The Effect of Teachers’ Dress on Students’ Attitude and Students’
Learning: Higher Education View
Mohammad Abul Kashem
Department of Marketing, Faculty of Business Administration, Feni University, Feni, Bangladesh
Correspondence should be addressed to Mohammad Abul Kashem; email@example.com
Received 30 July 2019; Accepted 30 November 2019; Published 26 December 2019
Academic Editor: Yi-Shun Wang
Copyright ©2019 Mohammad Abul Kashem. is is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution
License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is
Dress which has had the inﬂuences on the perceptions of viewers whether students or outsiders, is more than just a wearing. At
ﬁrst instance, the outlook imposes a very positive expectation subjective to the likeliness and behavior pattern of the students. A
positive impression ultimately imposes a positive atmosphere of learning toward the students’ mind. How the dress usually
inﬂuences the learning of students depending on students’ attitude is the prime concern of this study. For validation of ideas, 405
respondents’ judgments were justiﬁed from eight private universities of Bangladesh through Conﬁrmatory Factor Analysis and
Structural Equation Modeling. Depending on their relationship, three hypotheses such as students’ attitude to students’ learning,
dress to students’ attitude, and ﬁnally dress to students’ learning were strongly supported, with path coeﬃcients of 0.483, 0.533,
and 0.425, respectively. ese rationalizations ﬁnally signify the new mood of appearance in student learning paradigms in context
to inﬂuential role-playing foundation of teachers into the mind of learners.
Dress is nothing in relation to learning of students. But, the
outlook of teacher creates a learning impression into the
minds of students at ﬁrst look or ﬁrst sight. e fact is
evidential naturally when a teacher presents before the
students in a new batch or a new class even in an old batch.
e psychology works at student’s mind that by a smart
outlook smart presentation is possible. ough irrelevant,
the impression of good-looking dress might get admiration
from the colleagues, subordinate staﬀ, and even outsiders.
An individual’s personality can be revealed through ap-
pearance depending on importance of clothing , and
choice in clothing can communicate responsibility, status,
power, and the ability to be successful . In students’
judgments, teachers’ formal dress represents competency
and e dress allows the person's speaking to take more
authorization of ideas . e teacher should dress pro-
fessionally enough to establish authority and to maintain
professionalism . Regardless of liberties, the teacher
should focus on students so that they will have to make to
their classroom learning friendly. Henceforth, how the
dress usually inﬂuences the learning of students depending
on students’ attitude is the prime concern of this study.
2. Students’ Attitude and Students’ Learning
Formal clothing has signiﬁcance in not only to follow norms
but also to get respect, professionalism, and maintenance of
social distance. In an earlier study, students’ perceptions also
varied with dress by connotations “professional” and “un-
professional” . In addition to considering inﬂuence of
dress cognitively, dress had impact on the processing style
that measures the changes of how objects, people, and events
are construed . Clothing is also inﬂuenced by the im-
pressions of others  and signiﬁes how others are treated
. Wearing formal dress describes an individual as rational
and competent, but casual clothing refers to friendly and
laid-back . Tatro  summarized that gender had little
eﬀect on faculty evaluations [11–13]. However, students’
Education Research International
Volume 2019, Article ID 9010589, 7 pages
ratings are frequently inﬂuenced by factors that have very
little to do with teaching eﬀectiveness . In general, formal
or professional dress is the most positively perceived by most
of the observers [15, 16]. Consequently, this study hy-
pothesizes that students’ attitude is a signiﬁcant predictor of
Hypothesis 1. Students’ attitude has a positive eﬀect on
3. Teachers’ Dress and Students’ Attitude
e well-dressed professors/teachers are considered to be
more organized, knowledgeable, and better prepared,
whereas professors/teachers who wore informal clothing
were seen as friendlier, ﬂexible, sympathetic, fair, and en-
thusiastic by the judgment of the students . It is also
considerable that the teacher-expressive characteristics like
warmth, enthusiasm, or extroversion apparently separate
eﬀective teacher from ineﬀective in context to the students’
views [18, 19]. One of the studies has found that clothing is
being communicated about the wearer . In other studies
by Landry and Sigall  and by Lapitsky and Smith , the
inﬂuence of clothing and physical appearance on perception
of task performance was found. Again, it is also observed in
research that dress aﬀects person in formation of ﬁrst im-
pressions and the clothing had a stronger inﬂuence on
impressions of sociability of an individual . As a result,
this study hypothesizes that teachers’ dress is a signiﬁcant
predictor of students’ attitude in learning.
Hypothesis 2. Teachers’ dress has a positive eﬀect on stu-
dents’ attitude in classroom learning.
4. Teachers’ Dress and Students’ Learning
People made judgments about other people based on their
clothing attributing to a powerful appearance dimensions or
a sociable appearance dimension. ough formal attire
increases perceptions of authority, friendliness, and at-
tractiveness , the expectations grow up more for formal
dress upon a working woman than on a man . With
respect to dress, teacher credibility comprises three com-
ponents like believability, trustworthiness, and goodwill
, but Teven and Herring  emphasized on power,
credibility, and student satisfaction. Again, clothing/dress
code can be determined as perceived status , but in some
cases, moderate level of dress intended more respect from
students than on more formal dress . Again, Robertson
 identiﬁed the expression of person on dress code on the
basis of diﬀerences between generations. Usually, the
teacher’s dress was also a matter of personal preference along
with the factors of classroom conditions, class setting, de-
livery mood and personal preference, and comfort, even
though the attributes are also relating to class preparation,
knowledge of the subject matter, and ability . With
diﬀerent degrees of perceptions on casual and formal dress,
the style of dress and forms of address are also inﬂuential
factors that show teacher’s expertise, attractiveness,
credibility, and likeability . As a consequence, the study
hypothesized that the dress is a signiﬁcant predictor of
Hypothesis 3. Teachers’ dress has a positive eﬀect on stu-
Here, three variables have been considered such as teachers’
dress, students’ attitude, and students’ learning where
teachers’ dress is an independent variable and students’
attitude and students’ learning are dependent variables.
6. Conceptual Model
Based on the literature review, the hypothesis and mea-
surement model is formulated for the exogenous variable
and the endogenous variables as shown in Figure 1 to explain
the relationship among teachers’ dress, students’ attitude,
and students’ learning.
6.1. Measures. A structured questionnaire was used to
collect data. Here, the three key variables have been con-
sidered such as teacher’s dress, students’ attitude, and stu-
dents’ learning. In preliminary judgment to identify the
impact of students’ learning and students’ attitude, several
factors have been identiﬁed and used in this study. Along
with demographic questions in a format of open-ended
questions, scale questions had been set and rated accordingly
with a 5-point rating scales in between “strongly agree” to
From the questionnaire point of view, all the items se-
lected for this study are based on the ideology and workable
hypotheses from the earlier researches on the same ﬁeld with
a rare minor revision where necessary. In the same order, the
most frequent measurement of teacher’s dress related items
whether male or female was derived from the research
studies of Fortenberry et al. , Kwon and Johnson-Hillery
, Lukavsky et al. , Patton , and Robertson . In
addition, the impact of dress for credibility, learning, and
understanding was selected from the research studies of
Johnson and Miller , Martinez-Egger and Powers ,
Nadler and Nadler , Schrodt , and Teven and
McCroskey . Arguably, another crucial and embodied
item-attitude has considered with learning measurement on
earlier researches on Sebastian and Bristow ; Kwon and
Johnson-Hillery  and Harris et al. . However, the
consideration of Bassett et al.  was separately treated, and
few items for the same were included. Again, the items of
learning were adapted from the several earlier research
studies especially of Lukavsky et al.  and Rollman . In
addition, few other items were materialized and revised
based on the earlier research of Smith et al. .
6.2. Sampling. e survey was addressed to the students of
University of Information Technology & Sciences (UITS),
Port City University, Feni University, BGMEA Institute of
2Education Research International
Fashion and Technology, East Delta University, University
of Creative Technology Chittagong, University of Science
and Technology Chittagong, and Southern University at
Chittagong particularly for students’ attitude measurement.
Both of the respondents were asked to opine both for
teachers’ dress and perceptions about outsiders’ dress. e
sample size is in total 430, but 405 were found eﬀective after
data screening. To justify the sample/respondents, the fol-
lowing assumptions have been set:
(i) e students having a positive attitude towards the
teaching profession have given a more realistic
opinion than those having a negative attitude
(ii) e students who care about their own dress opine
perfectly on teachers’ dress
(iii) e students who attend classes regularly can judge
teacher better than those who attend irregularly
6.3. Data Analysis. To assess the relationships among the
studied variables, the researcher has performed conﬁrmatory
factor analysis and structural equation modeling . SPSS 22
and AMOS 22 had been used to perform these analyses. ese
analyses are supposed to help understand which model ﬁts the
data best while presenting a credible assessment on the impact
of dress on students’ attitude and learning.
Statistical techniques were applied to assess the reliability
and validity of the survey and to obtain more clarity re-
garding the inﬂuence of the selected variables on students’
7.1. Reliability. e reliability coeﬃcient for the diﬀerent
constructs was measured using the reliability procedure in
SPSS 22. e reliabilities of the entire construct used in this
study were found to be above the standard set which is 0.70
. e range of Cronbach alpha shows the reliability of the
variables of research ranges from α�0.806 to α�0.857,
where mean scores had been computed by equally weighting
the mean scores of all the relevant to each construct.
Table 1 shows Cronbach’s alpha of each of the variables
where the variable students’ learning has the highest alpha
values and dress has the lowest but all are out of the issue of a
minimum acceptable limit of 0.70.
7.2. Normality Test. With the previous set guidelines for
checking normality, skewness and kurtosis were used where
positive and negative value indicate the direction of positive
and negative relations, respectively , and the threshold
values for justiﬁcation were ±3 and ±10 for skewness and
kurtosis, respectively . At this point, Table 2 shows that
the mean for dress (4.02) was the highest while students’
learning (3.59) had the lowest mean value. Yet again, the
skewness and kurtosis are ranged from 0.052 to 0.549, but
within the expected values of skewness and kurtosis.
Henceforth, the data are normally distributed.
7.3. Conﬁrmatory Factor Analysis (CFA). Conﬁrmatory
factor analysis was used here to measure the construct
validity of the model, whereas convergent validity is for
existence of construct determined by the correlations
exhibited by independent measures of the construct. To
assess convergent validity, the loading estimates and con-
struct reliability were investigated. In AMOS 22.0, conver-
gent validity can be measured using the measurement model
by determining the signiﬁcant value of each item’s estimated
pattern coeﬃcient on its posited underlying construct factor
To measure the unidimensionality and convergent and
discriminant validity through AMOS 22.0, the CFA provides
overall ﬁt indices (χ
�219.153), chi-square degrees of
freedom �63, RMSEA (root mean square error of
estimation) �0.0181, GFI (goodness-of-ﬁt indices) �0.927,
AGFI (adjusted goodness-of-ﬁt indices) �0.905, CFI
(comparative ﬁt indices) �0.954, and NNFI (nonnormed ﬁt
Here goodness of ﬁt of the ﬁnal model indicated “rea-
sonable or good ﬁt” or RMSEA �0.0181. It is suggested that
0.05 <RMSEA <0.08 is for good ﬁt . In this study,
CFI �0.954 demonstrates reasonable ﬁt. A rule of thumb for
the CFI and the incremental indexes is that values greater
than roughly 0.90 may indicate reasonably good ﬁt of the
researcher model . GFI �1.0 refers to perfect ﬁt .
erefore, a GFI �0.927 indicates reasonably good ﬁt for the
researcher’s model in this study. e AGFI of 0.905 indicates
reasonably good ﬁt for the researcher model. e NNFI
(nonnormed ﬁt index) or Tucker-Lewis Index has been
recommended a value of 0.90 or better for good ﬁt [44, 47].
us, an NNFI �0.938 for this study implies good ﬁt. From
the above goodness-of-ﬁt evaluation, conﬁrmatory factor
Figure 1: eoretical model of the study.
Table 1: Reliability statistics.
Items Cronbach’s alpha based on standardized items
Students’ attitude 0.819
Education Research International 3
analysis for the ﬁnal measurement model reasonably sup-
ported the model’s ﬁt.
8. Measurement Model
8.1. Structural Equation Model (SEM). A structural model is
ﬁt to the teachers’ dress, students’ attitude, and students’
learning data according to the model structure given in
ree paths (teachers’ dress to students’ attitude,
teachers’ dress to students’ learning, and students’ attitude to
students’ learning) are found to have signiﬁcant positive
standardized path coeﬃcients that are not dropped se-
quentially based on Wald test. e goodness-of-ﬁt indices
for the ﬁnal structure model, shown in the bottom part of
Table 3, suggests a good ﬁt to the data: the small ratio of chi-
square to degree of freedom (<2), great values of GFI, AGFI,
CFI, NFI (>0.9) and RMSEA (<0.05).
e estimation results in Table 4 and Figure 2 indicate
that the three hypotheses, H
(students’ attitude ⟶students’
(teachers’ dress ⟶students’ learning), and H
(teachers’ dress ⟶students’ attitude) are strongly sup-
ported, with path coeﬃcients of 0.317, 0.302, and 0.577,
In accordance with the parameter estimates shown in
Table 5, students’ attitude is positively and signiﬁcantly
related to students’ learning (coeﬃcient �0.483, p<0.05), as
this ﬁnding proposed in H
. In the same way, as proposed in
teachers’ dress has a positive and signiﬁcant eﬀect
on students’ learning (coeﬃcient �0.425 p<0.05) and
students’ attitude (coeﬃcient �0.533, p<0.05), respectively.
8.2. e Hypothesized Casual Structure Model. As shown in
Table 5, the regression weight of students’ attitude to stu-
dents’ learning (t�4.494; p<0.05), teachers’ dress to stu-
dents’ learning (t�4.749; p<0.05), and teachers’ dress to
students’ attitude (t�7.739; p<0.05) was found to be sig-
niﬁcant. is indicated that dress had signiﬁcant direct eﬀect
on both students’ attitude and learning.
In a very common phenomenon, student and teacher
interacted comparatively more on classrooms. Based on this
ideology, this study generalizes the scenario of learning with
respect to dress via impact on attitude with much care, which
is not contradict the caution of over-generalizing the
classroom eﬀects of dress . In a view point of importance
of dress, this interaction and surrounding factors associated
with it are aiding signiﬁcant contribution in learning as like
as similarities with the impact of a dress on other profes-
sional settings. Very earlier research of Newhouse 
identiﬁed the role of dress-based discrimination of per-
ception of students about their teacher. at study also gave
the importance of attire of a teacher which literally sup-
ports the ﬁndings of this study. In addition, the ﬁndings of
Lang  defends positively the impact of the dress of this
e hypotheses were set for this study legibly support
the ﬁndings of earlier studies where identiﬁed the fact that
more respect goes with the teacher’s appearance by a
formal attire . Prior to this, dress aﬀects the way of a
judgment of the students . Very positively, the attire is
not only an inﬂuential fact for the students but also in-
fused the others’ view on institution. at is why the
charm of the dress code is supposed to be a solid-gravity
for the culture of the institution. ough it is surprisingly
forcing toward regulation, dress ultimately displays a
standard view to the outsiders. So, the dress is marked for
qualitatively diﬀerent stance both for students and out-
siders. In this sense, the competency of the teacher that was
aroused by the clothing had a good sense. Hence, the
uniform should imbue the perceived diﬀerences toward
appropriate awareness. Consequently, it can hold the
similar expectation what arises through attire for the de-
velopment of positive attitude which ultimately leads to the
development of a very positive learning paradigm for the
e signiﬁcant diﬀerences for a modest formal or
informal attire either casual or business casual have been
subjected to the opinions and perceptions of the students.
e relatability of the students’ views about the dress of a
teacher or an instructor is somewhat creating a miscon-
ception owing to the situation. It may depend on gender
biasedness of the students or their interpersonal or social
characteristics . Again, it is ideally true where gender
ratio produced more eﬀective learning with contradiction.
So, what is supposed to be true for a particular situation
might not be true for the rest of scenario depending on the
assumption. Nevertheless, the outcome of the similar
study of Martin et al.  about cognitive learning also
gauged the similar result in this study. Again, the hy-
pothesis of students’ attitude to students’ learning is also
justiﬁed by the scenario of credibility perception of stu-
dents about their teacher which was too relevant to the
ﬁndings of weatt and McCroskey . So, these ﬁnd-
ings profusely support the appearance of the educator role
for creating a scratch into students’ minds. In no doubt,
teachers' wear should copiously dignify the institutional
value with a high degree of decency. As teachers, they
Table 2: Descriptive statistics.
Mean Std. deviation Skewness Kurtosis
Statistic Statistic Statistic Std. error Statistic Std. error
Students’ learning 3.59 0.486 0.074 0.172 0.549 0.342
Students’ attitude 3.69 0.482 0.292 0.172 0.052 0.342
Dress 4.02 0.687 0.525 0.172 0.178 0.342
Descriptive Statistics: the following is the attempt undertaken to justify the result of the study.
4Education Research International
should be a role player of personiﬁcation before the
students duly on voice, gesture, chastisement, and ﬁnally
e direction towards the importance of dress should be
under the cognizance of a teacher especially for the classes
may be either as a professional or even appear to be
professional outlook. Seemingly, teaching profession, a
visceral activity, is encompassed on lot of body movement
henceforward, diﬀerent categories of dress ware were (viz.,
formal, informal or casual) preferred for. With respect to
earlier researches and evidential support, someone’s de-
sirability goes with a dress code for professional.
Depending on the aesthetic look, however, teacher should
dress decently so that students should allow them in all
aspects. Without any doubt, the dress preference of a
teacher for a particular style is considered construal rather
professional. Additionally, the dress of the teacher is
inﬂuenced through and matched with age, sex, and status.
Very personally, it should focus on show-up appearance or
lifestyle of a faculty member.
On the other hand, a very positive outlook is quite
necessary owing to the self-respect or even for the working
institution. e way the students accept, the more likely to
engrave very positive attitude toward the personnel. Be-
sides, it is a general belief that the selection of dress has a
visual paradox meaning to wear a very formal dress does
not change a teacher's attitude, or a very tidy outlook
considers very intimated. But the dress reveals one’s in-
tention and inherent aesthetic view. Likewise, some stu-
dents believe that the dress would reﬂect purity of an
individual for any profession. On that scenario, the dress
should be admirable and adorable. is is not a blasphemy
to reevaluate a teacher by students’ perception that a well-
dressed teacher will be well planned and modest about his
profession. Furthermore, the dress reinforces the existing
power hierarchy of a teacher solely on mind but very
strangely on delivery.
Whatever the scenario, the entrusted role of a teacher
owing to the positional value and responsibility should
concentrate with no exception of standards of conduct and
behavior. It supports to dress look-alike to honor rather
learning for how to set costume perfectly for a profession.
Arguably, the articulation and policy guidelines are not the
solutions for the eﬀective learning or attitudinal change but
relatively aﬀective for upholding the responsibility of the
teacher himself/herself. Hoping to perfection, an institution
can set oﬃcial dress code or even set guidelines appropriate
wearing for classroom. A good-to-go comfortable wears,
neutral as mix and match, avoid skin revealing dresses, clean
or any dress for a more put-together look should be pref-
erable and suggested for a teaching professional. us,
framing the strict policy for the instructor’s outﬁt is
somewhat initiatives for discipline against the erring indi-
viduals supposed to be worthwhile if encouraging or related
to individual conduct. In ﬁne, from moral obligation, the
teachers’ active role both in and outside the classroom is
necessarily inspiring toward goal achievement of the
Table 4: Standardized regression weights.
Student’s attitude ⟵dress 0.577
Student’s learning ⟵student’s attitude 0.317
Student’s learning ⟵dress 0.302
Figure 2: Standardized estimates.
Table 5: Summary of hypothesis testing results.
Estimate S.E. C.R. PLabel
Student’s attitude ⟵dress 0.533 0.069 7.739 ∗∗∗
Student’s learning ⟵
student’s attitude 0.483 0.107 4.494 ∗∗∗
Student’s learning ⟵dress 0.425 0.090 4.741 ∗∗∗
Note. S.E. �standard error; C.R. �critical ratio; ∗p<0.01.
Table 3: Goodness-of-ﬁt results of the study.
Goodness-of-ﬁt statistics Values for smart dress Desired range of values for a good ﬁt
Chi-square test Χ
Degrees of freedom Df 63 ≥0
Chi-square/degrees of freedom ratio Χ
/df 3.478 2 to 5
Goodness-of-ﬁt index GFI 0.927 >0.90
Root mean square error of approximation RMSEA 0.018 <0.08
Incremental ﬁt measures
Adjusted good-of-ﬁt index AGFI 0.905 >0.90
Tucker–Lewis index TLI 0.938 >0.90
Comparative ﬁt index CFI 0.954 >0.95
Normed ﬁt index NFI 0.928 >0.90
Education Research International 5
It is obvious from the analysis that dress creates a strong
favorable image into the minds of students by assuming
teachers’ family background, personality, choice, or product
of preferences by viewing his or her clothing, values, and
social status. e research study was conducted to ﬁnd the
impact of dress on students’ attitude and students’ learning
among the university students in particular and higher
education in general. Research indicates that both dress and
students’ attitude are the important factors to increase
weight on students’ learning. e research can be replicated
in the same manner with a large sample size and more
variety of variables aﬀecting the learning of the students.
Although SEM provides a good ﬁt to the hypothesized
model, future research could use a diﬀerent design to ex-
amine causal relationships posited by theories, such as to
explore other antecedents on students’ attitude in other
academic institutions and other countries or diﬀerent global
e data used to support the ﬁndings of this study have not
been made available because of conﬁdentiality.
Conflicts of Interest
e author declares that there are no conﬂicts of interest
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