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The Effect of Teachers’ Dress on Students’ Attitude and Students’ Learning: Higher Education View

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Abstract and Figures

Dress which has had the influences on the perceptions of viewers whether students or outsiders, is more than just a wearing. At first instance, the outlook imposes a very positive expectation subjective to the likeliness and behavior pattern of the students. A positive impression ultimately imposes a positive atmosphere of learning toward the students’ mind. How the dress usually influences the learning of students depending on students’ attitude is the prime concern of this study. For validation of ideas, 405 respondents' judgments were justified from eight private universities of Bangladesh through Confirmatory Factor Analysis and Structural Equation Modeling. Depending on their relationship, three hypotheses such as students’ attitude to students’ learning, dress to students’ attitude, and finally dress to students’ learning were strongly supported, with path coefficients of 0.483, 0.533, and 0.425, respectively. These rationalizations finally signify the new mood of appearance in student learning paradigms in context to influential role-playing foundation of teachers into the mind of learners.
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Research Article
The Effect of Teachers’ Dress on Students’ Attitude and Students’
Learning: Higher Education View
Mohammad Abul Kashem
Department of Marketing, Faculty of Business Administration, Feni University, Feni, Bangladesh
Correspondence should be addressed to Mohammad Abul Kashem;
Received 30 July 2019; Accepted 30 November 2019; Published 26 December 2019
Academic Editor: Yi-Shun Wang
Copyright ©2019 Mohammad Abul Kashem. is is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution
License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is
properly cited.
Dress which has had the influences on the perceptions of viewers whether students or outsiders, is more than just a wearing. At
first instance, the outlook imposes a very positive expectation subjective to the likeliness and behavior pattern of the students. A
positive impression ultimately imposes a positive atmosphere of learning toward the students’ mind. How the dress usually
influences the learning of students depending on students’ attitude is the prime concern of this study. For validation of ideas, 405
respondents’ judgments were justified from eight private universities of Bangladesh through Confirmatory Factor Analysis and
Structural Equation Modeling. Depending on their relationship, three hypotheses such as students’ attitude to students’ learning,
dress to students’ attitude, and finally dress to students’ learning were strongly supported, with path coefficients of 0.483, 0.533,
and 0.425, respectively. ese rationalizations finally signify the new mood of appearance in student learning paradigms in context
to influential role-playing foundation of teachers into the mind of learners.
1. Introduction
Dress is nothing in relation to learning of students. But, the
outlook of teacher creates a learning impression into the
minds of students at first look or first sight. e fact is
evidential naturally when a teacher presents before the
students in a new batch or a new class even in an old batch.
e psychology works at student’s mind that by a smart
outlook smart presentation is possible. ough irrelevant,
the impression of good-looking dress might get admiration
from the colleagues, subordinate staff, and even outsiders.
An individual’s personality can be revealed through ap-
pearance depending on importance of clothing [1], and
choice in clothing can communicate responsibility, status,
power, and the ability to be successful [2]. In students’
judgments, teachers’ formal dress represents competency
and e dress allows the person's speaking to take more
authorization of ideas [4]. e teacher should dress pro-
fessionally enough to establish authority and to maintain
professionalism [5]. Regardless of liberties, the teacher
should focus on students so that they will have to make to
their classroom learning friendly. Henceforth, how the
dress usually influences the learning of students depending
on students’ attitude is the prime concern of this study.
2. Students’ Attitude and Students’ Learning
Formal clothing has significance in not only to follow norms
but also to get respect, professionalism, and maintenance of
social distance. In an earlier study, students’ perceptions also
varied with dress by connotations “professional” and “un-
professional” [6]. In addition to considering influence of
dress cognitively, dress had impact on the processing style
that measures the changes of how objects, people, and events
are construed [7]. Clothing is also influenced by the im-
pressions of others [8] and signifies how others are treated
[7]. Wearing formal dress describes an individual as rational
and competent, but casual clothing refers to friendly and
laid-back [9]. Tatro [10] summarized that gender had little
effect on faculty evaluations [11–13]. However, students’
Education Research International
Volume 2019, Article ID 9010589, 7 pages
ratings are frequently influenced by factors that have very
little to do with teaching effectiveness [14]. In general, formal
or professional dress is the most positively perceived by most
of the observers [15, 16]. Consequently, this study hy-
pothesizes that students’ attitude is a significant predictor of
students’ learning.
Hypothesis 1. Students’ attitude has a positive effect on
students’ learning.
3. Teachers’ Dress and Students’ Attitude
e well-dressed professors/teachers are considered to be
more organized, knowledgeable, and better prepared,
whereas professors/teachers who wore informal clothing
were seen as friendlier, flexible, sympathetic, fair, and en-
thusiastic by the judgment of the students [17]. It is also
considerable that the teacher-expressive characteristics like
warmth, enthusiasm, or extroversion apparently separate
effective teacher from ineffective in context to the students’
views [18, 19]. One of the studies has found that clothing is
being communicated about the wearer [20]. In other studies
by Landry and Sigall [21] and by Lapitsky and Smith [22], the
influence of clothing and physical appearance on perception
of task performance was found. Again, it is also observed in
research that dress affects person in formation of first im-
pressions and the clothing had a stronger influence on
impressions of sociability of an individual [23]. As a result,
this study hypothesizes that teachers’ dress is a significant
predictor of students’ attitude in learning.
Hypothesis 2. Teachers’ dress has a positive effect on stu-
dents’ attitude in classroom learning.
4. Teachers’ Dress and Students’ Learning
People made judgments about other people based on their
clothing attributing to a powerful appearance dimensions or
a sociable appearance dimension. ough formal attire
increases perceptions of authority, friendliness, and at-
tractiveness [24], the expectations grow up more for formal
dress upon a working woman than on a man [25]. With
respect to dress, teacher credibility comprises three com-
ponents like believability, trustworthiness, and goodwill
[26], but Teven and Herring [27] emphasized on power,
credibility, and student satisfaction. Again, clothing/dress
code can be determined as perceived status [28], but in some
cases, moderate level of dress intended more respect from
students than on more formal dress [29]. Again, Robertson
[30] identified the expression of person on dress code on the
basis of differences between generations. Usually, the
teacher’s dress was also a matter of personal preference along
with the factors of classroom conditions, class setting, de-
livery mood and personal preference, and comfort, even
though the attributes are also relating to class preparation,
knowledge of the subject matter, and ability [31]. With
different degrees of perceptions on casual and formal dress,
the style of dress and forms of address are also influential
factors that show teacher’s expertise, attractiveness,
credibility, and likeability [32]. As a consequence, the study
hypothesized that the dress is a significant predictor of
students’ leaning.
Hypothesis 3. Teachers’ dress has a positive effect on stu-
dents’ learning.
5. Methodology
Here, three variables have been considered such as teachers’
dress, students’ attitude, and students’ learning where
teachers’ dress is an independent variable and students’
attitude and students’ learning are dependent variables.
6. Conceptual Model
Based on the literature review, the hypothesis and mea-
surement model is formulated for the exogenous variable
and the endogenous variables as shown in Figure 1 to explain
the relationship among teachers’ dress, students’ attitude,
and students’ learning.
6.1. Measures. A structured questionnaire was used to
collect data. Here, the three key variables have been con-
sidered such as teacher’s dress, students’ attitude, and stu-
dents’ learning. In preliminary judgment to identify the
impact of students’ learning and students’ attitude, several
factors have been identified and used in this study. Along
with demographic questions in a format of open-ended
questions, scale questions had been set and rated accordingly
with a 5-point rating scales in between “strongly agree” to
“strongly disagree.”
From the questionnaire point of view, all the items se-
lected for this study are based on the ideology and workable
hypotheses from the earlier researches on the same field with
a rare minor revision where necessary. In the same order, the
most frequent measurement of teacher’s dress related items
whether male or female was derived from the research
studies of Fortenberry et al. [28], Kwon and Johnson-Hillery
[25], Lukavsky et al. [29], Patton [33], and Robertson [30]. In
addition, the impact of dress for credibility, learning, and
understanding was selected from the research studies of
Johnson and Miller [34], Martinez-Egger and Powers [35],
Nadler and Nadler [36], Schrodt [37], and Teven and
McCroskey [38]. Arguably, another crucial and embodied
item-attitude has considered with learning measurement on
earlier researches on Sebastian and Bristow [32]; Kwon and
Johnson-Hillery [25] and Harris et al. [16]. However, the
consideration of Bassett et al. [15] was separately treated, and
few items for the same were included. Again, the items of
learning were adapted from the several earlier research
studies especially of Lukavsky et al. [29] and Rollman [17]. In
addition, few other items were materialized and revised
based on the earlier research of Smith et al. [39].
6.2. Sampling. e survey was addressed to the students of
University of Information Technology & Sciences (UITS),
Port City University, Feni University, BGMEA Institute of
2Education Research International
Fashion and Technology, East Delta University, University
of Creative Technology Chittagong, University of Science
and Technology Chittagong, and Southern University at
Chittagong particularly for students’ attitude measurement.
Both of the respondents were asked to opine both for
teachers’ dress and perceptions about outsiders’ dress. e
sample size is in total 430, but 405 were found effective after
data screening. To justify the sample/respondents, the fol-
lowing assumptions have been set:
(i) e students having a positive attitude towards the
teaching profession have given a more realistic
opinion than those having a negative attitude
(ii) e students who care about their own dress opine
perfectly on teachers’ dress
(iii) e students who attend classes regularly can judge
teacher better than those who attend irregularly
6.3. Data Analysis. To assess the relationships among the
studied variables, the researcher has performed confirmatory
factor analysis and structural equation modeling [40]. SPSS 22
and AMOS 22 had been used to perform these analyses. ese
analyses are supposed to help understand which model fits the
data best while presenting a credible assessment on the impact
of dress on students’ attitude and learning.
7. Result
Statistical techniques were applied to assess the reliability
and validity of the survey and to obtain more clarity re-
garding the influence of the selected variables on students’
7.1. Reliability. e reliability coefficient for the different
constructs was measured using the reliability procedure in
SPSS 22. e reliabilities of the entire construct used in this
study were found to be above the standard set which is 0.70
[41]. e range of Cronbach alpha shows the reliability of the
variables of research ranges from α0.806 to α0.857,
where mean scores had been computed by equally weighting
the mean scores of all the relevant to each construct.
Table 1 shows Cronbach’s alpha of each of the variables
where the variable students’ learning has the highest alpha
values and dress has the lowest but all are out of the issue of a
minimum acceptable limit of 0.70.
7.2. Normality Test. With the previous set guidelines for
checking normality, skewness and kurtosis were used where
positive and negative value indicate the direction of positive
and negative relations, respectively [42], and the threshold
values for justification were ±3 and ±10 for skewness and
kurtosis, respectively [43]. At this point, Table 2 shows that
the mean for dress (4.02) was the highest while students’
learning (3.59) had the lowest mean value. Yet again, the
skewness and kurtosis are ranged from 0.052 to 0.549, but
within the expected values of skewness and kurtosis.
Henceforth, the data are normally distributed.
7.3. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA). Confirmatory
factor analysis was used here to measure the construct
validity of the model, whereas convergent validity is for
existence of construct determined by the correlations
exhibited by independent measures of the construct. To
assess convergent validity, the loading estimates and con-
struct reliability were investigated. In AMOS 22.0, conver-
gent validity can be measured using the measurement model
by determining the significant value of each item’s estimated
pattern coefficient on its posited underlying construct factor
To measure the unidimensionality and convergent and
discriminant validity through AMOS 22.0, the CFA provides
overall fit indices (χ
219.153), chi-square degrees of
freedom 63, RMSEA (root mean square error of
estimation) 0.0181, GFI (goodness-of-fit indices) 0.927,
AGFI (adjusted goodness-of-fit indices) 0.905, CFI
(comparative fit indices) 0.954, and NNFI (nonnormed fit
indices) 0.938.
Here goodness of fit of the final model indicated “rea-
sonable or good fit” or RMSEA 0.0181. It is suggested that
0.05 <RMSEA <0.08 is for good fit [44]. In this study,
CFI 0.954 demonstrates reasonable fit. A rule of thumb for
the CFI and the incremental indexes is that values greater
than roughly 0.90 may indicate reasonably good fit of the
researcher model [45]. GFI 1.0 refers to perfect fit [46].
erefore, a GFI 0.927 indicates reasonably good fit for the
researcher’s model in this study. e AGFI of 0.905 indicates
reasonably good fit for the researcher model. e NNFI
(nonnormed fit index) or Tucker-Lewis Index has been
recommended a value of 0.90 or better for good fit [44, 47].
us, an NNFI 0.938 for this study implies good fit. From
the above goodness-of-fit evaluation, confirmatory factor
Figure 1: eoretical model of the study.
Table 1: Reliability statistics.
Items Cronbach’s alpha based on standardized items
learning 0.856
Students’ attitude 0.819
Dress 0.806
Education Research International 3
analysis for the final measurement model reasonably sup-
ported the model’s fit.
8. Measurement Model
8.1. Structural Equation Model (SEM). A structural model is
fit to the teachers’ dress, students’ attitude, and students’
learning data according to the model structure given in
Figure 1.
ree paths (teachers’ dress to students’ attitude,
teachers’ dress to students’ learning, and students’ attitude to
students’ learning) are found to have significant positive
standardized path coefficients that are not dropped se-
quentially based on Wald test. e goodness-of-fit indices
for the final structure model, shown in the bottom part of
Table 3, suggests a good fit to the data: the small ratio of chi-
square to degree of freedom (<2), great values of GFI, AGFI,
CFI, NFI (>0.9) and RMSEA (<0.05).
e estimation results in Table 4 and Figure 2 indicate
that the three hypotheses, H
(students’ attitude students’
learning), H
(teachers’ dress students’ learning), and H
(teachers’ dress students’ attitude) are strongly sup-
ported, with path coefficients of 0.317, 0.302, and 0.577,
In accordance with the parameter estimates shown in
Table 5, students’ attitude is positively and significantly
related to students’ learning (coefficient 0.483, p<0.05), as
this finding proposed in H
. In the same way, as proposed in
and H
teachers’ dress has a positive and significant effect
on students’ learning (coefficient 0.425 p<0.05) and
students’ attitude (coefficient 0.533, p<0.05), respectively.
8.2. e Hypothesized Casual Structure Model. As shown in
Table 5, the regression weight of students’ attitude to stu-
dents’ learning (t4.494; p<0.05), teachers’ dress to stu-
dents’ learning (t4.749; p<0.05), and teachers’ dress to
students’ attitude (t7.739; p<0.05) was found to be sig-
nificant. is indicated that dress had significant direct effect
on both students’ attitude and learning.
9. Discussion
In a very common phenomenon, student and teacher
interacted comparatively more on classrooms. Based on this
ideology, this study generalizes the scenario of learning with
respect to dress via impact on attitude with much care, which
is not contradict the caution of over-generalizing the
classroom effects of dress [3]. In a view point of importance
of dress, this interaction and surrounding factors associated
with it are aiding significant contribution in learning as like
as similarities with the impact of a dress on other profes-
sional settings. Very earlier research of Newhouse [48]
identified the role of dress-based discrimination of per-
ception of students about their teacher. at study also gave
the importance of attire of a teacher which literally sup-
ports the findings of this study. In addition, the findings of
Lang [49] defends positively the impact of the dress of this
e hypotheses were set for this study legibly support
the findings of earlier studies where identified the fact that
more respect goes with the teacher’s appearance by a
formal attire [50]. Prior to this, dress affects the way of a
judgment of the students [51]. Very positively, the attire is
not only an influential fact for the students but also in-
fused the others’ view on institution. at is why the
charm of the dress code is supposed to be a solid-gravity
for the culture of the institution. ough it is surprisingly
forcing toward regulation, dress ultimately displays a
standard view to the outsiders. So, the dress is marked for
qualitatively different stance both for students and out-
siders. In this sense, the competency of the teacher that was
aroused by the clothing had a good sense. Hence, the
uniform should imbue the perceived differences toward
appropriate awareness. Consequently, it can hold the
similar expectation what arises through attire for the de-
velopment of positive attitude which ultimately leads to the
development of a very positive learning paradigm for the
e significant differences for a modest formal or
informal attire either casual or business casual have been
subjected to the opinions and perceptions of the students.
e relatability of the students’ views about the dress of a
teacher or an instructor is somewhat creating a miscon-
ception owing to the situation. It may depend on gender
biasedness of the students or their interpersonal or social
characteristics [39]. Again, it is ideally true where gender
ratio produced more effective learning with contradiction.
So, what is supposed to be true for a particular situation
might not be true for the rest of scenario depending on the
assumption. Nevertheless, the outcome of the similar
study of Martin et al. [52] about cognitive learning also
gauged the similar result in this study. Again, the hy-
pothesis of students’ attitude to students’ learning is also
justified by the scenario of credibility perception of stu-
dents about their teacher which was too relevant to the
findings of weatt and McCroskey [53]. So, these find-
ings profusely support the appearance of the educator role
for creating a scratch into students’ minds. In no doubt,
teachers' wear should copiously dignify the institutional
value with a high degree of decency. As teachers, they
Table 2: Descriptive statistics.
Mean Std. deviation Skewness Kurtosis
Statistic Statistic Statistic Std. error Statistic Std. error
Students’ learning 3.59 0.486 0.074 0.172 0.549 0.342
Students’ attitude 3.69 0.482 0.292 0.172 0.052 0.342
Dress 4.02 0.687 0.525 0.172 0.178 0.342
Descriptive Statistics: the following is the attempt undertaken to justify the result of the study.
4Education Research International
should be a role player of personification before the
students duly on voice, gesture, chastisement, and finally
on outlook.
10. Recommendations
e direction towards the importance of dress should be
under the cognizance of a teacher especially for the classes
may be either as a professional or even appear to be
professional outlook. Seemingly, teaching profession, a
visceral activity, is encompassed on lot of body movement
henceforward, different categories of dress ware were (viz.,
formal, informal or casual) preferred for. With respect to
earlier researches and evidential support, someone’s de-
sirability goes with a dress code for professional.
Depending on the aesthetic look, however, teacher should
dress decently so that students should allow them in all
aspects. Without any doubt, the dress preference of a
teacher for a particular style is considered construal rather
professional. Additionally, the dress of the teacher is
influenced through and matched with age, sex, and status.
Very personally, it should focus on show-up appearance or
lifestyle of a faculty member.
On the other hand, a very positive outlook is quite
necessary owing to the self-respect or even for the working
institution. e way the students accept, the more likely to
engrave very positive attitude toward the personnel. Be-
sides, it is a general belief that the selection of dress has a
visual paradox meaning to wear a very formal dress does
not change a teacher's attitude, or a very tidy outlook
considers very intimated. But the dress reveals one’s in-
tention and inherent aesthetic view. Likewise, some stu-
dents believe that the dress would reflect purity of an
individual for any profession. On that scenario, the dress
should be admirable and adorable. is is not a blasphemy
to reevaluate a teacher by students’ perception that a well-
dressed teacher will be well planned and modest about his
profession. Furthermore, the dress reinforces the existing
power hierarchy of a teacher solely on mind but very
strangely on delivery.
Whatever the scenario, the entrusted role of a teacher
owing to the positional value and responsibility should
concentrate with no exception of standards of conduct and
behavior. It supports to dress look-alike to honor rather
learning for how to set costume perfectly for a profession.
Arguably, the articulation and policy guidelines are not the
solutions for the effective learning or attitudinal change but
relatively affective for upholding the responsibility of the
teacher himself/herself. Hoping to perfection, an institution
can set official dress code or even set guidelines appropriate
wearing for classroom. A good-to-go comfortable wears,
neutral as mix and match, avoid skin revealing dresses, clean
or any dress for a more put-together look should be pref-
erable and suggested for a teaching professional. us,
framing the strict policy for the instructor’s outfit is
somewhat initiatives for discipline against the erring indi-
viduals supposed to be worthwhile if encouraging or related
to individual conduct. In fine, from moral obligation, the
teachers’ active role both in and outside the classroom is
necessarily inspiring toward goal achievement of the
Table 4: Standardized regression weights.
Student’s attitude dress 0.577
Student’s learning student’s attitude 0.317
Student’s learning dress 0.302
Figure 2: Standardized estimates.
Table 5: Summary of hypothesis testing results.
Estimate S.E. C.R. PLabel
Student’s attitude dress 0.533 0.069 7.739 ∗∗∗
Student’s learning
student’s attitude 0.483 0.107 4.494 ∗∗∗
Student’s learning dress 0.425 0.090 4.741 ∗∗∗
Note. S.E. standard error; C.R. critical ratio; p<0.01.
Table 3: Goodness-of-fit results of the study.
Goodness-of-fit statistics Values for smart dress Desired range of values for a good fit
Chi-square test Χ
Degrees of freedom Df 63 0
Chi-square/degrees of freedom ratio Χ
/df 3.478 2 to 5
Goodness-of-fit index GFI 0.927 >0.90
Root mean square error of approximation RMSEA 0.018 <0.08
Incremental fit measures
Adjusted good-of-fit index AGFI 0.905 >0.90
Tucker–Lewis index TLI 0.938 >0.90
Comparative fit index CFI 0.954 >0.95
Normed fit index NFI 0.928 >0.90
Education Research International 5
11. Conclusion
It is obvious from the analysis that dress creates a strong
favorable image into the minds of students by assuming
teachers’ family background, personality, choice, or product
of preferences by viewing his or her clothing, values, and
social status. e research study was conducted to find the
impact of dress on students’ attitude and students’ learning
among the university students in particular and higher
education in general. Research indicates that both dress and
students’ attitude are the important factors to increase
weight on students’ learning. e research can be replicated
in the same manner with a large sample size and more
variety of variables affecting the learning of the students.
Although SEM provides a good fit to the hypothesized
model, future research could use a different design to ex-
amine causal relationships posited by theories, such as to
explore other antecedents on students’ attitude in other
academic institutions and other countries or different global
Data Availability
e data used to support the findings of this study have not
been made available because of confidentiality.
Conflicts of Interest
e author declares that there are no conflicts of interest
regarding the publication of this paper.
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Education Research International 7
... A study by Falemeh et al. (2014) found that teachers' facial expression and eye contact played a fundamental role in learners' learning of language and active class participation. Nonverbal communication influences learners' attitude towards a teacher which in turn influences their level of class participation and finally their performance in the subject (FWF Austrian Science Fund, 2016; Kashem, 2019;Verma & Chandel, 2015). This indicates that teachers' nonverbal communication plays a critical role in teaching and learning. ...
... However, a study by Joseph (2017) also found no statistically significant differences in secondary students' perceptions of their teachers' professional attire. Kashem (2019) found that teachers' dressing had significant and direct effect on both student attitude and learning. He further notes that students give more respect to a teacher who appears in formal attire. ...
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This paper reports the results of a study that investigated secondary school learners’ perceptions of the influence of their science and mathematics teachers’ nonverbal communication on their aspirations to pursue Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) related courses in institutions of higher learning. The study further investigated if there were gender differences in learners’ perceptions. The nonverbal aspects of communication focused on were teachers’ actions in class and their dressing and grooming. A sample of 465 form three secondary school learners was selected using stratified simple random sampling technique, out of whom 221 were female while 244 were male from Nakuru County, Kenya. Data was collected using a secondary school learner’s questionnaire. The reliability of the questionnaire was estimated using Cronbach alpha and yielded a coefficient of 0.88. The findings show that learners’ perceived their teachers’ nonverbal communication moderately influences their aspirations to pursue STEM. However, the perception on the influence of maintaining eye contact when asking and responding to questions and being always clean and neat were high. Therefore, science and mathematics teacher education programs should enhance pre and in service teacher awareness of the effect of their nonverbal behaviour on their learners. The Teachers Service Commission which is the national teacher regulator and employer in Kenya should ensure that the policy guidelines on teachers’ dressing and grooming are straightforwardly interpreted by all teachers and properly enforced.
... As teachers, they should be a role player of personification before the students duly on voice, gesture, chastisement, and finally on outlook. (Kashem, 2019) Kaya naman ang usapin ng kasuotan ay mahalagang bigyan pansin sa kadahilanang maari nitong maapektuhan ang representasyon ng mga baklang guro. Mahalagang isa-isip ang patungkol sa pagiging pormal lalo't higit ay sa espasyo ng edukasyon, kagaya na lamang sa naging resulta ng pag-aaral na sinipi. ...
Kaakibat ng pagiging isang guro ang malaking responsibilidad na umiiral sa lipunan. Modelo para sa mga mag-aaral ang tingin ng karamihan sa mga tulad nila kaya naman naroon ang pag-iingat at pagsasalang-alang sa mga kilos na kanilang ipinapakita. Ngunit, kasabay nang pagbabagong nagaganap sa lipunan ay ang pag-usbong ng mga bagong miyembro sa sistema ng edukasyon—baklang guro. Sa pag-aaral na ito itatampok ang representasyong ipinapakita ng mga baklang guro gamit ang teorya ng gender perfomativity ni Judith Butler, na pumapatungkol sa mga kilos na paulit-ulit (repititive actions) bilang batayan ng gender, at pagbasag sa nakagawiang gender roles sa lipunan. Isinakatuparan ang layuning ito sa pamamagitan nang pakikipanayaman na birtwal sa mga gurong bakla gamit ang tatlong bahagi ng talatanungan; pag-iisip, damdamin at kilos. Batay sa kinalabasan ng pag-aaral, may malaking bahagi ang pagtanggap sa gender ng mga baklang guro sa kanilang pananaw at pakikisalamuha sa ibang indibidwal dahil dala nito ang pag-unawa sa sarili at sa kapwa. Ang pagkakaroon ng karelasyon ng mga gurong bakla ay nagbigay kapanatagan sa kanila na may mga taong handang tumanggap at magmahal sa kanila bagamat kailangan nilang itago dahil sa kahingian ng propesyong kanilang binanggit na dahilan. Sa kabilang banda, lumabas din sa pag-aaral ang malaking papel ng mga katrabaho upang maihantad ang kanilang sariling identidad patungkol sa kasarian. Samantalang ang pagkilos naman nila na ibinatay sa pananamit at pagtuturo ay sumentro sa usapin ng papel ng gender bilang konseptong maaring bumago sa kanilang representasyon. Lumabas sa pag-aaral na mas pinipili pa rin ng mga gurong bakla na magsuot ng mga karaniwang suot ng mga lalaki bilang pagtugon sa propesyong kanilang kinabibilangan, at sa bahagi naman nang pagtuturo lutang ang positibong dala ng kanilang kasarian, dahil sa mga kakabit na katangian ng isang bakla tulad ng pagiging malikhain, masayahin at may malawak na pag-unawa sa mga usaping pang-kasarian na kung saan ay nakadadagdag sa bisa ng isang guro.
... Knapp and Hall (2010) posit that dress can reveal a person's sex, age, occupation and nationality. For example, well formally dressed teachers have been understood to be highly organised, knowledgeable, well-prepared and fair people (Kashem, 2019). It has also been found that young people have interests in trendy outfits and their type of clothing is mainly influenced by things they see in magazines and hip hop videos (Yohanna et al., 2020). ...
A national dress is a reflection of national consciousness towards the nation and its cultural heritage. Instead of simply being functional, a national dress is also a script that exhibits people's identities. This study examines how Zimbabweans identify with the national dress as a facet of achieving national identity. Qualitative research methods and Gramscianism were employed in the study. It is revealed that the majority of Zimbabweans fail to identify with the national dress due to political, cultural and economic reasons. The national dress is perceived as a campaign strategy being used by the state to achieve political expediency and to be seen as champion of moral as well as cultural regeneration. Some participants associate the dress with cultural imperialism and waste of resources. Very few participants take the dress as a positive step towards the decolonisation of cultural spaces and identities. Conclusively, the majority of Zimbabweans find the dress insignificant in their lives and in national identity construction.
... Undeniably, different attire brings different impressions. Hoping to perfection, an institution can set an official dress code or even set guidelines appropriate for wearing for the classroom [15]. ...
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This research sought to explore the factors behind student motivation in the memorization of the Quran. A qualitative study through semi-structured interview with six participants selected from private islamic secondary schools. The findings showed that parents, teachers and the participants themselves influenced student motivation in the memorization of the Quran. The role of parental guidance and advice were the most influential factors leading to motivation among students in memorization of the Quran. Implications of this study, the students themselves and teachers were also sources of motivation to memorize. At the same time, teachers should always assist and help students in their memorization of the Quran. That way, students will feel more confident to continue their memorization. Therefore, this study can be helpful as a reference in lowering the gap on motivation in Quranic memorization. Hence, the researchers believe that this study will be much help for the other researchers to continue and elaborate more on the field of Quranic memorization concerning motivation.
Significant research has been conducted into the preferences of college students for what their course instructors wear while teaching face-to-face university classes. This article focuses on a specific focus within that research: students within a teacher education department of a midsized midwestern state university. The study used a survey to examine student preferences into this topic. Data were gathered using an online survey of 92 teacher education department students in one midwestern state university. The survey asked students to respond to images of men and women in various levels of formal dress: very informal attire, casual attire, business casual attire, and more formal attire. Students were asked to respond on a Likert-type scale about the impact of instructor dress on their own learning, on their perception of the instructor’s competence, and on their attitudes toward the professor’s apparent approachability or friendliness. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. This study suggests that students prefer their instructors to wear business casual attire while teaching. This finding was true for both male and female professors, and the survey results further indicate that business casual dress is best for student learning, for student perception of the instructor’s competence, and for the perceived approachability of the professor by students. The results of this study provide direction for college-level instructors seeking to enhance their overall effectiveness.
Audiences expect music performers to follow tacit dress codes for the concert stage. In classical music performance, audiences favor performers in formal dress over casual dress, but it is unclear what constitutes appropriate formal attire. A perceptual study was designed to test for different interpretations of suitable concert dress. Four female pianists in three contrasting black outfits (long dress, short dress, and suit) were video-recorded performing three musical pieces, and the audio was dubbed throughout for audio consistency. Thirty listener/viewers rated the clips on musicality, technical proficiency, overall performance, and appropriateness of dress. Performances in the long dress were rated significantly higher than in the short dress or suit. The short dress was consistently rated lowest, whereas the suit received more complex responses. Follow-up interviews confirmed listener/viewers’ unconscious bias toward untraditional formal attire and their tendency to objectify the performers. They were unblinded to the purpose of the task and were able to reflect on the tangible implications of concert dress, stage manner, and physical appearance on their evaluations. Future studies should harness the potential for experiential learning, or “learning by doing,” to expand future music professionals’ critical evaluation skills.
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The aim of this study was to find out the difference understanding of physics concepts of the students taught by employing guided inquiry model of learning by direct instruction holistically, high learning motivation, and for low learning motivation. Besides that to analyze the effect of interaction between models of learning with learning motivation to the understanding of student physics concepts at SMAN 18 in Makassar. In order to achieve the aim, research has been done by using treatment by level design, factorial 2 x 2. This study involved four classes. Two classes were taught by using guided inquiry model and the other two used direct instruction. The number of population was 160 students of XI IPA class. The number of samples was 68 students selected by cluster random sampling technique. The data were analyzed by means of two-way ANOVA. The result of the study indicates that holistically there was a difference of physics concept understanding between students taught with guided inquiry model and direct instruction. Furthermore, there was an effect of interaction between learning model with learning motivation to the understanding of physics concepts. There was a difference of understanding the physics concepts of students taught by guided inquiry learning model and direct instruction both for the students having high learning motivation and low learning motivation.
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Drawing from literature on construal-level theory and the psychological consequences of clothing, the current work tested whether wearing formal clothing enhances abstract cognitive processing. Five studies provided evidence supporting this hypothesis. Wearing more formal clothing was associated with higher action identification level (Study 1) and greater category inclusiveness (Study 2). Putting on formal clothing induced greater category inclusiveness (Study 3) and enhanced a global processing advantage (Study 4). The association between clothing formality and abstract processing was mediated by felt power (Study 5). The findings demonstrate that the nature of an everyday and ecologically valid experience, the clothing worn, influences cognition broadly, impacting the processing style that changes how objects, people, and events are construed.
Marketing Research, 4/e takes an application-oriented approach, providing students with the tools and skills necessary to solve business problems and exploit business opportunities. This new edition was written to meet the needs of students through additional coverage of qualitative methods, emphasis on applied research projects as well as cases studies or exercises at the end of the chapters. The text is concise, highly readable and value-priced, yet it delivers the basic knowledge needed for an introductory text. The authors provide the student with an exciting, up-to-date text and an extensive supplement package.
Prior studies suggest that faculty members who are credible are more effective in the classroom in that they are evaluated more highly and their students achieve greater learning. This paper explores how the instructor’s attire impacts his or her perceived credibility, and how the students’ corresponding perception of instructor credibility impacts the students’ self-described behavior. Questionnaires depicting instructors of both genders each wearing three different outfits, including casual, business casual and professional attire, are used to assess business student opinions regarding the academician’s credibility and the students’ resultant effort and learning. The results indicate that faculty members can take comfort in that their level of preparation, knowledge and ability to prepare students for a career do impact their credibility in the eyes of the students, no matter their choice of attire. Instructor credibility, in turn, was found to have a significant positive relationship with all ten student effort and behavior variables that were examined. In particular, credibility had the most impact on the student’s preparation for each class, attentiveness, appreciation for instructor effort, and respect for the instructor. Positive significant relationships were also found between credibility and student evaluations of both the class and the instructor.
A 12-item questionnaire to measure respect for the teacher in a classroom setting was constructed using the method of summated ratings. The questionnaire was completed by 200 junior high school students who were shown either a photo of a teacher in formal dress or a photo of the same teacher in casual dress. Ss expected more respect to be shown to the teacher in formal dress. An item analysis showed differences in expectation to be significant only for those questions that identify deference behavior. (French abstract) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
A questionnaire was administered to 61 people on a university campus to study the influence of clothing style and sex on the formation of first impressions. Analysis showed that clothing style and sex of the subject influenced subjects' perceptions of others, in particular, that subjects rated others wearing similar clothing as themselves more positively and that the ratings of women were less harsh then those of men. Subjects also rated less common clothing styles in the university context more extremely.
This study examined the influence of a female instructor's clothing style on students' perceptions of an instructor's characteristics. Social perception provided the theoretical framework. Formality of clothing style, students' clothing interest, and students' gender were the independent variables. Perception of the instructor's characteristics was the dependent variable. A 25-item questionnaire was administered to 216 college students from three universities. Perceptions of the instructor's characteristics varied significantly with formality of clothing style. The students' clothing interest influenced perceptions to some extent; gender of students did not.