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Mangoes are nutritionally rich subtropical fruits with unique flavour, fragrance, taste and health promoting compounds, making it one among new functional foods. Both peel and pulp contain many bioactive phytochemicals like phenolics, carotenoids, flavonoids, etc., which are proven antioxidants. The present study was carried out to profile these bioactive nutraceuticals in peel and pulp of 12 mango cultivars along with total antioxidant activity and L, a, and b values to identify the most beneficial health promoting cultivars. Total phenolics were estimated using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent, total flavonoids and total carotenoids by spectrophotometric methods and total antioxidant activity by CUPRAC (cupric reducing antioxidant capacity) assay. Colorimetric (L, a, and b) values were taken in a colorimeter. The data indicated significant variations in the contents of all three major phytochemicals in both peel and pulp of mango cultivars, where peel contained more nutraceuticals than pulp. The variation in total antioxidant activity in peel and pulp was also significant among the cultivars. It was noticed that total phenolics and total flavonoids contributed more towards total antioxidant activity as compared to total carotenoids. On the basis of the contents of total phenolics and total flavonoids along with total antioxidant activity, Neelum was found nutritionally richest cultivar followed by Mallika and Amrapali. Being rich in antioxidant principles, ripe mango peel can also be utilised for phenolics extraction through waste management technique and in phyto-pharmaceutical industry.
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28
Present address: 1, 2Scientist (muralidhara.bm@gmail.
com, veena.lgowda@gmail.com), 3Principal Scientist (Anup.
Bhattacharjee@icar.gov.in), 4Director (srajanlko@gmail.com),
ICAR-CISH.
Research Articles
Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences 89 (10): 1580–4, October 2019/Article
Antioxidants in ripe peel and pulp of twelve mango (Mangifera indica) cultivars
B M MURALIDHARA1, G L VEENA2, A K BHATTACHERJEE3 and S RAJAN4
ICAR-Central Institute for Subtropical Horticulture, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh 226 101, India
Received: 07 September 2016; Accepted: 08 August 2019
ABSTRACT
Mangoes are nutritionally rich subtropical fruits with unique avour, fragrance, taste and health
promoting compounds, making it one among new functional foods. Both peel and pulp contain many
bioactive phytochemicals like phenolics, carotenoids, avonoids, etc., which are proven antioxidants.
The present study was carried out to prole these bioactive nutraceuticals in peel and pulp of 12 mango
cultivars along with total antioxidant activity and L, a, and b values to identify the most benecial health
promoting cultivars. Total phenolics were estimated using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent, total avonoids and
total carotenoids by spectrophotometric methods and total antioxidant activity by CUPRAC (cupric
reducing antioxidant capacity) assay. Colorimetric (L, a, and b) values were taken in a colorimeter. The
data indicated signicant variations in the contents of all three major phytochemicals in both peel and pulp
of mango cultivars, where peel contained more nutraceuticals than pulp. The variation in total antioxidant
activity in peel and pulp was also signicant among the cultivars. It was noticed that total phenolics and
total avonoids contributed more towards total antioxidant activity as compared to total carotenoids. On
the basis of the contents of total phenolics and total avonoids along with total antioxidant activity, Neelum
was found nutritionally richest cultivar followed by Mallika and Amrapali. Being rich in antioxidant
principles, ripe mango peel can also be utilised for phenolics extraction through waste management
technique and in phyto-pharmaceutical industry.
Key words: Antioxidants, Mango, L, a, b values, Peel, Pulp
Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is a nutritionally rich
fruit with many health promoting qualities. Mango fruit
(both peel and pulp) contains several bioactive principles,
viz. polyphenols, avonoids, carotenoids and ascorbic
acid having different benecial properties because of their
antioxidant activities (Talcott et al. 2005, Ajila et al. 2007b).
The action of phenolic compounds in fruit has drawn a lot
of attention now-a-days due to their potential in preventing
cancer and heart diseases (Kris-Etherton et al. 2002). These
compounds are water soluble, easily oxidized in biological
medium and act as antioxidants, protecting organisms
against the oxidative stress (Bravo 1998). Flavonoids, a
constituent of phenolic compounds, had been identied as
avonol O-and xanthone C-glycosides from mango (cv.
Tommy Atkins) peels (Schieber et al. 2003). Among the
carotenoid pigments present in fruits, β-carotene provides
the highest vitamin A activity.
Mango is processed into several products like pulp,
puree, nectar, leather, pickles, canned dried slices, etc. to
prolong its availability in the market. During processing,
peel is produced as a major by-product (15–20% of the
fruit) which is not generally utilised for any commercial
purpose and discarded as waste. Interestingly, the peel
fraction of some fruits like pomegranate contains higher
antioxidant phytochemicals (Li et al. 2006). Mango peel
also possesses a number of bioactive compounds like
polyphenols, carotenoids, vitamins (C and E), enzymes and
dietary bre and exhibits good antioxidant properties (Ajila
et al. 2007a). Berardini et al. (2005) have reported that
mango peel contains much higher phenolic compounds than
esh. The literature on evaluation of antioxidant activity and
its corresponding chemicals in popular mango varieties at
edible ripe stage is very scanty. Hence the present study was
carried out with the aim to evaluate the total phenolics, total
avonoids, total carotenoids and total antioxidant activity
in ripe peel and pulp of twelve mango cultivars along with
their L, a, b values to identify the most nutritious cultivar.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The fruits of 12 mango cultivars (Neelum, Bangalora,
Banganpalli, Amrapali, Mallika, Ambika, Arunika, Vanraj,
Kesar, Kensington, Pairi and Lucknow Safeda) were
1581October 2019]
29
ANTIOXIDANTS IN RIPE MANGO PEEL AND PULP
harvested randomly at intermediary ripening stage from
the Institute orchard located at Rehmankhera, Lucknow,
India, during 2015. After washing under running tap water,
the fruits were stored at room temperature (37–40°C) for
uniform ripening. The peel and pulp of ten ripe fruits from
each variety were separated and homogenised. Required
quantity of homogenised peel and pulp samples was taken
separately for the estimation of different biochemical
components using quartering method.
The content of total phenolics in ripe mango peel and
pulp was estimated using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent (Singleton
et al. 1999) at 750 nm in an UV-VIS spectrophotometer
(Labomed Inc., USA). The gallic acid was used to prepare
the standard curve and result was expressed as mg gallic
acid equivalent (GAE)/100 g fresh weight. Total avonoids
concentration was determined colorimetrically according to
the method reported in literature (Dewanto et al. 2002) at
510 nm using quercetin as standard. It was expressed as mg
quercetin equivalent (QE)/100g fresh weight. The analysis of
total carotenoids was conducted with the help of a modied
method of Ranganna (2000) using acetone and petroleum
ether as extraction solvents. The optical density was read
at 452 nm in an UV-VIS spectrophotometer.
The total antioxidant activity was measured by CUPRAC
(cupric reducing antioxidant capacity) assay as suggested
by Apak et al. (2004), which measured the copper (II) ion
reducing ability of polyphenols, vitamin C and vitamin E.
After centrifugation, the absorbance of the supernatant was
read at 450 nm in the UV-VIS spectrophotometer (Decibel,
Delhi, India). The units were expressed in µmol Trolox/g.
The fruit colour is the rst visible quality attribute
assessed by the consumer and is critical determinant in the
acceptance of the fresh fruit (mangoes) prior to consumption.
Therefore, colorimetric values are an important parameter for
fresh ripe fruits. Pulp and peel colour of ripe mango fruits
was estimated in SPH850 spectrophotometer (Colorlite,
Germany) displaying colour in terms of L, a, and b values.
The experimental results were analysed statistically
by using completely randomized design (CRD) with three
replications each for peel and pulp of each cultivar. The
means were compared using WASP (WebAgri Stat Package)
software at 1% level of signicance. Student’s t-test was
used for comparisons of means and calculation of LSD
values at P≤0.01.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The evaluation of bioactive principles like total
phenolics, total avonoids and total carotenoids along with
total antioxidant activity in mango peel and pulp was done
to elucidate contribution of individual phytochemicals group
towards antioxidant activity of fruit. The colorimetric (L, a,
and b) values were estimated to understand the pigmentation
pattern of ripe mango peel and pulp.
Total phenolics in ripe mango peel and pulp: Total
phenolics in different varieties of ripe mango peel ranged
between 278.75–379.17 mg GAE/100g, which is a
signicantly variable range (Table 1). Among the varieties,
Ambika had the highest amount of total phenolics in peel
(379.17 mg GAE/100g) followed by Neelum (357.92 mg
GAE/100g), whereas, Bangalora peel contained the lowest
amount (278.75 mg GAE/100g). In contrast to peel, ripe
mango pulp contained much lower total phenolics with
a variation between 33.61–120.14 mg GAE/100g, which
was also a signicant one. In some varieties like Pairi and
Banganpalli, it was almost 10 times lower in pulp than in
peel (Table 1). Mallika contained the highest amount of total
phenolics (120.14 mg GAE/100g) in pulp closely followed
by Neelum (119.30 mg GAE/100g), while it was lowest in
Pairi (33.61 mg GAE/100g) with second and third lowest
in Banganpalli (38.61 mg GAE/100g) and Vanraj (40.56
mg GAE/100g), respectively. Except Mallika and Neelum,
remaining varieties had 6–10 times lower amount of total
phenolics than in peel. The data indicated that the variation
in total phenolics in ripe mango peel and pulp depended on
the variety. The range of the total phenolics content in 80%
acetone extract of ripe mango peel has been reported between
55–100 mg/g depending on the variety studied (Raspuri and
Badami) (Ajila et al. 2007b). Monaco et al. (2014) have
also reported that peel of Palmer mango contained more
polyphenols than pulp even after sanitization treatment
with chlorinated and ozonated water. Berardini et al. (2005)
have mentioned that mango peel possessed up to 4860 mg/
kg dry matter of total phenolics, while only traces could be
detected in mango esh. The content of total phenolics is
higher in the mango peel than in pulp at any stage of fruit
development as mentioned earlier (Lakshminarayana et al.
1970, Ueda et al. 2000). Higher phenolics content were also
reported in pomegranate and apple peel (24.94 g GAE/100
g and 309 mg GAE/100 g) as compared to their pulp and
esh (Li et al. 2006, Drogoudi et al. 2008). Ribeiro et
al. (2007) have reported that total phenolics content was
variable among the four mango varieties, being highest
in Uba pulp (around 200 mg GAE/100 g) and lowest in
Tommy Atkins pulp (<50 mg GAE/100 g), which is also
evidenced in the present study. The phenolics content was
174 mg GAE/100 g FW in ripe pulp of Ataulfo mango as
reported by Palafox-Carlos et al. (2012).
Total avonoids in peel and pulp of ripe mango fruit:
Table 1 Variability for biochemical components in peel and pulp
of twelve mango cultivars
Variety Total
phenolics
(mg
GAE/100g)*
Total
avonoids
(mg
QE/100g)*
Carot-
enoids
(mg/
100g)*
Total antiox-
idants
(µmol-
Trolox/g)*
Pulp Peel Pulp Peel Pulp Peel Pulp Peel
Neelum 119.30 357.92 9.73 310.07 2.89 5.06 1.04 4.20
Banga-
lora
33.19 278.75 7.00 76.87 1.86 2.90 0.29 1.89
Banga-
npalli
38.61 324.58 9.73 118.80 2.30 2.90 0.62 5.53
Vanraj 40.56 304.58 16.20 199.33 3.80 4.90 0.50 4.29
Amrapali 69.44 335.70 37.07 307.60 10.33 5.78 0.75 3.84
1582 [Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences 89 (10)MURALIDHARA ET AL.
30
Similar to the total phenolics content in all the varieties
under study, the total avonoids content was also found
much lower in mango pulp (10-30 times) than in mango
peel (Table 1). Here also, the variation in the content of total
avonoids among the varieties was highly signicant in both
peel and pulp. In ripe mango peel, the highest avonoids
content (310.07 mg QE/100g) was recorded in Neelum
followed by Ambika (300.93 mg QE/100g). Whereas in ripe
mango pulp, the highest avonoids content was noticed in
Amrapali (37.07mg QE/100g) followed by Mallika (28.13
mg QE/100g). The total avonoids content was recorded
lowest in Bangalora (76.87 and 7.00 mg QE/100g in peel
and pulp, respectively). Total avonoids content was also
noticed signicantly higher in peel of Palmer variety
(484.75 mg mangiferin/100 g) than in pulp (14.16 mg
mangiferin/100 g) (Monaco et al. 2014). Present study
also highlighted the presence of signicantly higher total
avonoids in mango peel than in pulp. Marina and Noriham
(2014) identied catechin, epicatechin and kaempferol as
major avonoids in peel of mango cv. Chokanan. In peel
extract of Tommy Atkins, seven quercetin O-glycosides, one
kaempferol O-glycoside and four xanthone C-glycosides
were identied (Schieber et al. 2003). In esh extract of
ve mango cultivars, mangiferin was identied as major
avonoid along with quercetin 3-O-galactoside and quercetin
3-O-glucoside (Berardini et al. 2005). Shivashankara et al.
(2004) have identied quercetin and catechin as the main
avonoids present in Irwin mango.
Total carotenoids in ripe mango peel and pulp: The
carotenoids contain α-carotene, β-carotene and lycopene,
and among them, β-carotene is the most prevalent one in
mango. The variation in total carotenoids in ripe peel and
pulp of 12 mango cultivars was evenly distributed and pulp
of Amrapali, Kesar and Pairi possessed more carotenoids
than peel of these cultivars. In rest of the cultivars, peel
contained slightly more carotenoids than pulp (Table 1). In
case of ripe mango peel, Ambika (8.96 mg/100g) contained
highest total carotenoids closely followed by Arunika (8.06
mg/100g), both of them are coloured varieties. However,
in case of ripe mango pulp, Amrapali possessed highest
carotenoids (10.33 mg/100g) followed by Kesar (9.60
mg/100g). The lowest amount of total carotenoids was
observed in peel (2.90 mg/100g) and pulp (1.86 mg/100g)
of Bangalora variety which is pale yellow in colour when
ripe. Though it is evenly distributed among varieties, a
signicant variation was noticed in both peel and pulp.
Earlier, total carotenoids content of mango peel powder
was reported highest in Chausa (6.09 mg/100 g), followed
by Dashehari (5.12 mg/100 g) and Fazli (4.80 mg/100 g)
(Nehra and Sharma 2012). The pulp of mango variety Haden
reportedly contained signicantly lower total carotenoids
than the pulp of other three cultivars (Tommy Atkins, Palmer
and Uba), while the content of β-carotene was signicantly
higher in pulp of Uba variety (Ribeiro et al. 2007). The
total carotenoids content in acetone extracts of mango peel
(raw and ripe) varied between 74–436 mg/g in Raspuri and
Badami varieties and more carotenoids have been found in
ripe mango peel as compared to raw mango peel in both the
varieties as reported earlier (Ajila et al. 2007b). The pulp
of Palmer variety also contained more carotenoids than its
peel irrespective of sanitization treatment (Monaco et al.
2014). In fruits of seven Mexican mango cultivars, Ornelas-
Paz et al. (2007) have identied all-trans-β-carotene and
dibutyrates of all-trans-violaxanthin and 9-cis-violaxanthin
as major carotenoid compounds.
Total antioxidant activity in ripe mango peel and
pulp: The variation in total antioxidant activity among
the cultivars followed similar pattern as that of total
phenolics and total avonoids contents, i.e. peel contained
more antioxidant activity than pulp (Table 1). The highest
total antioxidant activity in mango peel was recorded in
Banganpalli (5.53 µmol Trolox/100g) followed by Kesar,
Mallika, Vanraj, Neelum and Arunika (4.35, 4.34, 4.29
and 4.17 µmolTrolox/100g, respectively). In case of ripe
mango pulp, Mallika had the highest total antioxidant
activity (1.28 µmolTrolox/100g) followed by Neelum
(1.04 µmolTrolox/100g). Ripe mango peel contained 3–10
fold higher antioxidant activity compared to ripe mango
pulp depending on cultivars (Table 1). Higher antioxidant
activity in peel than in pulp has also been reported in
case of pomegranate (Li et al. 2006) and apple (Drogoudi
et al. 2008). Among the two mango varieties tested, the
antioxidant activity of Badami ripe peel extract (analyzed
by reducing power and DPPH assay) was found more as
compared to Raspuri ripe peel extract (Ajila et al. 2007b).
Mango peel powder of Chausa (18.10%) showed highest
radical scavenging activity followed by Dashehari (17.32%)
and Fazli (17.02%) (Nehra and Sharma 2012). Marina and
Noriham (2014) have reported that mango peel extract
showed higher antioxidant activity than guava and papaya
peel extracts.
The data indicated that the majority of antioxidant
capacity in mangoes resided with the phenolics contents in
fruit (whether in peel or in pulp). According to the recent
reports, a highly positive relationship existed between
the total phenolics content and antioxidant activity in
many plant species (Chen and Yen 2007), which was
also conrmed in the present study where higher positive
correlation was observed between total phenolics content
and antioxidant activity (R2= 0.799 and R2= 0.008 for
peel and pulp, respectively). Mango varieties containing
higher total phenolics content including total avonoids,
viz. Neelum, Ambika, Banganpalli, Arunika, Mallika and
Kesar in peel showed greater antioxidant activity than
other varieties. Mallika and Neelum contained higher
phenolics in pulp also and so had better antioxidant activity
or health promoting benets in pulp when consumed ripe.
As the avonoids are also part of phenolic compounds, a
positive correlation between total avonoids content and
total antioxidant activity was noticed (R2= 0.293 and R2=
0.185 for pulp and peel, respectively). The antioxidant
capacity of phenolic compounds is determined according
to their chemical structure or due to their interaction with
other antioxidants present in fruit (Palafox-Carlos et al.
1583October 2019]
31
ANTIOXIDANTS IN RIPE MANGO PEEL AND PULP
2012). However, though the relationship between total
carotenoids and total antioxidant activity was positive but
the value was less (R2 = 0.008 and R2= 0.194 for pulp and
peel, respectively) and so it can be concluded that the total
carotenoids contributed to a lesser extent towards antioxidant
activity in ripe mango peel and pulp than total phenolics
and total avonoids.
Colorimetric values of ripe mango peel and pulp:
The data on colorimetric values (L, a, and b) in peel and
pulp of 12 mango varieties is presented in Table 2. ‘L
value is the measurement of shining/luminosity that varies
from zero (black) to 100 (white), positive ‘a’ values are in
the direction of redness and negative ‘a’ values towards
greenness, while positive values of ‘b’ indicate yellowness
and negative values of ‘b’ indicate blueness. All ‘L’, ‘a’
and ‘b’ values in this study were found positive. Ripe peel
of Kesar variety had the highest ‘L (62.04) and second
highest ‘b’ values (38.10) indicating shining yellowness in
colour. Banganpalli peel was also found highly yellowish
in colour when ripe as evidenced by its highest ‘b’ value
(38.42). In ripe peel, ‘a’ value was recorded highest (18.01)
in Arunika followed by Ambika (11.30), which indicated red
and purple colour in varieties. Highest ‘a’ (21.19) and ‘b’
(52.69) values of pulp were noticed in ripe fruits of Kesar
mango, which also contained good amount of carotenoids
(9.60 mg/100g) imparting attractive yellow colour to the
pulp (Table 2). In case of colorimetric values, it has earlier
been mentioned that positive values of ‘a’ and ‘b’ are
attributed to the carotenoids present in mango pulp (Ribeiro
et al. 2007). Ornelas-Paz et al. (2007) have reported that
Ataulfo and Haden mango fruits had the highest ‘a’ values
in esh among the seven Mexican varieties and high ‘a’
values in esh have been correlated with high β-carotene
content. In the present investigation also higher positive
values of ‘a’ and ‘b’ in the pulp of Amrapali and Kesar
might be due to the presence of higher carotenoids in pulp
of these two cultivars.
The present study revealed that all the mango cultivars
contained appreciable amount of phenolics, avonoids and
carotenoids in fruit peel and pulp with marked variation
among the cultivars. Consequently, total antioxidant activity
also varied from cultivar to cultivar in ripe mango peel
and pulp. All mango cultivars have represented a potential
source of natural antioxidants but cultivars Neelum and
Mallika can be considered as very rich source of dietary
antioxidants. Besides these two cultivars, Amrapali, Kesar,
Ambika and Arunika can also be considered nutritious from
health point of view. Ripe mango peel of all the cultivars
possessed higher antioxidant activity than ripe mango
pulp and, therefore, can be utilized for the extraction of
phenolic compounds by appropriate assayas well as in
phyto-pharmaceutical industries.
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peel*
Colorimetric values of
pulp*
L a b L a b
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Bangalora 50.39 2.75 25.28 49.33 9.04 33.98
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Kensington 56.23 2.05 27.41 55.78 9.78 45.24
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Pairi 50.46 0.48 32.73 45.67 12.67 43.00
Lucknow
Safeda
69.47 4.49 45.41 48.21 8.71 35.46
LSD
(P≤0.01)
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* Average of three replications
1584 [Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences 89 (10)
32
MURALIDHARA ET AL.
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... The industries related to fruits produce multiple products like juices and concentrates throughout the year for the food sector, resulting in a large quantity and variety of residues in the form of pulp, peel and seeds (Majerska et al., 2019). These organic wastes generate not only negative impacts on the environment, but also high economic costs for the food processing industries since there is great difficulty in disposing them related to factors such as the high rate of fermentability, compounds that exert their antioxidant activity by the twomechanism described by Vuolo et al. (2019), either by yielding an electron to convert the radical into a cationic radical (SET), or by present a low dissociation energy in the bonds with O H, which allows the radical to remove a hydrogen atom from the structure of the phenolic compound (HAT), biological property that has been previously demonstrated in multiple investigations (Arampath and Dekker, 2019;Muralidhara et al., 2019;Pereira-Farias et al., 2019;Patel and Patel, 2020;Vega-Alvarez et al., 2020) and that has aroused great interest in different industries such as pharmaceutical and food (Virot et al., 2010;Wong-Paz et al., 2017;Putnik et al., 2017), since this biological property can be used to delay food spoilage, and for the prevention and control of chronic diseases such as cancers, diabetes, inflammatory disorders, among others (Zhang et al., 2017). The above, since being antioxidants, phenolic compounds can prevent or delay the oxidative damage of molecules such as sugars, nucleic acids, lipids and proteins (Heleno et al., 2015). ...
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Variation of total polyphenol (TPP) and polyphenol oxidase activity (PPO) was investigated in 'Irwin' mango fruit in various color stages of development: green, purple, purplish red and red. Fruits used in this experiment were cultured in a plastic house. From each sample, six compounds in the skin and four compounds in the flesh were detected as polyphenol by thin-layer chromatography. The TPP content in the skin was 11-29 times higher than that in the flesh at various maturity stages varying during maturation. For PPO activity, much higher levels were detected in the skin and increased during maturation. The activity in the skin was 4-12 times higher than that in the flesh at various stages.
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Scientia Horticulturae j o u r n a l h o m e p a g e : w w w . e l s e v i e r . c o m / l o c a t e / s c i h o r t i Effect of ripeness stage of mango fruit (Mangifera indica L., cv. Ataulfo) on physiological parameters and antioxidant activity a b s t r a c t Many phenolic compounds influence the organoleptic quality of fruits and provide health benefits to con-sumers due to their antioxidant capacity. Since 'Ataulfo' mango has the highest phenolic content among other mango cultivars, the aim of this research was to investigate how the ripening stage affects their total phenolic content and antioxidant activity. Quality parameters, phenolic content and the antioxidant potential measured by DPPH and FRAP, of mango fruits of four ripening stages (RS) were determined. RS1, representing mango with yellow surface area of 0–10%; RS2, 11–40%; RS3, 41–70% and RS4, 71–100% yellow color. The quality parameters were significantly different (P ≤ 0.05) in fruits of different RS, except for firmness and pulp color that were similar in fruits from RS3 and RS4. Mango fruits from RS2 and RS3 accumulated the highest phenol content (174 mg EAG/100 g FW) and antioxidant capacity measured by DPPH (93% inhibition). In general, the antioxidant capacity in fruit from the four stages measured by DPPH and FRAP was similar (8.2 MET/g). In conclusion, RS influences phenolic and flavonoid contents of 'Ataulfo' mango fruit, which was related with the antioxidant capacity of this fruit.
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Publisher Summary This chapter discusses the analysis of total phenols and other oxidation substrates and antioxidants by means of Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Analyses of the Folin-Ciocalteu (FC) type are convenient, simple, and require only common equipment and have produced a large body of comparable data. Under proper conditions, the assay is inclusive of monophenols and gives predictable reactions with the types of phenols found in nature. Because different phenols react to different degrees, expression of the results as a single number—such as milligrams per liter gallic acid equivalence—is necessarily arbitrary. Because the reaction is independent, quantitative, and predictable, analysis of a mixture of phenols can be recalculated in terms of any other standard. The assay measures all compounds readily oxidizable under the reaction conditions and its very inclusiveness allows certain substances to also react that are either not phenols or seldom thought of as phenols (e.g., proteins). Judicious use of the assay—with consideration of potential interferences in particular samples and prior study if necessary—can lead to very informative results. Aggregate analysis of this type is an important supplement to and often more informative than reems of data difficult to summarize from various techniques, such as high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) that separate a large number of individual compounds .The predictable reaction of components in a mixture makes it possible to determine a single reactant by other means and to calculate its contribution to the total FC phenol content. Relative insensitivity of the FC analysis to many adsorbents and precipitants makes differential assay—before and after several different treatments—informative.
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Fresh mangos entering the United States must be subjected to a thermal quarantine treatment to eliminate invasive pests, commonly followed by cold storage to extend shelf-life. Changes in phytochemicals and their resultant antioxidant capacity after such treatments are unknown. These studies evaluated mature, green mangos subjected to a simulated quarantine treatment using hot water immersion at 50°C for 60 min and subsequent storage at 5°C and 20°C against their respective controls. Fruit held at 5°C were transferred to 20°C after 8 d of storage to complete ripening, whereby symptoms of chill injury were observed. Phytochemical, antioxidant capacity, and quality parameters were then assessed every 4 d as the fruit ripened over the next 20 d. Storage temperature during ripening and not the hot water treatment was the major factor contributing to changes in polyphenolic content, with antioxidant capacity unaffected by either postharvest treatments or ripening. Major polyphenolics identified were free gallic acid and 4 gallotannins that collectively increased in concentration by 34% as the fruit ripened, also independent of postharvest and storage treatments. Carotenoid concentrations were highest in hot water-treated fruit stored at 20°C, whereas storage at 5°C initially delayed ripening. Despite appreciable differences in fruit quality during quarantine treatment or low temperature storage, only minor differences in antioxidant phytochemicals were observed.