lane+and+human+body+temperatures+
Surface'temperatures'in' an'urban'area,' including' the'
temperatures' of'roads,'buildings' and'human' bodies,'were'
measured'(Figure'6).'Thermograms'and'photos'were'taken'
from' the' same' place,' which' is' located' in' the' city' centre'
close' to' point' C' at' different' angles' (Figure' 6).' The'
thermograms'were'taken'at' around'17:00' local' time.' The'
temperatures' of' road' surfaces' and' human' bodies' ranged'
from' 34°C' to' 35°C' (Figure' 6(a)),' whereas' the' local'
temperature' in' Dhaka' was' only'28.9°C' (Figure' 3).'Usually,'
air'temperature'decreases'at'around'17:00,'and'conditions'
become' comfortable' even' in' a' tropical' zone.' As' shown'in'
Figure'6,' however,'the'temperatures'in' the' area'were'very'
high'because' this' is'the' time' at'which'peak' traffic'occurs;'
most'people'leave'their'offices,'all'roads'and'footpaths'are'
packed' with' commuters' and' pedestrians' and' vehicular'
flow'is'impeded,'thus'causing'traffic'congestion.'Because'of'
heavy' traffic,' vehicle' engines' emit' heat,' increase'
temperature' and' release' carbon' dioxide' more' than' usual'
(Figure' 6(c)).' Even'when' a' car' is' idle' because' of' a' traffic'
jam,'it' continues' to' release'heat,'keeping'the'engine' cover'
hot.' This' high' temperature' eventually' disperses' to'
passengers' and' increases' air' and' road' surface'
temperatures' (Figures' 6(a)6(c)).' The' dispersed' heat,' in'
turn,' increases' the' outer' surface' temperature' of' nearby'
buildings' (Figure' 6(b)).' The' effects' of' temperature'
distribution' can' be' observed' in' the' wall' surface'
temperatures' of' air-conditioned' buildings' (i.e.' 28.0°C
31.0°C,' Figure' 6(b)).' Surrounding' high' temperatures' also'
affect'air-conditioned'buildings'(Figure'6(b)).'The'vehicles'
trapped' in' traffic' congestion,' the' considerable' building'
density' and' the' substantial' number' of' pedestrians' emit'
waste' heat' that' increases' temperature.' The' data' suggest'
that' traffic' congestion' generates' enough' heat' that' affects'
the'surrounding'environment.'
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Fig.4 Reference temperature and relative humidity measured at Tangail (21/05/2013)
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(a)'Air'temperature'
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(b)'Relative'humidity'
Fig.5'Comparison'of'temperatures'and'humidity'levels'on'traffic'lane'and'reference'point'(21/05/2013)./
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''''''(a)'Road'and'human'surface'temperature,''''(b)'Building'surface'temperature,'''''''''''''''(c)'Vehicle'and'human'surface'temperature'
Fig.6/Surface'temperature'in'an'urban'area'(including'traffic,'building'and'human'body'temperature)./
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# #
Measurement+of+carbon+dioxide++
concentration+
In' addition' to' temperature,' carbon' dioxide'
concentration'was' measured' at'the' studied' sites'during' a'
period' of' heavily' congested' traffic.' The' mass'
concentrations' of' CO2,' elemental' carbon' (EC),' water-
soluble'ions,'and'up'to'10'elements'were'reported'for'24'h'
aerosol' samples' collected' every' seven' day' at' a' roadside'
sampling'station' in' Dhaka'city' from'January' 2012' to'May'
2013.Other' components,' i.e.,' SO4,'NO3−,' NH4+,' geological'
material,' trace' elements' and' unidentified' material,'
comprised' the' remaining' 014%.' Annual' average' OC/EC'
ratio' (0.6±0.3)' was' low,' indicating' that' primary' vehicle'
exhaust' was' the' major' source' of' carbonaceous' aerosols.'
The' seasonal' variations' of' pollutants' were' due' to' gas'
particle' separating' processes' or' a' change' in' air' mass'
rather' than' secondary' aerosol' produced' locally.' Vehicle'
exhaust,' secondary' aerosols,' and' waste'
incinerator/biomass' burning' were' leading' air' pollution'
sources.' Pollution' period' during' the' summer' (April
August),' which' is' frequently' high.' During' winter'
(December'to'February)'emission'level'is'little'low.'Carbon'
emission' intensity' vs' GDP' per' capita,' 2014' IS' 0.15kg' and'
average'CO2'emission'per'capita'are'measured'in'tones'per'
year'is'0.46tones.'(Our'world'in'data,'2019).'
Table' 2' shows' the' carbon' di oxide ' c o n c e n t r a t i o n s ' at '
six'different'locations' in'Bangladesh.'The'areas'where'the'
measurements'were'conducted'(i.e.'C1'to'C6)'are'indicated'
in'Figure' 1.'Several'points' in' these'areas'were'selected'on'
the' basis' of' actual' traffic' conditions' and' various' weather'
situations.' Table' 2' summarises' data' based' on' different'
geographical' locations.' Table' 2' shows' the' four' main'
divisions' (i.e.' Dhaka,' Sylhet,' Chittagong' and' Rajshahi)' in'
Bangladesh.' Sylhet' and' Chittagong' are' mainly'
mountainous' areas.' The' Sylhet' study' found' that' without'
traffic' the' air'in' Sylhet'contained' as' much' as' 600' ppm' of'
carbon'dioxide'and'that'with'traffic'it'contained'800'ppm.'
Chittagong'is'the'commercial'capital'of'Bangladesh.'There,'
at' times' of' both' low' and' high' traffic,' the' carbon' dioxide'
concentration'is'nearly'the'same'at'700-750'ppm.'Actually,'
this'area’s'concentration'is'very'low'because'it'is'almost'at'
sea' level' and' near' the' seashore.' Rajshahi' is' the' hottest'
division'in'the'summer'season,'but'this'area’s'traffic'is'not'
high.' Only' its' largest' city' has' a' significant' traffic'mass'
where' the' carbon' dioxide' concentration' can' reach' 1400'
ppm,'and'without' traffic' the' air'contains'only'900'ppm' of'
carbon'dioxide.''
The'big'difference'is' in' the' Dhaka' division.' In' Tangail'
city’s'rural' areas' without' traffic,'the' concentration' is' only'
700'ppm,' but' in' the' urban' areas' with' traffic' the'
concentration' is' 1000' ppm.' In' the' Gazipur' area,' the'
concentration' is' high,' but' Table' 2,' C3' shows' that' the' air'
contains' as' many' as' 600' ppm' because' the' measurement'
was' taken' at' a' time' of' heavy' rain.' A' comparison' of' data'
from'all' Bangladeshi'cities'suggests'that'Dhaka' has'higher'
carbon' dioxide' concentrations' than' other' cities' in' the'
country.' The'air' in' Dhaka'contains'as' many' as' 1,500'ppm'
(in' different' places,' i.e.' Table' 2,' C1)' of' carbon' dioxide,' a'
concentration' that' is' the' result' of' the' correlated' high'
population' density' and' severe' traffic' congestion' in' the'
entire' city.' The' result' that' the' congestion' will' lead' to' an'
increase'in'carbon'emissions'is'consistent'with' the'results'
of' Barth' et' al.' (2008)' and' Wang' et' al.' (2015).' This'
difference' is' attributed' to' the' fact' that' other' cities' have'
less'traffic'congestion'and,'therefore,'lower'heat'emissions'
and' comparatively' lower' carbon' dioxide' concentrations.'
Waste' heat' emission' and' carbon' dioxide' emission' are'
positively'correlated.'As'reported'by'Khan' (2016),'a'waste'
heat' emission' of' 0.028' W/m2'is' equal' to' a' greenhouse'
warming' level' of' 2.9' W/m2.' Loureiro' et' al.' (2013)'
confirmed' that' developing' low-carbon'fuel' was' a' feasible'
plan'for'the'development'of'a'low-carbon'economy'of'road'
traffic.'
Conclusion'
This' work' has' described' the' integration' of'
temperature' and' carbon' dioxide' emission' into' the' traffic'
simulation' system.' The' model' parameters' are' set'
according' to' a' review' of' current' cars' in' Dhaka.' The'
adaptation'of'these'parameters'would'enable'the'system'to'
work' in' other' cities' also.' The' model' evaluation' first'
compared'the'data' from' simulation' results'without'traffic'
between' the' cities' of' Tangail' and' Dhaka.' Next,' traffic' on'
motorways'was'examined.'The'main'part'of'evaluation'was'
the'simulation' of'an'urban'scenario'in' a' large-sized'city.'A'
comparison'between' rural' car'traffic' and' simulation' runs'
with' the' added' urban' car' traffic' has' shown' a' significant'
increase' in' temperature' (5' °C)' and' humidity' variation'
(25%).'Carbon'dioxide'emissions'are'directly'proportional'
to' traffic' jams' because' traffic' time' fuel' consumption' is'
high.'A'table'and'map'showing'carbon' dioxide'emission'in'
the'simulation'region'were'computed.'The'table'shows,'on'
the'map,'emission'hot'spots'over'the'regions'of'high'traffic'
volume.' The' carbon' dioxide' map' is' based' on' the'
assumption'that'there'is'no'wind'in'the'simulation'areas.'It'
can' be' noted' that' Dhaka' has' the' highest' carbon' dioxide'
emission'of'all'the'large'cities'in'Bangladesh.'The'table'also'
shows'that'the'rainy'time'emission'is'low.'Thus,'this'result'
could'be'used'to'determine'places'within'a'carbon'dioxide'
hot' spot' which' should' not' have' high' emission' (e.g.'
playgrounds'or'kindergartens)'and'test'which'actions'(e.g.'
speed' limits' or' one-way' road' policies)' could' lead' to' an'
improvement.'Other'scenarios,'such'as'the'implementation'
of' new' car' models' with' better' fuel' consumption'
capabilities,' could' be' tested' for' efficiency' on' motorways,'
and' the' replacement' of' old' and' unfit' vehicles,' which'
account' for' approximately' 88%' of' the' total' vehicles'
counted'in' the' urban'scenarios'with'help'of'the'presented'
study' system,' could' be' considered' as' a' viable' means' to'
improve'air'quality.'In'the'long'term,'the' construction'of'a'
triangular' elevated' expressway,' an' electric' train,' the'
commissioning'of'electric' buses'and' the' use' of'renewable'
energy'sources,'such'as'biofuels'and'solar'and'wind'power,'
should' be' considered' to' solve' the' traffic' congestion'
problems' in' Dhaka' and' ensure' the' sustainable'
development'of'Bangladesh.'
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... As urbanization accelerates, the urban population begins to grow; hence, problems such as those associated with urban housing and transportation also begin to deepen, in turn influencing the continued increase in CO 2 emissions. Studies have shown that urbanization is inevitably accompanied by high carbon emissions (Asaduzzaman et al. 2019;Khoshnevis Yazdi and Dariani 2019;Kwakwa and Alhassan 2018;Wang et al. 2019c). The growth rate of carbon emissions is higher than that of the urbanization that causes it (Du and Lin 2019). ...
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