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Coming Out Aspergers:Diagnosis, Disclosure and Self-Confidence

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... Moreover, selfidentification and self-advocacy were vital components in obtaining accommodations in postsecondary education (Kaplin & Lee, 2007), which posed an additional challenge for students with ASD. Because ASD was misdiagnosed or undiagnosed (Murray, 2006;Prince-Hughes, 2002), students may have lacked social skills to self-advocate, and students may have chosen not to self-disclose (Murray, 2006). Therefore, programs designed to educate families and assist students in navigating the transition are critical. ...
... Moreover, selfidentification and self-advocacy were vital components in obtaining accommodations in postsecondary education (Kaplin & Lee, 2007), which posed an additional challenge for students with ASD. Because ASD was misdiagnosed or undiagnosed (Murray, 2006;Prince-Hughes, 2002), students may have lacked social skills to self-advocate, and students may have chosen not to self-disclose (Murray, 2006). Therefore, programs designed to educate families and assist students in navigating the transition are critical. ...
... Outside of the medical paradigm, there is a body of literature written by people with ASD that gives voice to their experiences (e.g., Madriaga, 2010;Murray, 2006). Key themes in essays written by postsecondary students with ASD included struggles with misdiagnosis, especially, for students with high intelligence test scores; recognition that social interactions were important, yet consistently struggling with group work; peer rejection and problems interpreting unwritten social norms; sensory issues (e.g., fluorescent lights) hindering the learning experience; and difficulties obtaining a job after graduation (Prince-Hughes, 2002). ...
Article
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More than 50% of all college students with a disability enroll in public 2-year institutions. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a type of disability that affects a growing number of students in postsecondary education. Currently, over 70% of 2-year public institutions enroll students with ASD. In spite of increased awareness, the vast majority of existing ASD research focused on primary and secondary education. Research on practices that support students with disabilities in the community college environment is imperative for promoting student success. The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to explore current and best practices that support students with ASD at 2-year public, postsecondary institutions. A web-based tool was used to survey a nationally representative sample of disability service professionals from 367 2-year, public institutions (35.4% response rate). Our results show reasonable accommodations with an academic focus (e.g., extended exam time) were provided more frequently than sensory accommodations. General support services that focused on the transition to college were offered by 42% of the institutions surveyed, and 26% of institutions supplied ASD-specific services. These results indicated that many institutions provide students with a baseline level of academic accommodations; however, accommodations and support services that specifically target the functional limitations of ASD are offered less frequently. Best practices for supporting students with ASD were synthesized and implications for practice were discussed.
... Många beskriver Aspergers syndrom som en del av sin personlighet som inte borde behöva ändras. Samtidigt medger några att de har vissa problem på grund av sin diagnos vilka de ibland skulle vilja slippa (Murray, 2006:90 f, Nordgren 2002:32, 64 f, 103 f, Hall, 2003. ...
... Då han är 10 år är han fortfarande mycket formbar av sina föräldrar och sina lärare och deras förväntningar på honom. Om man får diagnosen som vuxen kan man tänka sig att de svårigheter man har upplevs som en oföränderlig del av det egna jaget i högre grad och att man kan ha ett större oberoende och självkänsla, som till exempel Michelle som ifrågasätter att hennes enda hopp skulle vara att träna sig i sådant som de normala har tillägnat sig utan ansträngning (Murray, 2006:90 f). ...
... Självacceptans kan räcka. Michelle Dawson(Murray, 2006:90 f) vill till exempel fortsätta att vara den hon är och uppmanar andra med Aspergers syndrom att bara le åt det hycklande samhälle som menar att deras enda hopp är att förändra sig. Andra arbetar med svårigheterna för att de uppskattar att bli mer välfungerande i det samhälle de lever i, som Iris(Johansson, 2007:305) som lärde sig det sociala livets spelregler när hon arbetade på en frisersalong, eller som Kenneth(Hall 2003:54 ff) när han gläds åt sina framsteg i sitt arbete med sin ilska. ...
... Noen forskere mener at atferdsdefinerte diagnoser innenfor autismespekteret har flere ulemper enn fordeler, blant annet fordi de representerer en fare for stigmatisering og sykeliggjøring (Molloy & Vasil 2002;Moloney 2010;Murray 2006). Molloy og Vasil (2002) mener at Aspergers syndrom har blitt adoptert som en sosialt konstruert forstyrrelse, der målet med ulike tiltak er å normalisere avvik, i motsetning til å betrakte personene som representanter for en interessant, kvalitativ forskjell. ...
... Enhver som ønsker å forstå mennesker med en autistisk tilstand, vil sannsynligvis bli slått av hvor forskjellige disse personene er i vaeremåte, evneprofil og sterke sider, men også når det gjelder spesifikke vansker. Dette poenget understrekes også i personlige beretninger som er skrevet av personer med AST (Murray 2006). ...
... Blant annet kan noen forholdsvis velfungerende ungdommer med autismetrekk finne en kjaerkommen nisje i livet der de vil trives. Under heldige om-stendigheter trenger de kanskje ikke alltid så omfattende oppfølging i arbeidet, kanskje fordi omgivelsene ikke finner dem veldig sosialt dysfungerende eller plagsomt eksentriske (Murray 2006). ...
Article
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Mennesker med en autismespektertilstand (AST) ønsker ofte å finne ut hvorfor de er forskjellige fra andre og faller utenfor det sosiale fellesskapet. Det er ulike oppfatninger om verdien av en atferdsdefinert diagnose som autisme eller Aspergers syndrom. Noen mener at slike diagnoser kan ha flere ulemper enn fordeler, blant annet fordi diagnosene kan representere en fare for stigmatisering og sykeliggjøring. Andre mener at dersom man ikke vet hva vanskene består i, er det vanskelig å tilrettelegge potensielt effektive tiltak. Når et dilemma mellom diagnose eller ikke oppstår, er det viktig å ta hensyn til personens egen opplevelse av det å få en diagnose.
... Sims (1995;12) state that learning styles can be defined as characteristic cognitive, affective, and physiological behaviors that serve as relatively stable indicators of how learners perceive, interact with, and respond to the learning environment. Murray, (2005;3) explains that confidence is also motivation. Low motivation can become high confidence only when strong motivation drives repeated experience. ...
Article
This research was aimed at finding out the correlation between learning styles and self-confidence on student’s motivation At SMK Perikanan Provinsi Riau. This research was a correlational study using quantitative method. The subject of the research was all students of SMK Perikanan Provinsi Riau consisting 10 classes. The research sample was taken by using random sampling method from ten classes which each class has different number of students. The total population was 227, and the total sample was 114. The data was analyzed by using SPSS version 17. Based on the descriptive statistic of learning styles showed that group was the favorite styles who has chosen by student at Smk Perikanan Provinsi riau with mean score 18.64, another favorite styles was kinesthetic with means score 15.49. Furthermore, the total students who have high self-confidence were 80 persons and 34 students for average score. Additionally, students who have medium level were 69, 30 students for high level and 15 students for low level. The research findings showed that first; there was no significant correlation between learning styles and student’s motivation with score 0.18>0.05. Second, there was significant correlation between self-confidence and student’s motivation with score 0.00< 0.05. Third, there was significant correlation between learning styles and self-confidence on student’s motivation with score 0.00<0.05 at Smk Perikanan Provinsi Riau. Keyword : Learning Styles, Self-Confidence, Student’s Motivation
... Professionals need to be mindful of the best ways to communicate with parents experiencing each and all of these reactions and also to be aware of how much information people can cognitively assimilate when in a state of anxiety (Bartolo, 2002;Clarke, Davies, Jenney, Glased, & Eiser, 2005;Sloper & Turner, 1993). Receipt of diagnosis is often the start of a long journey (Murray, 2006). In particular with ASD, the added lack of an obvious physical syndrome with clear facial or physical features can make this adjustment more difficult for some parents (Midence & O'Neill, 1999). ...
Article
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03033910.2014.982143 Free print of article by placing the above DOI in your search field Little is known about the lived experience of Irish parents in learning about and adapting to their child’s diagnosis of autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) and the process of disclosing this diagnosis to their child. Semi-structured interviews were completed with seven Irish parents of children with an ASD diagnosis to gain an in-depth understanding of these experiences. An interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) revealed key themes affecting the process of adjusting to the diagnosis and communicating this diagnosis to their child, including difficulties obtaining a diagnosis and parents ambivalent feelings upon receiving a diagnosis; challenges accessing appropriate support and resources, and attempting to maintain a ‘normal’ family life; and finally a feeling of needing to protect their child, the realisation that non-disclosure is a poor strategy in the longer term, and adapting communication style to facilitate their child’s understanding of their diagnosis. The importance of the sensitivity and manner in which professionals involved in the diagnosis inform that the parents of the diagnosis cannot be underestimated. Despite guidelines having been developed in Ireland and the UK, ongoing audit of the fidelity of professionals in adhering to these guidelines needs to take place and become a part of service reviews with service user involvement being central to this. Parents also need to be facilitated to discuss the appropriate developmental timing of telling their child about their diagnosis and to explore their ambivalence about this process.
... Professionals need to be mindful of the best ways to communicate with parents experiencing each and all of these reactions and also to be aware of how much information people can cognitively assimilate when in a state of anxiety (Bartolo, 2002;Clarke, Davies, Jenney, Glased, & Eiser, 2005;Sloper & Turner, 1993). Receipt of diagnosis is often the start of a long journey (Murray, 2006). In particular with ASD, the added lack of an obvious physical syndrome with clear facial or physical features can make this adjustment more difficult for some parents (Midence & O'Neill, 1999). ...
Article
Little is known about the lived experience of Irish parents in learning about and adapting to their child’s diagnosis of autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) and the process of disclosing this diagnosis to their child. Semi-structured interviews were completed with seven Irish parents of children with an ASD diagnosis to gain an in-depth understanding of these experiences. An interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) revealed key themes affecting the process of adjusting to the diagnosis and communicating this diagnosis to their child, including difficulties obtaining a diagnosis and parents ambivalent feelings upon receiving a diagnosis; challenges accessing appropriate support and resources, and attempting to maintain a ‘normal’ family life; and finally a feeling of needing to protect their child, the realisation that non-disclosure is a poor strategy in the longer term, and adapting communication style to facilitate their child’s understanding of their diagnosis. The importance of the sensitivity and manner in which professionals involved in the diagnosis inform that the parents of the diagnosis cannot be underestimated. Despite guidelines having been developed in Ireland and the UK, ongoing audit of the fidelity of professionals in adhering to these guidelines needs to take place and become a part of service reviews with service user involvement being central to this. Parents also need to be facilitated to discuss the appropriate developmental timing of telling their child about their diagnosis and to explore their ambivalence about this process.
... That support should firstly take the form of appropriate, efficient, speedy diagnosis which should surely, by now, be easier and less traumatic for the families. Individuals with AS may be motivated to find answers to their difficulties and the complexities of their experiences but may have mixed responses to a diagnosis (Willey 1999;Molloy & Vasil 2004;Murray 2005). ...
... The success of their mobilisation efforts rests in part on changes brought about in the way their potential members view not only their life situation, but also themselves. At the international level, the historical dynamics of this mobilization shows that the people concerned refuse the representation of autism as a disease and criticize a society in which autism is solely understood according to a deficit model (Chamak 2008aChamak , 2010 Murray, this volume). The first association of autistic persons, Autism Network International (ANI), set up in 1991 in the U.S., defends the idea that autism is neither a disease nor a disability, but a different mode of cognitive functioning. ...
Book
At the international level, the study of the historical dynamics of the mobilization of the autistic persons' organizations shows that they refuse the representation of autism as a disease. Generally, the activist movements define autism as another mode of functioning, and stress the positive and creative features associated with neurodiversity. The study of the French case puts other views in evidence. Thus, the aim of the French-speaking association, Satedi, is to shed light on the autistic functioning, to help autistic persons and their families, and to influence the orientation of the research on autism and political decisions. The French system is characterized by a partnership between the State and the associations of parents, and its historical and cultural context, in particular the opposition to communitarianism. These factors do not appear to favour the development of radical demands in the field of disability.
... The success of their mobilisation efforts rests in part on changes brought about in the way their potential members view not only their life situation, but also themselves. At the international level, the historical dynamics of this mobilization shows that the people concerned refuse the representation of autism as a disease and criticize a society in which autism is solely understood according to a deficit model (Chamak 2008aChamak , 2010 Murray, this volume). The first association of autistic persons, Autism Network International (ANI), set up in 1991 in the U.S., defends the idea that autism is neither a disease nor a disability, but a different mode of cognitive functioning. ...
... Self-confidence may be defined as "the belief that a person has it in their ability to succeed at a task based on whether or not they have been able to perform that task in the past" (Adalikwu, 2012). Murray (2006), on the other hand, suggests that if one is confident about something, they do not worry about the outcome and, rather, just take it for granted that everything will turn out well. Similarly, self-confidence could be perceived as "a sense that has been present in every individual and that has two essential components: lovability and competence" (Mutluer, 2006). ...
Article
This study examined the role of self-confidence and cognitive flexibility in psychological well-being. The study looked into whether cognitive flexibility mediates the relationship between self-confidence and psychological well-being. The study involved the participation of 284 university students (192 female and 92 male) enrolled in the Faculty of Education at a private university in Istanbul, Turkey. Data was collected via the Self- Confidence Scale, Flourishing Scale and Cognitive Flexibility Scale. The results of our multiple regression analysis revealed that self-confidence and cognitive flexibility statistically predict psychological well-being. Self-confidence and cognitive flexibility were found to explain 38% of the variance in psychological well-being. Furthermore, cognitive flexibility served as a mediator in the relationship between self-confidence and psychological well-being.
... The Correlation between Speaking Anxiety, Self-Confidence, and Speaking Achievement of Undergraduate EFL Students of Private University in Palembang 37 Murray (2006) states that self-confidence is a firm belief. If a person is convinced of something, he/she is not worried about the outcome, he/she simply takes it for granted that it will go well. ...
Article
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Speaking in a foreign language can be influenced by such psychological aspects as anxiety and self-confidence. The students who have high level of anxiety, worry, fear and low level of self-confidence in foreign language classes may have difficulties in developing their speaking ability. The objective of this research was to find out whether there was a significant correlation between students’ speaking anxiety, self-confidence, and their speaking achievement. The research used correlation design. The data were collected through interviews that were scored by two raters and two questionnaires that were administered to fifth semester students (n = 28) from a Teacher and Training Faculty in Indonesia. The data were analyzed using descriptive and correlational analysis. The results indicated that speaking anxiety has no significant correlation with speaking achievement. Self-confidence has a significant correlation with speech achievement (p = .01). That is, students with self-confidence have higher achievement. So, it is important for teachers and lecturers to encourage students and practice speaking English in front of class, especially to improve the self-confidence when the students are communicating in English.
... Confident learners always have particular objectives to attain and simultaneously they trust their capabilities and understand well how to achieve their objectives. They also develop a strong feeling and understanding that they can accomplish them (Murray, 2006;Tracy, 2008). ...
Article
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The present study aimed at investigating the comparative effects of cooperative and competitive learning on English as Foreign Language (EFL) learners' speaking ability and self-confidence. Moreover, EFL learners' attitude towards cooperative and competitive learning procedures were explored. To these ends, from among 140 male intermediate EFL learners, 90 learners were selected on the basis of a sample Preliminary English Test (PET) results and were assigned into three 30-learner cooperative, competitive and control groups. The speaking section of a sample PET test and Academic Confidence Scale (Sander & Sanders, 2006) were administered to the three groups to measure their speaking proficiency and self-confidence level before the treatment. As the treatment, the first experimental group members were primarily engaged in cooperative learning, the second experimental group members were engaged in competitive learning, and the control group received regular teacher-fronted instruction. At the end of the treatment, the speaking section of another sample PET and Academic Confidence Scale were re-administered as the posttests. Additionally, 10 EFL learners were randomly selected from each experimental group and seated for a semi-structured interview. The statistical analyses revealed that while both cooperative and competitive learning procedures had significant within-group effects on the learners' speaking ability, the impact on academic self-confidence was significant only for cooperative learning procedure. Moreover, between-groups comparisons verified that the impact of cooperative learning on speaking ability and self-confidence of EFL learners was statistically superior to the other procedures. In addition, content analysis of the interview data showed that the majority of EFL learners believed that cooperative learning helps them develop their own ideas in greater depth, enhance their participation and creativity in speaking, improve self-confidence and reduce anxiety; on the other hand, the respondents in competitive group mainly believed that competitive learning led to their increased anxiety and reduced self-confidence. Introduction Language learning process, put simply, comprises mastering different language skills, a prominent one of which is speaking. For most people, the ability to speak a language is synonymous with knowing that language, as speech is the most unique aspect and need of human communication (Celce-Murcia, 2001) and when it comes to second or foreign language (SL/FL) pedagogy, teaching speaking skill has been one of the most challenging and arduous tasks due to the multidimensional nature of the skill and the multitude of the factors which affect its development, and production.
... Travelling extensively with Dinah, we saw so much overlap in our reactions that we had to conclude she was autistic herself, despite rejecting its medical framework. As such, she contributed to many other projects, lectures and books (D. Murray, 2005Murray, , 2008D. Murray & Aspinall, 2006;D. ...
Article
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So much has changed in our understanding of how autism impacts our lives. We still have a long way to go, however, until it becomes the norm that the principle of ‘nothing about me without me’ is upheld throughout autism research and autism practice. Autistic researchers and practitioners will play a central role in delivering this vision. Currently, the autistic community is mourning the passing of one such person, a true pioneer, Dr. Dinah Murray. It is fitting that we pay a tribute to her achievements and contributions, for these have enriched our lives and over-laid the autism landscape with understanding, acceptance, action and advocacy. I am not proposing that we change those opening paragraphs, just that we duplicate and adjust the text in the abstract as well. I think that reading this on the journal page would help people decide if they want to read the full letter, by giving them a bit more of a taste of the rest of the piece. I don’t think it matters that the text will be repeated in the main article - this is a common practice for things like letters to the editor and commentaries.
Conference Paper
This paper discusses advantages of taking a Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) approach to examine a policy document: “Born Global: implications for Higher Education” (British Academy, 2016). An adaptation of Hyatt’s (2013) CDA framework is useful for analysing the document’s linguistic features. This paper gives examples of the use of Hyatt’s categories to show that the document encapsulates a particular discourse, the justification of language learning through economic considerations. Linguistic features of the report – the choices of verbs, nouns and adjectives, use of tenses and passive voice, unheralded removal of hedging, and definite articles – all give the impression of factual evidence, whereas they disguise unresolved contradictions. CDA shows that the economic rationale in the document is tenuous. http://epapers.bham.ac.uk/2979/1/Full_Book_Research_conference_November_2016.pdf
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Screening for the Specialist Tutor to Use Overcoming Barriers in Higher Education The Triad of Impairment Prejudices Good Quality Services
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The design of this research was correlational research. This research aimed to find out the correlation between students’ self-confidence and speaking skills at the twelfth grade of SMA N 2 Bukittinggi. The background of this research was there were several problems related to students’ self-confidence, and those problems were contrary to the theory. The population of this research was all of the twelfth-grade students of SMA N 2 Bukittinggi in the academic years of 2020/2021, which consists of 8 classes. The sample was 28 students taken by simple random sampling technique. The research results showed that there is a correlation between students’ self-confidence and their speaking skill. The researcher found that the coefficient of correlation between students’ self-confidence and their speaking skill was 0,286. There was a positive correlation and significance. It means that Ho is accepted. Thus, there is a positive correlation between students’ self-confidence and speaking skills at the twelfth grade of SMA N 2 Bukittinggi.
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The defining characteristics of autism, including difficulty with nonverbal cues and need for structure, and the defining characteristics of computer-mediated communication (CMC), including reduction of extraneous cues and structured exchange, suggest the two would be an ideal match. Interviews and observations of 16 adults on the high-functioning end of the autism spectrum reveal that many seek greater social connectedness and take advantage of interest-based online communities to foster successful, supportive relationships. However, CMC intensifies problems of trust, disclosure, inflexible thinking, and perspective-taking, making it difficult for some to maintain relationships. Interventions in the form of information visualization and CMC-specific social skills training are presented. Intervention considerations and participatory design opportunities are discussed.
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Many people with an autism spectrum condition (ASC) want to know why they always have felt so «different» from others, and want to have their condition named. An early assessment of these people, and a possible diagnosis, seems beneficial to most of them. The diagnosis, however, should be conveyed in a balanced and thoughtful way, empathizing the person’s deficits as well as assets. Many persons with an ASC emphasise that their way of thinking is «different», but is equally valid and in some ways even superior. The publicity concerning the special skills of others with the condition, including historical persons who might have had an autistic-like condition, may have given them more confidence in themselves
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