Conference PaperPDF Available

Study the Effect of Mixing Method for Ferric Nano-Materials on Some Cement Mortar Properties

Authors:
  • Engineering college Almustansiriyah university, Iraq, Baghdad
Conference Paper

Study the Effect of Mixing Method for Ferric Nano-Materials on Some Cement Mortar Properties

Diyala Journal of Engineering Sciences Vol. 12, No. 04, December 2019, pages 09-32 ISSN 1999-8716
DOI: 10.26367/DJES/VOL.12/NO.4/2
eISSN 2616-6909
9
Effect of Dispersion Method for Nano-Materials on
Some Mechanical Properties of Cement Mortar
M. Kamal , HamzaKadhim Mohammed J.
Department of Materials Engineering, College of Engineering, Al-Mustansiriyah University
Abstract
This study was involving the dispersion method of
nano-materials replacement and the interaction with
cement mortar behavior for many mortar samples under
variable curing time ,with constant water to cement ratio
(W/C=0.45) .Some mechanical properties such as
(compressive, flexural strength and hardness tests) was
studied. The main parameters are depending on the small
amount replacement ratio of nano-particle (ZrO2) with
respect to the mass of the cement (OPC) type (I). The
addition of nano-material by replacement on the mixture of
mortar includes (1, 2, 3,4and 5%) with constant W/C ratio
and also the amount of the fine aggregate use is 2.75 from
the amount of cement. The results show that, the strength
of the mortar that consist from colloidal nano materials
give better properties than from both mortar with dry nano-
materials replacement and without nano-materials in all
test, But the nano-Zirconia materials give good properties
up to 2% in all tests compared with control cement mortar.
Keyword: Compressive strength, flexural strength,
nano-ZrO2, Surface hardness
Paper History :(Received :13-11-2017 ;Accepted :14-
8-2018)
Introduction:
Recently nano technology is being used or considered
for using in many applications and it has received
increasing attention in building materials[1]. At present, a
significant number of researches dealing with the use of
nano particles in cement based materials are available in
the literature. However, there is a limited knowledge about
the mechanism by which nano particle affects the flow
properties, setting times, consistency, workability,
rheological, micro structural, mechanical properties etc of
cementitious mixes. Furthermore, the literatures appear to
be contradictory about the influence of nano particles on
the development of such materials
(building materials) [2].As a matter of fact, cement
manufacture is an energy intensive
Process and represents 7% of worldwide energy
consumption and 4% of worldwide industrial CO2
emissions. Therefore, nano-materials when it is used to
enhance the properties can improve durability, structural
efficiency and strength of cementitious materials.
Accordingly, can assist in improving the quality and he
lifetime of the structures. The use of nano-materials with
cement can reduce carbon dioxide emissions associated
with concrete production [3, 4]. However, nano materials
are gaining widespread attention to be used in construction
sector so as to exhibit enhanced performance of materials
in terms of smart functions and sustainable features. The
literature showed that the use of nano-material in
cementitious system is mainly due to the fact that concrete
remains the most complex material and its hydration
mechanism is still not completely understood. Therefore,
investigators and researchers have been focusing on the
substantial scientific background of this essential material
at nano level. Furthermore, continuous efforts have been
done to improve the durability and the sustainability of
concrete, and they have realized significant increment in
mechanical properties of cementitious materials by using
nano-materials [5, 6].
On the other hand, the use of nanoscale industrial
waste-based cement replacements can reduce carbon
dioxide emissions associated with concrete production
[7].The addition of some metal oxide nano-particles to
concretes can both reduce the permeability of concrete to
ions and increase the strength of concrete, thereby
improving durability. The addition of TiO2 nano-particles
[8], Al2O3 nano-particles [9], ZrO2 nano-particles [10],
Fe2O3 nano-particles [11], SiO2 nano-particles [12] and
metal oxide containing nano clays [13] have all been
shown to improve concrete and/or cement mortar
properties. Properties of the cement-based composites
made from the CNTs/CNFs-grown cement/mineral
admixture were presented. Experimentally, Li et al, [14]
studied the mechanical properties of nano-Fe2O3 and nano-
SiO2 cement mortars. The 56-day pore structures of the
cement mortars produced by the addition of silica fume and
nano-SiO2 (NS), nano- Al2O3 (NA) and nano- Fe2O3 (NF)
powders. Basically, singular, binary or ternary
combinations at different proportions of the binder content
were investigated through MIP and BET analysis [15].
Metal oxide nanoparticle addition accelerates reactions
during initial hydration thus strengthening cement
composites. The metal oxide nanoparticles react with
(CaOH) increasing the amount of calcium silicate hydrate
(C-S-H) produced, leading to a more compact
microstructure. By this means not only decreasing
permeability but also improving mechanical properties
[16] such as compressive strength, flexural strength and
abrasion resistance [17]. The flexural strength of a very
thin ferrocement element, by using NSCSC mortar as a
replacement to the normal cement mortar, usually used in
ferrocement elements was examined. The measured results
Diyala Journal of Engineering Sciences Vol. 12, No. 04, December 2019, pages 09-32 ISSN 1999-8716
DOI: 10.26367/DJES/VOL.12/NO.4/2
eISSN 2616-6909
10
showed an increase the flexural strength of a very thin
ferrocement using NSCSC mortar [18]. Zhang and Li [19]
found that the addition of 1% by weight of binder of 15 nm
diameter TiO2 to concrete refined the pore structure and
increased the resistance to chloride penetration by 31%.
Shekari and Razzaghi [20] found that the addition of 1.5%
(by weight of cement-based material) of 1025 nm ZrO2,
TiO2, Al2O3 or Fe3O4 increased the compressive strength
and reduced chloride penetration of the concrete by 20
80% respectively. Through-depth cracks, of course,
severely compromise improvements in impermeability.
Oscar et al. [21] studied the effect of the reagglomeration
process of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNT)
dispersions on the activity of silica nanoparticles at early
ages when they are combined in cement matrixes.
MWCNT/water/superplasticizer dispersions were
produced via sonication and combined with nano silica
particles in the mixing water of the cement samples. The
methods and theories of in situ growth of CNTs/CNFs on
cement/mineral admixture, including chemical vapour
deposition method and microwave irradiating conductive
polymers method, were summarized [22]. The addition of
SiO2 nanoparticles is widely reported to be effective for
strengthening concrete; both normally vibrated concrete
and self-compacting concrete [23].
The aim of this research involve to study the effect of
dispersion methods for nano materials addition to cement
mortar, and how it effects on the some mechanical
properties and durability of cement mortar when nano
material addition by dry and colloidal state.
Experimental Work:
A- Materials:
There are many materials which are used to prepare
specimens these materials consist of cement, fine
aggregate, and water and nano material.
I-Fine aggregate:
Generally, the fine aggregates made of either crushed
stone or natural sand with most
Particles smaller than (5 mm). The general desirable fine-
aggregate grading are depending on the required of work.
The limits of fine-aggregate grading degree according to
ASTM C 33 are generally proportional for general
concretes. The ASTM C 33 limits in regarding to sieve
size. The sand used in this study is according to the
standard specification after its sieved.
Table (2): Sand grading and requirements.
Sieve Size
(mm)
Accumulative
Passing (%)
Accumulative
Passing (%) According to
Limits of I.O.S No.45/1984
4.75
2.36
1.18
0.60
0.30
100
100
87.22
67.85
28.53
90-100
85-100
75-100
60-79
12-40
II -Nano materials:
Two types of nano materials are used. The first type is
nano-zircona particles (ZrO2). It has high purity approach
to (99.9%), the density is74.03 , and particle size rounded
range between
(15 to 20 nanometer). Nano Shell Company is the source
of nano-particles improved from the Arrege Alfrat
Company. The some properties of nano-ZrO2 are shown in
table (1):
Table (1): Zirconium oxide nano-particles (ZrO2) properties
Zirconium oxide nano-particles(ZrO2) certificate analysis
Product
Name
purity
particle size
SSA (m2/g)
Color
BulkDensity(
(g/cm3)
Fe2O3
SiO2
Al2O3
Zirconium
Oxide
99.9%
15-20
160-180
white
2.4
0.02
0.03
0.01
Diyala Journal of Engineering Sciences Vol. 12, No. 04, December 2019, pages 09-32 ISSN 1999-8716
DOI: 10.26367/DJES/VOL.12/NO.4/2
eISSN 2616-6909
11
III- Cement:
In this work the main components in the all mixture
Ordinary Portland Cement (type I) was used. The most
major and minor components of cement used are described
in Table (2). The cement corresponds to the Iraqi
Specification No.5/1984 ordinary Portland cement (type I)
from Al Mass Iraqi cement factory, the test was achieved
in National Centre for Construction Laboratories
(NCCLR) laboratory and research.
Table (2 ): The most major and minor components of ordinary Portland cement (OPC).
Oxides Composition
Oxide content%
Limits of Iraqi
Specification No.5/1984
SiO2
20.26
-
Al2O3
5.50
-
Fe2O3
2.19
-
CaO
61.39
-
MgO
1.99
< 5.00
SO3
2.7
< 2.8
Free CaO
1.12
-
Loss on Ignition
3.2
< 4.00
Insoluble Residue
0.73
< 1.50
Lime Saturation Factor
0.94
0.66-1.02
Table (3): Chemical Main Component, Weight %, for Cement Type (I).
Limits
% by weight of Cement
Formula
Component
55.81
2
CaO.SiO 3
S
3
C
16.04
2
CaO.SiO 2
S
2
C
15%0
10.87
3
O
2
CaO.Al 3
A
3
C
6.66
3
O
2
.Fe
3
O
2
CaO.Al 4
AF
4
C
B- Mortar Preparation (casting and curing):
The mix proportion of the cement mortar was prepared
using (cement: sand ratio) of 1:3 for Iraqi cement standard
(IOS NO.8). The water/cement ratio is (w/c= 0.5). The mix
of cement mortar was done by replacement addition of
nano-materials particles from the weight of cement. In
order to reach complete homogeneity all components were
homogenized by electric mixer. The cement mortars were
molded into 50 mm cubes for compressive strength; the
prism dimensions (40*40*160) mm3 for flexural strength
test and the molds dimensions for surface hardness test was
(20*20*20) mm3. The specimens are remain in the molds
for 24 hours with 100% relative humidity, and then cured
in water for (3, 7, 14,21,28,60 and 91days)
B- Testing methods:
I- Compression Strength test:
The compression strength tests were done on 50 mm
cube specimens using (300KN) compressive machine
(Tecnotest machine device). The rate of loading on the
cubes was 0.5 mm/min. Three samples were tested for
each, and the average strength was recorded.
II-Flexural strength test:
The flexural test machine was achieved by Tinius
Olsen universal material machine device with (100 KN)
load is applied in strength of materials laboratory in
materials engineering department in materials engineering
department/Al-Mustansiriyah
University. The recorded final of the all results obtained
was represented the average of flexural strength from many
Diyala Journal of Engineering Sciences Vol. 12, No. 04, December 2019, pages 09-32 ISSN 1999-8716
DOI: 10.26367/DJES/VOL.12/NO.4/2
eISSN 2616-6909
12
prisms. The dimension of prism was done according to
(ASTM 348-02) [24].
III-Surface Hardness strength test:
HPE II is digitalized for decimal precision and great
usability.. The force can be evenly applied on the specimen
through the help of a patented force grip which by being
the center of the instrument body .Shore hardness tester is
used for non destructive test. The final results of hardness
recorded were the average of the all three result. The test
was achieved according to (ASTM D2240) [25].
D-Results and Discussion:
I-Compressive Results:
The results of compressive strength specimen's tests for
dry and Colloidal nano-materials replacement to cement
mortars are illustrated in figures together for purpose to
show the effect of nano-materials addition on the
compressive strength behavior. The variation of days (3, 7,
14.21,28,60 and 91 days) with compressive strength of
blended mortar for 1% nano-zirconia (ZrO2) replacement
was shown in Fig.(2) with Colloidal nano-particles and
Fig.(3) with dry nano-particles replacement . Figure (2)
illustrate the compressive strength behavior of 1% nano-
zirconia (ZrO2) replacement addition in dry state, the
compressive strength appear few increment in compression
strength with different curing time. Also the compressive
strength is small increase more than control samples with
the same W/C ratio. But, when the loading of nano-
Zirconia (ZrO2) replacement reach to 2% the compressive
strength of mortar with nano addition begin to give better
compressive strength behavior compared with control The
mechanical property (compressive strength) development
at 2% colloidal nano-Zirconia (ZrO2) replacement addition
can be seen in figure(3).basically the enhancement in
compressive strength because the packing effect of filling
the voids that create during the hydration reactions and the
materials become more dense and the compressive strength
increase.
Fig1: Compressive strength without nano-ZrO2 (Control)
0.00 20.00 40.00 60.00 80.00 100.00
Time (Day)
0.00
10.00
20.00
30.00
40.00
50.00
Compressive Strength (MPa)
Diyala Journal of Engineering Sciences Vol. 12, No. 04, December 2019, pages 09-32 ISSN 1999-8716
DOI: 10.26367/DJES/VOL.12/NO.4/2
eISSN 2616-6909
13
Fig2: Compressive strength for 1% nano-ZrO2 (Colloidal)
0.00 20.00 40.00 60.00 80.00 100.00
Time(day)
0.00
10.00
20.00
30.00
40.00
50.00
Compressive Strength (MPa)
0.00 20.00 40.00 60.00 80.00 100.00
Time (day)
0.00
10.00
20.00
30.00
40.00
50.00
Compressive Strength (MPa)
Diyala Journal of Engineering Sciences Vol. 12, No. 04, December 2019, pages 09-32 ISSN 1999-8716
DOI: 10.26367/DJES/VOL.12/NO.4/2
eISSN 2616-6909
14
Fig3: Compressive strength for 1% nano-ZrO2 (Dry)
In samples containing (1%) dry nano-particles the
compressive behaviors illustrate in figure (3) Compressive
strength is small increase more than control samples with
the same W/C ratio. But, when the increase of nano-
Zirconia (ZrO2) replacement reach to 2% the compressive
strength of mortar with nano addition begin to give better
compressive strength behavior compared with control
samples but less than colloidal nano-Zirconia (ZrO2)
replacement because of the different in the dispersion state
of particles in the cement mortar mixture and the
agglomeration of nano-particles voids are be formed.
With 2% nano-zirconia replacement the compressive
strength increases with curing time increase at constant
W/C and the compressive strength properties has improved
than the control cement mortar at different curing time
these behavior was show in figures (3) and (4) for both
Colloidal and dry nano-particles replacement respectively.
When nano-Zirconia loading is more the amount of
Colloidal compressive strength is increasing more than dry
nano-particles replacement. With more percentage of
nano-Zirconia particles up to 2% The mechanism of
colloidal zirconia-nano-particles effect shown in figure (4),
these are described that more Zirconia nano-particles
additive in colloidal state has good dispersion of nano-
particles and the mixture of cement mortar become more
homogenized and also reduces both the size and amounts
of Ca(OH)2 crystals and then the voids are fill in the (C-S-
H) gel structure. The structures of hydrated becomes
denser and compact. Basically the enhancement in
compressive strength because the packing effect of filling
the voids that create during the hydration reactions
Ca(OH)2 consumption by integrated reactions, and the
materials become denser and the compressive strength
increase. In samples containing (1%) dry nano-particles the
compressive behaviors illustrate in figure (3) Compressive
strength is small increase more than control samples with
the same W/C ratio. But, when the loading of nano-
Zirconia (ZrO2) replacement reach to 2% was illustrate in
fig. (5) , the compressive strength of mortar with nano
addition begin to give better compressive strength behavior
compared with control samples but less than colloidal
nano-Zirconia (ZrO2) replacement because of the different
in the mechanism dispersion method of nano-particles in
the cement mortar mixture and the agglomeration of nano-
particles voids are be formed in the dry state.
Fig.4: Compressive strength for 2% nano-ZrO2 (Colloidal)
0.00 20.00 40.00 60.00 80.00 100.00
Time (day)
0.00
10.00
20.00
30.00
40.00
50.00
Compressive Strength (MPa)
Diyala Journal of Engineering Sciences Vol. 12, No. 04, December 2019, pages 09-32 ISSN 1999-8716
DOI: 10.26367/DJES/VOL.12/NO.4/2
eISSN 2616-6909
15
Fig.5: Compressive strength for 2% nano-ZrO2 (dry)
When nano-particles are more added to the mortar it is not
uniformly distributed in cement mortar and due to
agglomeration, weak zone appear in the cement mortar.
Fig. (6and 7) illustrate the compressive strength
behavior of 3% colloidal and dry nano-Zirconia (ZrO2)
replacement respectively.
Fig.6: Compressive strength for 3% nano-ZrO2 (Colloidal)
0.00 20.00 40.00 60.00 80.00 100.00
Time(day)
0.00
10.00
20.00
30.00
40.00
50.00
Compressive Strength (MPa)
0.00 20.00 40.00 60.00 80.00 100.00
Time(day)
0.00
10.00
20.00
30.00
40.00
50.00
Compressive Strength (MPa)
Diyala Journal of Engineering Sciences Vol. 12, No. 04, December 2019, pages 09-32 ISSN 1999-8716
DOI: 10.26367/DJES/VOL.12/NO.4/2
eISSN 2616-6909
16
Fig.7: Compressive strength for 3% nano-ZrO2 (Dry)
The compressive strength appears little increment in
compression strength compare with different curing time
compared with control specimens. In samples containing
(4 and 5%) nano-particles the compressive behaviors
illustrate in figure (8, 9, 10 and 11) because of the
agglomeration of nano-particles voids are formed. When
nano-particles are over added to the mortar it is not
uniformly distributed in cement mortar and due to
agglomeration, weak zone appear in the cement mortar.
0.00 20.00 40.00 60.00 80.00 100.00
Time (day)
0.00
10.00
20.00
30.00
40.00
50.00
Compressive Strength (MPa)
0.00 20.00 40.00 60.00 80.00 100.00
Time(day)
0.00
10.00
20.00
30.00
40.00
50.00
Compressive Strength (MPa)
Diyala Journal of Engineering Sciences Vol. 12, No. 04, December 2019, pages 09-32 ISSN 1999-8716
DOI: 10.26367/DJES/VOL.12/NO.4/2
eISSN 2616-6909
17
Fig.8: Compressive strength for 4% nano-ZrO2 (Colloidal)
Fig.9: Compressive strength for 4% nano-ZrO2 (Dry)
Fig.10: Compressive strength for 5% nano-ZrO2 (Colloidal)
0.00 20.00 40.00 60.00 80.00 100.00
Time (day)
0.00
10.00
20.00
30.00
40.00
50.00
Compressive Strength (MPa)
0.00 20.00 40.00 60.00 80.00 100.00
Time(day)
0.00
10.00
20.00
30.00
40.00
50.00
Compressive Strength (MPa)
Diyala Journal of Engineering Sciences Vol. 12, No. 04, December 2019, pages 09-32 ISSN 1999-8716
DOI: 10.26367/DJES/VOL.12/NO.4/2
eISSN 2616-6909
18
Fig.11: Compressive strength for 5% nano-ZrO2 (Dry)
II-Flexural strength results
Mortar prisms tested in accordance with EN 196-
1which found the flexural strength and then in compared
between control and nano materials addition. Flexural
strength of control mortar and with 1% nano-ZrO2 (dry)
and (Colloidal) mortar, at the first time of curing the nano
ZrO2 mortar slightly more than that reference mortar
(about 2%) with both nano additives. The effect of 1%
nano ZrO2 up to 2% nano ZrO2 (Colloidal) the value of
flexural strength is more than flexural strength in the dry
addition of nano particles in same percentage replacement.
The percentage of (2%) nano particles replacement can
illustrate in figure (13 and 15) respectively for colloidal
state and (14 and 16) respectively for dry dispersion.
0.00 20.00 40.00 60.00 80.00 100.00
Time (day)
0.00
10.00
20.00
30.00
40.00
50.00
Compressive Strength (MPa)
Diyala Journal of Engineering Sciences Vol. 12, No. 04, December 2019, pages 09-32 ISSN 1999-8716
DOI: 10.26367/DJES/VOL.12/NO.4/2
eISSN 2616-6909
19
Fig.12: Flexural strength Without nano-ZrO2 addition (control)
Fig.13: Flexural strength for 1% nano-ZrO2 (Colloidal) addition
0.00 20.00 40.00 60.00 80.00 100.00
Time (day)
0.00
2.00
4.00
6.00
Flextural Strength (MPa)
0.00 20.00 40.00 60.00 80.00 100.00
Time (days)
0.00
2.00
4.00
6.00
Flexural strength (Mpa)
Diyala Journal of Engineering Sciences Vol. 12, No. 04, December 2019, pages 09-32 ISSN 1999-8716
DOI: 10.26367/DJES/VOL.12/NO.4/2
eISSN 2616-6909
20
Fig.14: Flexural strength for 1% nano-ZrO2 (dry) addition
when the proportion of nano addition up to 2% for nano-
ZrO2 (Colloidal) it gives an ideal behavior.the flexural
strength of mortar with nano-ZrO2 improved up to 2% this
influence can be observed in figure (15 and 16) both dry
and colloidal nano-particles replacement respectively. The
better dispersion of the particles during the mixing process
of nano-particles with mortar mixing which was formed
during the hydration process of Portland cement. Which
lead to the specially at early age with nano-ZrO2
(Colloidal) related to the high reactivity and less
agglomeration (up to 2%),
Also that leads to improve the flexural strength by more
generation from (C-S-H) gel and then improve the defects
of dispersion method of (Colloidal) ZrO2 nano-particles. In
addition, ZrO2 nano-particles recovered the particle
packing density of the blended cement, larger pores in the
cement paste. However, for the large amount of nano-ZrO2,
its lead to non-distribution structure and the rapidly formed
hydration products circumference cement grains at early
ages will lead to opposite effect at long ages of hydration
stage. Then with nano-ZrO2 (colloidal) and (dry) loaded
more up to 5% the flexural strength begin decreases but the
amount of flexural strength remains more than control
samples. It is may be due to the fact that the amount of
ZrO2 nano-particles in both cases present in the mixture
was higher than the critical quantity required to combine
with the free lime during the cementing hydration process,
thus leading to drop in the flexural strength as it replaced a
part of the cementing material but did not participated to
its strength. Then the behaviors of flexural strength
decreases when the nano-ZrO2 (Colloidal) and dry
(addition increases up to3, 4 and 5%.this case observed in
figure (17, 18, 19,20,21 and 22% ) respectively.
0.00 20.00 40.00 60.00 80.00 100.00
Time (days)
0.00
2.00
4.00
6.00
Flexural strength (Mpa)
Diyala Journal of Engineering Sciences Vol. 12, No. 04, December 2019, pages 09-32 ISSN 1999-8716
DOI: 10.26367/DJES/VOL.12/NO.4/2
eISSN 2616-6909
21
Fig.15: Flexural strength for 2 % nano-ZrO2 (Colloidal)
Fig.16: Flexural strength for 2% nano-ZrO2 (dry) addition
0.00 20.00 40.00 60.00 80.00 100.00
Time (days)
0.00
2.00
4.00
6.00
Flexural strength (Mpa)
0.00 20.00 40.00 60.00 80.00 100.00
Time (days)
0.00
2.00
4.00
6.00
Flexural strength (Mpa)
Diyala Journal of Engineering Sciences Vol. 12, No. 04, December 2019, pages 09-32 ISSN 1999-8716
DOI: 10.26367/DJES/VOL.12/NO.4/2
eISSN 2616-6909
22
Fig.17: Flexural strength for 3% nano-ZrO2 (Colloidal)
Fig.18: Flexural strength for 3% nano-ZrO2 (dry)
0.00 20.00 40.00 60.00 80.00 100.00
Time (days)
0.00
2.00
4.00
6.00
Flexural strength (Mpa)
0.00 20.00 40.00 60.00 80.00 100.00
Time (days)
0.00
2.00
4.00
6.00
Flexural strength (Mpa)
Diyala Journal of Engineering Sciences Vol. 12, No. 04, December 2019, pages 09-32 ISSN 1999-8716
DOI: 10.26367/DJES/VOL.12/NO.4/2
eISSN 2616-6909
23
Fig.19: Flexural strength for 4 % nano-ZrO2 (Colloidal)
Fig.20: Flexural strength for 4% nano-ZrO2 (dry) addition
0.00 20.00 40.00 60.00 80.00 100.00
Time (days)
0.00
2.00
4.00
6.00
Flexural strength (Mpa)
0.00 20.00 40.00 60.00 80.00 100.00
Time (days)
0.00
2.00
4.00
6.00
Flexural strength (Mpa)
Diyala Journal of Engineering Sciences Vol. 12, No. 04, December 2019, pages 09-32 ISSN 1999-8716
DOI: 10.26367/DJES/VOL.12/NO.4/2
eISSN 2616-6909
24
Fig.21: Flexural strength for 5% nano-ZrO2 (Colloidal)
Fig.22: Flexural strength for 5% nano-ZrO2 (dry)
0.00 20.00 40.00 60.00 80.00 100.00
Time (days)
0.00
2.00
4.00
6.00
Flexural strength (Mpa)
0.00 20.00 40.00 60.00 80.00 100.00
Time (days)
0.00
2.00
4.00
6.00
Flexural strength (Mpa)
Diyala Journal of Engineering Sciences Vol. 12, No. 04, December 2019, pages 09-32 ISSN 1999-8716
DOI: 10.26367/DJES/VOL.12/NO.4/2
eISSN 2616-6909
25
III- Surface Hardness analysis
In this test, samples of mortar were prepared with
suitable scale and then tested. The investigation of
hardness test is concerned with the development of
materials surface. Small samples of cement mortar with
and without nano materials additives tested. Figure (23)
illustrate control surface hardness test and Figure (24)
explain the amount of (1%) nano-ZrO2 (Colloidal)
replacement addition compared with both dry powder and
control specimens. The value of hardness increased for
about up to (2%) at (91 days). With (1%) nano-ZrO2 (dry)
the surface hardness value is increase for about (1%) than
in control ordinary cement mortar, this can be seen in
figure (25), as seen in figures, the nano-ZrO2 (Colloidal)
mortar remain more than both nano ZrO2 (dry) and control
samples.This nano materials makes the mortar more denser
with low in voids.
Fig.23: Surface hardness for (Control) without nano-ZrO2
Fig.24: Surface hardness for (1%) nano-ZrO2 (Colloidal)
0.00 20.00 40.00 60.00 80.00 100.00
Time (days)
0.00
20.00
40.00
60.00
80.00
100.00
Hardness
0.00 20.00 40.00 60.00 80.00 100.00
Time (days)
0.00
20.00
40.00
60.00
80.00
100.00
Hardness
Diyala Journal of Engineering Sciences Vol. 12, No. 04, December 2019, pages 09-32 ISSN 1999-8716
DOI: 10.26367/DJES/VOL.12/NO.4/2
eISSN 2616-6909
26
Fig.25: Surface hardness for 1% nano-ZrO2 (dry)
Increasing in the values of hardness can be seen figures
(26) for (2%) nano-ZrO2 (Colloidal) addition respectively.
When nano-ZrO2 (Colloidal) content was increased to the
cement mortar content up to 2%, the total specific pore
volumes of cement mortar can be decreased and the most
probable pore diameters of mortar shift to smaller pores
and fall in the range of less harmful pores or even harmless
pores, which indicates that the addition of ZrO2 nano-
particles improve the structure of cement mortar. For ((2%)
nano ZrO2 (dry) addition), as seen in figure (27).
With the increase of nano ZrO2 (Colloidal) particles
quantity up to (2%), microstructure was improved
completely and achieved better density. because of the
phenomenon that ZrO2 nano particles and good dispersion
mechanism are characterized by their unique surface
effects, smaller particle size, and higher surface energy
High. The mechanism of the ZrO2 nano particles in
improving the pore structure of cement mortar
Can be attributed to the fact that the nano particles are
uniformly dispersed in cement mortar and each particle is
contained in a cube pattern.Amount of nano ZrO2 particles
as more than (5%) will lead to make the cement mortar
matrix is able to dense in a way that make the permeability
reduction observed clearly. So, the performance of nano
materials (ZrO2) is clearly in the mortar durability case.
This was found in samples containing (nano ZrO2 particles
and because of the agglomeration of nano particles voids
were create. Figures (27) and figure (29) illustrate the
harness behavior at (4 and 5%) nano ZrO2 (Colloidal)
particles addition. Using nano ZrO2 up to (5%) will cause
the hardness behavior to decrease; these can be seen in
figures (26), (28) and (30) represent with (3, 4 and 5%)
nano ZrO2 (dry) replacement addition respectively which
effects on hardness behavior. These nano particles will
cause uniformly distribute in cement mortar and due to
agglomeration, weak zone appears in the cement mortar.
0.00 20.00 40.00 60.00 80.00 100.00
Time (days)
0.00
20.00
40.00
60.00
80.00
100.00
Hardness
Diyala Journal of Engineering Sciences Vol. 12, No. 04, December 2019, pages 09-32 ISSN 1999-8716
DOI: 10.26367/DJES/VOL.12/NO.4/2
eISSN 2616-6909
27
)(Colloidal
2
ZrO-nano )%(2for Surface hardness :Fig.26
Fig.27: Surface hardness for (2%) nano ZrO2 (dry)
0.00 20.00 40.00 60.00 80.00 100.00
Time (days)
0.00
20.00
40.00
60.00
80.00
100.00
Hardness
0.00 20.00 40.00 60.00 80.00 100.00
Time (days)
0.00
20.00
40.00
60.00
80.00
100.00
Hardness
Diyala Journal of Engineering Sciences Vol. 12, No. 04, December 2019, pages 09-32 ISSN 1999-8716
DOI: 10.26367/DJES/VOL.12/NO.4/2
eISSN 2616-6909
28
Fig.28: Surface hardness for (3%) nano-ZrO2 (Colloidal)
Fig.29: Surface hardness for (3%) nano-ZrO2 (dry)
0.00 20.00 40.00 60.00 80.00 100.00
Time (days)
0.00
20.00
40.00
60.00
80.00
100.00
Hardness
0.00 20.00 40.00 60.00 80.00 100.00
Time (days)
0.00
20.00
40.00
60.00
80.00
100.00
Hardness
Diyala Journal of Engineering Sciences Vol. 12, No. 04, December 2019, pages 09-32 ISSN 1999-8716
DOI: 10.26367/DJES/VOL.12/NO.4/2
eISSN 2616-6909
29
Fig.30: Surface hardness for (4%) nano-ZrO2 (Colloidal)
Fig.31: Surface hardness for (4%) nano-ZrO2 (dry)
However, when the particles of nano Zirconia cannot be in
good dispersion, when nano particles content are increases
more than the critical content, the agglomeration of nano
particles will create weakly zones area. Therefore the pores
and The homogeneous structure during hydrating process
can’t be created and also the strength becomes low.
0.00 20.00 40.00 60.00 80.00 100.00
Time (days)
0.00
20.00
40.00
60.00
80.00
100.00
Hardness
0.00 20.00 40.00 60.00 80.00 100.00
Time (days)
0.00
20.00
40.00
60.00
80.00
100.00
Hardness
Diyala Journal of Engineering Sciences Vol. 12, No. 04, December 2019, pages 09-32 ISSN 1999-8716
DOI: 10.26367/DJES/VOL.12/NO.4/2
eISSN 2616-6909
30
Fig.32: Surface hardness for (5%) nano-ZrO2 (Colloidal)
Fig.33: Surface hardness for (5%) nano-ZrO2 (dry)
0.00 20.00 40.00 60.00 80.00 100.00
Time (days)
0.00
20.00
40.00
60.00
80.00
100.00
Hardness
0.00 20.00 40.00 60.00 80.00 100.00
Time (days)
0.00
20.00
40.00
60.00
80.00
100.00
Hardness
Diyala Journal of Engineering Sciences Vol. 12, No. 04, December 2019, pages 09-32 ISSN 1999-8716
DOI: 10.26367/DJES/VOL.12/NO.4/2
eISSN 2616-6909
31
E-Conclusions:
Based on the mechanical properties obtained by the
tests on a reference cement mortar and nano-replacement
mixes containing two types of nano-ZrO2 (dry and
colloidal). In general, the present study showed that there
is an improvement in the mechanical properties of nano
cement mortar as developed in the present work which was
experimentally investigated. This can be attributed to many
factors, like mixing ratio as well as the type of the nano-
materials used. The following conclusions can be drawn
according to the results from the experimental work,
following points can be concluded:
1. The mechanisms of dispersion method of nano-particles
in colloidal state give better dispersion than dry
State, this is contributed to give well homogenize
distribution of nano-particles and preclude the
agglomeration will occur.
2. The Nano-ZrO2 additives to the cement mortar as
replacement by weight of cement can be effect as filler in
order to strengthen the micro structure of cement mortar
also consumed the amount and size of Ca(OH)2 and the
voids of (C-S-H) to be filled then the structure of hydrated
of cement mortar becomes more dense .
3. At all curing ages, Compressive strength of mortar cubes
cast contain nano-ZrO2 (Colloidal) was higher than
containing the same amount of nano-ZrO2 (dry).
4. The improvement in compressive strength was 42%
above reference mortar at 91 days; this compressive
strength enhancement was produced at 2% nano-ZrO2
(Colloidal) replacement.
5. The development of compressive strength was 14% at 91
days above reference mortar; this enhancement in
compressive strength was achieved at 2% nano-ZrO2 (dry)
replacement.
6. Nano-particles improve compressive, flexural strength,
surface hardness of all specimens containing both nano
materials (nano-ZrO2 (Colloidal) and nano-ZrO2 (dry)).
7. As the content of ZrO2 nano-particles is increased up to
2 wt%, the compressive strength, surface hardness and
flexural strength of cement mortar specimens is increased.
This is due to more formation of hydrated products in
presence of ZrO2 nano-particles
REFRENCES
1. Sanchez F. and Sobolev K.," Nano Technology in
concrete "- a review, Constr. Build Mater., 24, 2060-71
(2010).
2. Bjornstrom J., Martinelli A., Matic A., Borjesson L.
and I. Panas, "Accelerating effects of colloidal nano-silica
for beneficial calciumsilicatehydrate formation in
cement" Chemical Physics Letters, 392, 242248 (2004).
3. Hanus, M.J.; and Harris, A.T. "Nanotechnology
innovations for the construction industry". Progress in
Materials Science, 58, 1056-1102, (2013).
4. Pacheco-Torgal, F.; and Jalali, S."Nanotechnology:
Advantages and drawbacks in the field of construction and
building materials", Construction and Building Materials,
25, 582-590, (2011).
5. Singh, L.P.; Karade, S.R.; Bhattacharyya, S.K.; Yousuf,
M.M.; and Ahalawat, S. "Beneficial role of nanosilica in
cement based materials "- A review. Construction and
Building Materials, 47, 1069-1077, (2013).
6. Lebental, B.; Chainais, P.; Chenevier, P.; Chevalier, N.;
Delevoye, E.; and Fabbri, J.M. "Aligned carbon nanotube
based ultrasonic microtransducers for durability
monitoring in civil engineering" Nanotechnology, 22, 395-
501, (2011).
7. Broekhuizen, P.; Broekhuizen, F.; Cornlissen, R.; and
Reijnders, L. "Use of nanomaterials in the European
construction industry and some occupational health
aspects thereof" Journal of Nanoparticle Research, 13,
447-62. (2011).
8. Nazari, A.; and Riahi, S. "TiO2 nanoparticle effects on
physical, thermal and mechanical properties of self-
compacting concrete with ground granulated blast furnace
slag as binder". Energy and Buildings, 43(4), 995-1002.
(2011).
9. Nazari, A.; and Riahi, S. "Improvement compressive
strength of concrete in different curing media by Al2O3
nanoparticles". Material Science and Engineering: A,
528(3), 1183-1191. (2011).
10. Hekari, A.H.; and Razzaghi, M.S. "Influence of nano
particles on durability and mechanical properties of high
performance concrete" Procedia Engineering, 14, 3036-
41, (2011).
11. Li, H.; Xiao, H.G.; and Ou, J. "A study on mechanical
and pressure-sensitive properties of cement mortar with
nanophase materials". Cement and Concrete Research, 34,
435-438, (2004).
12. Senff, L.; Hotza, D.; Lucas, S.; Ferreira, V.M.; and
Labrincha, J.A. "Effect of nano-SiO2 and nano-TiO2
addition on the rheological behavior and the hardened
properties of cement mortars" Material Science and
Engineering: A, 532, 354-356, (2012).
13. Kuo, W.Y.; Huang, J.S.; and Yu, B.Y. "Evaluation of
strengthening through stress relaxation testing of organo-
modified montmorillonite reinforced cement mortars"
Construction and Building Materials, 25, 2771-2776,
(2011).
Diyala Journal of Engineering Sciences Vol. 12, No. 04, December 2019, pages 09-32 ISSN 1999-8716
DOI: 10.26367/DJES/VOL.12/NO.4/2
eISSN 2616-6909
32
14. Xiao, H.; Gang, H.; Jie, Y., and Jinping, O.
"Microstructure of cement mortar with nano-particles"
Composites: Part B, 35, 185-189, (2004).
15. Meral, O.; and Remzi, S. "Pore structure analysis of
hardened cement mortars containing silica fume and
different nano-powders" Construction and Building
Materials, 53, 658-664, (2014).
16. Senff, L.; Hotza; D., Lucas, S.; Ferreira, V.M.; and
Labrincha, J.A. "Effect of nano-SiO2 and nano-TiO2
addition on the rheological behavior and the hardened
properties of cement mortars. Influence of nano particles
on durability and mechanical properties of high
performance concrete" 532, 354-361, (2012).
17. Chen, L.; and Lin, D.F. "Applications of sewage sludge
ash and nano-SiO2 to manufacture tile and construction
material", Construction and Building Materials, 23, 3312-
20, (2009).
18. Al-Rifaie, W.N.; Ahmed, W.K.; and Mohanad, M.O.
"Performance of Ferrocement Using NSCSC Mortar"
NuRER 2012-Proceedings of the 3rd International
Conference on Nuclear & Renewable Energy Resources.
İstanbul, Turkey. (2012).
19. Zhang, M.H.; and Li, H. "Pore structure and chloride
permeability of concrete containing nano-particles for
pavement" Construction and Building Materials, 25, 608-
16,(2011).
20. Shekari, A.H.; and Razzaghi, M.S. "Influence of nano
particles on durability and mechanical properties of high
performance concrete" Procedia Engineering, 14, 3036-
3041, (2011).
21. Oscar, M.; Germán, S.; and Jorge, T. "Effect of the
reagglomeration process of multi-walled carbon
nanotubes dispersions on the early activity of nanosilica in
cement composites" Construction and Building Materials,
54, 550-557, (2014).
22. Shengwei, S.; Xun, Y.; Baoguo, H.; and Jinping, O. "In
situ growth of carbon nanotubes/carbon nanofibers on
cement/mineral admixture particles" A review.
Construction and Building Materials, 49, 835-840, (2013).
23. Jo, B.W.; Kim C.H.; and Lim, J.H. "Characteristics of
cement mortar with nano-SiO2 particles" ACI Materials
Journal, 104, 404-407, (2007).
24. ASTM C 348 02"Standard Test Method for Flexural
Strength of Hydraulic-Cement Mortars" Designation: C
348 02, (2010).
25. ASTM D2240 "Standard test method for rubber
property durometer hardness "book of standard, vol.9,
no.1, (2010).
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Article
Full-text available
Diesel engine is widely used in the different applications of the modern life. Diesel fuel quality is an important indicator of the engine efficiency and exhaust emissions. However, the low cetane number of the commercial diesel resulting from improper refining processes lead to significant reduction in the engine efficiency. Hence, the aim of this study is to use diethyl ether to improve the fuel quality for better engine performance at lower engine emissions. Diethyl ether has been used at 5% percentage with commercial diesel, and the cetane number of the fuel was measured. Engine test was conducted at increasing speed to evaluate the engine performance and emissions. The study results show an improvement in the fuel cetane number from 49 to 51 with 5% diethyl ether. Furthermore, significant increase in engine power by about 10% has been recorded for the whole engine speed with slightly lower specific fuel consumption at low and medium engine speeds. Moreover, noticeable reduction in NOx emissions and CO emissions has been observed compared to commercial diesel. Therefore, it can be concluded that the utilization of diethyl ether as a fuel additive with commercial diesel can be considered for improving engine efficiency and control exhaust emissions.
Article
Full-text available
The influence of Nano particles on mechanical properties and durability of concrete has been investigated. For this purpose, constant content of Nano-ZrO2 (NZ), Nano-Fe3O4 (NF), Nano TiO2 (NT) and Nano-Al2O3 (NA) have been added to concrete mixtures. Mechanical properties have been investigated through the compressive and indirect tensile strength and durability has been investigated through chloride penetration test and concrete permeability. Results of this study showed that Nano particles can be very effective in improvement of both mechanical properties and durability of concrete. Results of this study seem to indicate that the Nano-Al2O3 is most effective nano-particle of examined nano materials in improvement of mechanical properties of high performance concrete.
Article
The amorphous or glassy silica, which is the major component of a pozzolan, reacts with calcium hydroxide formed from calcium silicate hydration. The rate of the pozzolanic reaction is proportional to the amount of surface area available for reaction. Therefore, it is plausible to add nano-SiO 2 particles (NS) to make high-performance concrete. The compressive strengths of cement mortar were evaluated at various water-cementitious material ratios(w/cm) Five different w/cm were used, including 0.23, 0.25, 0.32, 0.35, and 0.48 and four contents of NS, 3, 6, 9, and 12% by weight of cement. The compressive strengths of cement mortar with the addition of silica fume were also evaluated at a w/cm of 0.35 to compare with mortar containing nano-SiO 2 particles and three contents of silica fume were: 5, 10, and 15% by weight of cement. The experimental results show that the compressive strengths of mortars with NS were all higher than those of mortars containing silica fume at 7 and 28 days. It was demonstrated that the nano-particles were more valuable in enhancing strength than silica fume. This paper also analyzes some available examinations to monitor the hydration progress continuously, such as SEM observation, residual quantity test for Ca(OH) 2, and the rate of heat evolution. The results of the examinations indicate that the SiO 2 in nano scale behave not only as a filler to improve the microstructure, but also as an activator to promote pozzolanic reactions.
Article
In this article, the 56-day pore structures of the cement mortars produced by the addition of silica fume and nano-SiO2 (NS), nano-Al2O3 (NA) and nano-Fe2O3 (NE) powders in singular, binary or ternary combinations at 3 different proportions (0.5%, 1.25% and 2.5%) of the binder content were investigated through MIP and BET analyses. The compressive strengths and capillary water absorptions of produced mortars were also determined in order to investigate the effects of changes in pore structure on these properties. As a result, it was found that pore structures of the mortars determined by MIP and BET were influenced by the choice of singular, binary or ternary uses as well as the content of nano-powder(s) added into the mortar. The highest reductions in porosity of mortars and the total volume of mercury intruded were obtained by the use of NA powder at 1.25% for singular, NS + NA powders at 0.5% for binary, and all three powders at 1.25% for the ternary combination. On the other hand, the specific surface area of the mortars were increased the most by the addition of 1.25% of NA, 0.5% of NS + NA and 0.5% of NS + NA + Among the 22 mortar groups produced within the scope of this study, NA content of 1.25% yielded the best results on the properties measured by MIP and BET (total volume of mercury intruded, porosity and specific surface area) as well as the pore-size distributions. The reduction in pore volume, the pore-size distribution becoming finer and the improvement in physico-mechanical properties of the mortars after the addition of nano-powders could be explained by the filler effect or amount of hydration products of cement. However, the addition of the powders at proportions in excess of 1.25% resulted in an increase in the pore volume of some mortars because of agglomeration.
Article
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and carbon nanofibers (CNFs) are beneficial reinforcement materials for high-performance and multifunctional cement-based composites. However, it is difficult to uniformly disperse CNTs/CNFs in cement-based composite during the composite fabrication process due to CNTs/CNFs aggregation. The in situ growth of CNTs/CNFs on cement/mineral admixture provides a new method to solve this issue. This article summarizes the methods and theories of in situ growth of CNTs/CNFs on cement/mineral admixture, including chemical vapor deposition method and microwave irradiating conductive polymers method. Properties of the cement-based composites made from the CNTs/CNFs-grown cement/mineral admixture are presented. The issues about the in situ growth of CNTs/CNFs on cement/mineral admixture that needed to be further studied are discussed.
Article
This work studies the effect of the reagglomeration process of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNT) dispersions on the activity of silica nanoparticles at early ages when they are combined in cement matrixes. MWCNT/water/superplasticizer dispersions were produced via sonication and combined with nanosilica particles in the mixing water of the cement samples. X-ray diffraction, isothermal calorimetry, thermogravimetric and mechanical strength analysis were carried out to identify variations in the hydration reaction induced by the combination of these nanoparticles. It was found that the early activity of the nanosilica (NS) is accelerated, decelerated or completely inhibited by the reagglomeration process of the MWCNT dispersions, depending on MWCNT and Ca(OH)(2) amounts in the media.
Article
A broad range of challenges faced by the construction industry, ranging from the performance of the materials to environmental and safety issues, relate to materials and their properties. Recent developments in various areas of nanotechnology show significant promise in addressing many of these challenges. Research and developments have demonstrated that the application of nanotechnology can improve the performance of traditional construction materials, such as concrete and steel. Noteworthy improvements in concrete strength, durability and sustainability are being achieved with considered use of metal/metal oxide nanoparticles and engineered nanoparticles (carbon nanotubes and carbon nanofibres), and environment-responsive anticorrosion coatings formed using nanoencapsulation techniques are showing promise in laboratory settings. Developments in nanotechnology are also improving the accuracy and commercial viability of sensor-based structural health monitoring; a task rapidly gaining importance as the structures that comprise many countries’ most expensive investments near the end of their design life. As energy usage worldwide continues to grow, a focus on the potential for nanotechnology developments to reduce energy consumption has become evident. Research demonstrates that nanotechnology can contribute to novel cooling systems, and improve the functionality of solar cells and insulation. A range of nanomaterials are also being used to add new functionalities, such as self-cleaning properties, to traditional construction industry products, for example paint and cement. First generation products are available on the market and further advances are evident in the academic literature.
Article
Pore structure and chloride permeability of concrete containing nano-particles (TiO2 and SiO2) for pavement are experimentally studied and compared with that of plain concrete, concrete containing polypropylene (PP) fibers and concrete containing both nano-TiO2 and PP fibers. The test results indicate that the addition of nano-particles refines the pore structure of concrete and enhances the resistance to chloride penetration of concrete. The refined extent of pore structure and the enhanced extent of the resistance to chloride penetration of concrete are increased with the decreasing content of nano-particles. The pore structure and the resistance to chloride penetration of concrete containing nano-TiO2 are superior to that of concrete containing the same amount of nano-SiO2. However, for the concrete containing PP fibers, the pore structure is coarsened and the resistance to chloride penetration is reduced. The larger the content of PP fibers, the coarser the pore structure of concrete, and the lower the resistance to chloride penetration. For the concrete containing both nano-TiO2 and PP fibers, the pore structure is coarser and the resistance to chloride penetration is lower than that of concrete containing the same amount of PP fibers only. A hyperbolic relationship between chloride permeability and compressive strength of concrete is exhibited. There is an obvious linear relationship between chloride permeability and pore structure of concrete.
Article
It is demonstrated that the addition of organo-modified montmorillonite (OMMT) particles to cement mortars can enhance their microstructure as well as mechanical properties. A series of static compression and stress relaxation tests on cement mortars reinforced with various dosages of OMMT particles under different temperatures and imposed strains were conducted. The consistency of the test results, including pore size distributions obtained from mercury intrusion porosimetry measurements and activation energies determined from stress relaxation tests, reinforces the positive effects observed on the initial elastic modulus, compressive strength and strain exponent of cement mortars. It appears that an important step has been achieved in assessing the benefits of using organo-clays in concrete. Accordingly, the adequate dosage of OMMT particles introduced in cement mortars to give a higher elastic modulus, compressive strength and activation energy of stress relaxation is proposed here.