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Traditionally, Strobilanthes crispus is well-known for the treatment of renal diseases. The aim of the present study was to validate the traditional uses of S. crispus by evaluating its anti-urolithiatic activities in vitro. The inhibitory activity against calcium oxalate (CaOx) via aggregation assay and dissolution using titrimetric method were evaluated. The effects of S. crispus and cystone on slope of nucleation and aggregation as well as CaOx crystal growth were evaluated spectrophotometrically. S. crispus was extracted using n-hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol and water. Methanol (5.92 %) yielded the highest percentage of extract and also showed the highest inhibitory activity against aggregation of CaOx crystals (50.54 ± 2.11 %). Ethyl acetate extract had the most effective dissolution effect on CaOx crystals (52.50 ± 2.50 %). S. crispus significantly (p< 0.05) inhibited the slope of nucleation and aggregation of CaOx crystal and reduced crystal density. The present study validated the traditional uses of S. crispus, which was found to show significant anti-urolithiatic activities. However, further studies are recommended for the isolation and identification of active constituents and their in-vivo analysis.
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Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment_____________________________________Vol. 24 (1) January (2020)
Res. J. Chem. Environ.
117
In vitro evaluation of anti-urolithiatic properties of
Strobilanthes crispus extracted using different solvents
Muhammad Tayyab Gul1,2, Ali Sami Dheyab3, Ekremah Kheun Shaker4, Norhayati Muhammad1,5*
and Aslia Natasha Pauzi1
1. Faculty of Applied Sciences and Technology, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM), Pagoh Educational Hub, KM 1, Jalan Panchor, 84600
Muar, Johor, MALAYSIA
2. Department of Chemical and Life Sciences, Qurtuba University of Science and IT Peshawar, PAKISTAN
3. Department of Medical Laboratory Techniques, Al Maarif University College, Alanbar, IRAQ
4. Al-Rasheed University College, Medical Laboratory Technique, Hay Al-Hussain, Baghdad, IRAQ
5. Centre of Research for Sustainable Uses of Natural Resources (CoR-SUNR), Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM), Parit Raja, 86400 Batu
Pahat, Johor, MALAYSIA
*norhayatim@uthm.edu.my
Abstract
Traditionally, Strobilanthes crispus is well-known for
the treatment of renal diseases. The aim of the present
study was to validate the traditional uses of S. crispus
by evaluating its anti-urolithiatic activities in vitro.
The inhibitory activity against calcium oxalate (CaOx)
via aggregation assay and dissolution using titrimetric
method were evaluated. The effects of S. crispus and
cystone on slope of nucleation and aggregation as well
as CaOx crystal growth were evaluated
spectrophotometrically. S. crispus was extracted using
n-hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol and water.
Methanol (5.92 %) yielded the highest percentage of
extract and also showed the highest inhibitory activity
against aggregation of CaOx crystals (50.54 ± 2.11 %).
Ethyl acetate extract had the most effective dissolution
effect on CaOx crystals (52.50 ± 2.50 %). S. crispus
significantly (p< 0.05) inhibited the slope of nucleation
and aggregation of CaOx crystal and reduced crystal
density. The present study validated the traditional uses
of S. crispus, which was found to show significant anti-
urolithiatic activities. However, further studies are
recommended for the isolation and identification of
active constituents and their in-vivo analysis.
Keywords: Aggregation, Crystallization, Dissolution,
Inhibition, Strobilanthes crispus, in vitro anti-urolithiatic.
Introduction
Urolithiasis is caused by the accumulation of inorganic salts
(such as calcium, oxalate, phosphorus and ammonia) or
organic salts (such as uric acid)14. Kidney stone formation
has multifactorial causes including diet, genetics and
environment9. Relatively small crystals adhere to the
urothelial lining surface and then increase in size13.
In Malaysia and elsewhere in the world, numerous
treatments have been evaluated for urolithiasis, which recurs
within five years (50%). No recommended treatment can
prevent recurrences21. The currently available clinical
treatment for nephrolithiasis is either expensive or is
associated with side effects. Invasive nephrolithiasis
treatment procedures can cause serious complications and
also impose a financial burden on the health care system18.
In Malaysia, medicinal plants have played a prominent role
in the treatment of various diseases. Plants provide a cheap
source of drugs for the majority of world’s population. Data
from in vitro, in vivo and clinical studies show that
phytotherapeutic agents can be used as an alternative or an
adjunctive therapy for urolithiasis management1.
Strobilanthes crispus is a well-known medicinal herb in
Malaysia locally known as Pecah beling and yellow
strobilanthus in English. This plant belongs to the
Acanthaceae family12. The leaves are boiled and had tea or
mixed with other herbs. It is used as a folk medicine in
Malaysia to treat constipation, diabetes and urolithiasis and
to promote diuresis8. This is because this plant has many
calcium carbonate cystoliths and an infusion is slightly
alkaline. A high content of calcium carbonate makes this
plant's boiled water slightly alkaline; this water can be used
as a diuretic20. This plant's pharmaceutical activity is linked
to its phytochemical content.
In S. crispus, various phytochemical groups and components
have been identified such as flavonoids, phenolic acids,
alkaloids and ester glycosides3. Phenolic acids identified in
the ethanol extracts of dried leaves of S. crispus included p-
hydroxybenzoic acid, p-coumaric acid, caffeic acid, vanillic
acid, gentinic acid, ferulic acid and syringic acid.
Additionally, alkaloids such as caffeine and tannin are also
present17. Environmental conditions have a significant effect
on the phytochemical content and composition24. Therefore,
in the present study, different solvents were used for
extraction and the anti-urolithiatic properties of the various
extracts were evaluated.
Material and Methods
Sample collection: Fresh leaves of Strobilanthes crispus
were purchased from supplier Seri Subah, Agrofarm, Negeri
Sembilan, Malaysia, authenticated by Dr. Ab Rasip Bin Ab
Ghani, Senior Research Officer Forest Research Institute
Malaysia, Kepong 52109 Kuala Lumpur. A plant specimen
was submitted to UTHM herbarium with voucher number
(NYM-03-0008) for future reference. Plant samples were
shade dried (25±3 °C) and then ground.
Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment_____________________________________Vol. 24 (1) January (2020)
Res. J. Chem. Environ.
118
Sample preparation: The ground plant samples were kept
at room temperature and in a dry place protected from
moisture. The moisture content of the samples was measured
and maintained consistently4. Cystone was used as a positive
control while distilled water was used as a negative control.
Extraction process: Extraction was performed as described
previously with slight modifications11. The plant samples
were extracted via maceration using non-polar solvents (n-
hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol) and polar solvents (water).
The experiment was carried out in triplicate. The following
equation was used to calculate extraction yield:
Total extract yield, Y (%) =Total mass of extraction
Total mass of sample x 100
Phytochemical analysis of plant samples: Phytochemical
analysis was performed as described previously30. The
concentration of all extracts used in these assays was 1
mg/ml.
Evaluation of anti-urolithiatic properties (In-vitro)
Inhibition activity of plant extracts against calcium
oxalate (CaOx) crystals by aggregation assay: The
aggregation assay was performed following a previously
described method with slight modifications15. In addition,
the rates of inhibition of CaOx aggregation by the extracts
were compared with those of the standard drug, cystone.
CaOx crystal solution was prepared by using 10mM calcium
chloride dihydrate and 1.0mM sodium oxalate containing
200 mM NaCl and 10 mM sodium acetate trihydrate. All
tests were conducted at 37°C at 5.7 pH. For crystallization
of CaOx, 25 ml of CaOx solution was transferred to a beaker
and stirred on a hot plate using a magnetic stirrer.
Then, 1 ml of plant extract (1 mg/ml), cystone (1 mg/ml) or
distilled water was added. The addition of 25 ml of
sodium oxalate solution immediately caused the solution to
become turbid. The turbidity formed was measured in terms
of absorbance at 620 nm using UV-Vis spectrophotometer
(U-3900H HITACHI) continuously for 10 min after the
mixing of the chemicals. In fact, the turbidity of the solution
increased indicating nucleation and then decreased after
some time, which indicates aggregation. This experiment
was performed in triplicate. The percentage inhibition rate
of CaOx aggregation was calculated as follows:27
Inhibition % = [1- (Si/Sc)] x 100
where Sc= slope of aggregation without inhibitor (negative
control) and Si= slope of aggregation in the presence of
inhibitor (positive control/ plant extracts).
Estimation of CaOx by titrimetric method: CaOx (10mg)
and plant extract or cystone (100mg) were weighed, packed
together in a semi permeable membrane and carefully
sutured. Then, extract was allowed to suspend in a conical
flask containing 100ml of 0.1M tris buffer. The conical
flasks were kept at room temperature for 7 to 8 h. The
remaining content in the semipermeable membrane
was transferred into a beaker. Next, 1N sulfuric acid (2ml)
was added and titrated with KMnO4 until a light
pink color appeared27. Consequently, 1 ml of 0.9494 N
KMnO4 was equivalent to 0.1898 mg of calcium.
% dissolved of calcium = [(C-T)/C] x 100
where C = precipitate of CaOx remained in control (mg) and
T = precipitate of CaOx remained when test solution was
used (mg).
Statistical analysis: All the experiments were conducted in
triplicate and the data are presented as mean values and
standard deviation. One-way ANOVA was applied on data
using IBM SPSS Statistics software (Version 20.0, USA)
and the level of significance was kept at p< 0.05.
Results and Discussion
Extraction yield: Extraction process is the step prior to
analyzing phytochemical compounds and anti-urolithiatic
properties of samples. Hence, the effect of solvents and
extraction method was studied in terms of extraction yield as
shown in table 1. The solvents were selected based on their
polarities. Polarity of a solvent plays a considerable role in
the extraction process2.
Extraction with methanol led to highest yield (5.92 %)
followed by ethyl acetate (1.80 %), water (1.10 %) and lastly
n-hexane (0.90 %). This result was similar to that of previous
studies wherein the authors reported methanol to be the best
extraction solvent for Calophyllum inophyllum leaf extract29
and grape pomace22. Similar findings have been observed in
other where n-hexane extract was found to be the least
effective extraction solvent for Arisaema jacquemontii.
Phytochemical components associated with anti-
urolithiatic properties of plant extracts: Phytochemical
screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, steroids,
terpenoids, tannins and saponins in all extracted samples.
The amount of detectable phytochemical in each extract is
summarized in table 2.
In the methanolic extract, steroids and terpenoids were
detected in good amount, whereas in the n-hexane extract,
neither were detected. The number of detectable
phytochemicals in every solvent extract is different. This
might be because solvents of different polarities could
selectively extract different types of phytochemicals6,7,25.
Different types of phytochemicals that are present in each
extract might have some positive contribution to the anti-
urolithiatic effect against CaOx crystals either in terms of
inhibition or dissolution properties. Similar findings have
been observed in another study27 which showed that the anti-
urolithiatic activity of the extract was attributable to the
presence of some bioactive phytochemicals
Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment_____________________________________Vol. 24 (1) January (2020)
Res. J. Chem. Environ.
119
Table 1
Percentage yield of herbal plant extracts
Herbal plant
Type of solvent
Mass of sample
(g)
Mass of extract
(g)
Yields (%)
Strobilanthes crispus
n-Hexane
50
0.45
0.90
Ethyl acetate
50
0.91
1.82
Methanol
50
2.96
5.92
Aqueous
50
0.55
1.10
Table 2
The amount of detectable phytochemical of each solvent
Alkaloid
Steroid
Terpenoid
Tannin
Saponin
+
-
-
+
-
+
+
+
-
-
-
++
++
+
+
-
+
+
+
+
“+” indicates present in trace but detectable amount, “++” indicates phytochemicals in good amount; “–“ absent.
Evaluation of anti-urolithiatic properties (In-vitro)
Inhibitory effect of S. crispus on CaOx crystals: Figure 1
and table 3 show that the methanol extracts of S. crispus
show the highest percentage inhibition of CaOx at 50.54 ±
2.11%. This is due to the presence of various bioactive
compounds including saponins, tannins, terpenoids and
steroids in the extract. Similar types of phytochemicals were
found in the aqueous extract of S. crispus except that the
amount of terpenoid and steroid was quite high. The
difference in inhibition percentage value between methanol
and aqueous extract might be influenced by the amount of
terpenoids and steroids present in the extract. Based on
another study10, the presence of terpenoids was proven to be
useful in the inhibition activity against kidney stone crystals.
Additionally, terpenoids blocked the formation or
precipitation of CaOx, which is similar to the findings of
another study26 that terpenoids have the ability to reduce the
size and area of CaOx formation effectively.
Furthermore, steroids in both extracts also have the potential
to inhibit the rate of CaOx crystallization. This was
confirmed by a previous study on the anti-urolithiatic
activity of the root of Boerhaavia diffusa Linn. which
indicated that steroid could be one of the phytochemicals
that reduces the crystallization of the kidney stone5.
In comparison with methanol and water extract, ethyl acetate
extract showed lower inhibition percentage (23.16±2.11 %),
probably attributable to the low amount of alkaloids,
terpenoids and steroids as compared to that in the other
extracts. Moreover, saponins and tannins are absent in the
ethyl acetate extract. Lastly, the n-hexane extract of S.
crispus possessed the lowest inhibition percentage (14.39 ±
1.6 %). The inhibitory activity of S. crispus extract decreased
with the absence of some phytochemicals such as saponin
and tannin.
Dissolution of CaOx crystals by titrimetric assay: As
shown in figure 2 and table 4, the highest inhibition
percentage (52.50 ± 2.50 %) was noted for the ethyl acetate
extract of S. crispus. This extract with proven anti-
urolithiatic activity was found to contain low amounts of
alkaloids, terpenoids and steroids as secondary metabolites;
however, this amount does not affect the dissolution activity
on CaOx crystals. This was also confirmed in another study19
which reported that crude extracts of Launea procumbens
despite having low amounts of bioactive compounds
potentially dissolved CaOx crystals.
The second highest inhibition percentage was for n-hexane
(45.05 % ± 2.20) followed by aqueous extract (44.50 % ±
1.73) and methanol (36.67 % ± 3.82) extract of S. crispus.
These extracts showed moderate dissolution effects with no
significant difference (p <0.005). Based on phytochemical
screening, aqueous and methanol extracts contained similar
type of phytochemicals including saponins, tannins,
terpenoids and steroids, while the hexane extract only has
alkaloids and tannins.
The difference in percentage between four solvent extracts
of S. crispus for CaOx dissolution might be due to the
presence of alkaloids. Alkaloids help improve the efficiency
of ethyl acetate and hexane extract in the dissolution of
CaOx crystals. Previous studies on Bryophyllum
pinnatumare28, Kalanchoe pinnata, Emblica officinalis,
Bambusa nutans and Cynodon dactylon8 reported that the
medicinal and pharmacological properties including the
anti-urolithiatic properties of this plant were ascribed to the
presence of various phytochemicals including alkaloids.
Similarly, Phaseolus vulgaris seed extract was found to
reduce the size of CaOx monohydrate and dihydrate crystals
which was attributable to the polyphenolics in the extract
including alkaloids23.
Conclusion
The ethyl acetate extract of leaves of S. crispus showed
effective calcium stone inhibition activity as compared to the
Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment_____________________________________Vol. 24 (1) January (2020)
Res. J. Chem. Environ.
120
marketed formulation cystone, whereas the methanol extract
was effective against CaOx dissolution. Additional studies
are needed on ethyl acetate and methanol extract of the
leaves of S. crispus to isolate, purify and characterize
bioactive compounds and to identify their possible in-vivo
mechanism of action.
Table 3
Percentage of inhibition of CaOx aggregation by plant extract and the standard drug cystone.
Herbal plant/ Standard drug
Type of solvent
Inhibition percentage (%)
(Mean ±Standard Deviation)
Cystone
-
92.28 ± 0.61a
Strobilanthes crispus
n-Hexane
14.39 ± 1.61e
Ethyl acetate
23.16 ± 2.11d
Methanol
50.54 ± 2.11b
Aqueous
44.83 ± 2.89c
a, b, c,,, Values designated with different alphabets are significantly different from each other.
Table 4
Percentage of dissolution of CaOx crystals by plant extract and the standard drug cystone.
Herbal plant/ Standard drug
Type of solvent
Dissolution percentage (%)
(Mean ±Standard Deviation)
Cystone
-
73.33 ± 3.82a
Strobilanthes crispus
n-Hexane
45.05 ± 2.20g,h
Ethyl acetate
52.50 ± 2.50e,f,g
Methanol
36.67 ± 3.82h
Aqueous
44.50 ± 1.73g,h
a, b, c,,, Values designated with different alphabets are significantly different from each other.
Fig. 1: CaOx inhibition activity of four solvent extracts
of S. crispus
Fig. 2: CaOx disolution activity of four solvent extracts
of S. crispus.
Acknowledgement
The research is funded by the Ministry of Education
Malaysia under Fundamental Research Grant Scheme
(FRGS) Vot No. 1646 and partially sponsored by Universiti
Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia.
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(Received 22nd January 2019, accepted 28th April 2019)
... This study validated the traditional use of S. crispus, which was found to exhibit significant antiurolithic activity. However, further research is recommended to isolate and identify active constituents and their in-vivo analysis [7]. ...
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... Phytochemical content of leaves and stems of keji beling (Strobilanthes crispus Bl.)Phytochemical screening of the keji beling plant revealed alkaloids, steroids, terpenoids, tannins, and saponins in all extracted samples. Phytochemical compounds detected in each extract are summarized inTable 1above[7]. Species of Strobilanthes of both leaves and stems indicate terpenoids, flavonoids, phytosterols, phenolic compounds, fatty oils, and carbohydrates. Terpenoids and phytosterols are also present in all species of Strobilanthes. ...
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Nowadays, traditional medicine in the form of medicinal plants or herbs is widely used by the community. Treatment with plants that exist in nature and having relatively minor side effects can also be used for an extended period. The purpose of this review article is to seek information on the phytochemical content and pharmacological activity of keji beling plants (Strobilanthes crispus Bl.). This information was searched through the Google Scholar search engine in the last eleven years (2010 – 2021). The results of this information show that vile beling has a chemical content in the form of potassium, sodium, silicate acid, alkaloids, carbohydrates, phenolic, tannins, saponins, flavonoids, polyphenols, terpenoids, and steroids. Pharmacologically keji beling plants have antiurolithic, antidiabetic, antioxidant, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antiobesity, wound healing, anticancer, cytotoxic, and peptic ulcer effects. Thus, it can be concluded that the keji beling plant is one of the plants rich in phytochemical compounds scattered on the stems and leaves. In addition, this plant has benefits for treating a wide variety of diseases. Therefore, keji beling can be developed into potential plants as an herb for various conditions, especially stone urination and antidiabetic.
... The use of the leaf as a mild diuretic [39] can be attributed to the many cystoliths of calcium carbonate in this part of the plant [40], which make an infusion slightly alkaline. Support for the anti-urolithiatic properties of S. crispa and its efficacy against renal colics came from the inhibitory activity of methanolic and ethyl acetate leaf extracts against the aggregation of calcium oxalate crystals and their stimulatory effects on the dissolution of the crystals [41]. The results from a clinical trial with a polyherbal formulation containing S. crispa suggested that it was safe and effective in the treatment of urolithiasis [42]. ...
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The Republic of Suriname (South America) is among the culturally, ethnically, and religiously most diverse countries in the world. Suriname’s population of about 600,000 consists of peoples from all continents including the Javanese who arrived in the country between 1890 and 1939 as indentured laborers to work on sugar cane plantations. After expiration of their five-year contract, some Javanese returned to Indonesia while others migrated to The Netherlands (the former colonial master of both Suriname and Indonesia), but many settled in Suriname. Today, the Javanese community of about 80,000 has been integrated well in Suriname but has preserved many of their traditions and rituals. This holds true for their language, religion, cultural expressions, and forms of entertainment. The Javanese have also maintained their traditional medical practices that are based on Jamu. Jamu has its origin in the Mataram Kingdom era in ancient Java, some 1300 years ago, and is mostly based on a variety of plant species. The many Jamu products are called jamus. The first part of this chapter presents a brief background of Suriname, addresses the history of the Surinamese Javanese as well as some of the religious and cultural expressions of this group, focuses on Jamu, and comprehensively deals with four medicinal plants that are commonly used by the Javanese. The second part of this chapter continues with an equally extensive narrative of six more such plants and concludes with a few remarks on the contribution of Javanese jamus to Suriname’s traditional medicinal pharmacopeia.
... The antiurolithiatic properties of A. nanus could be contributed by the phytochemicals present in the fruit extract. These findings have been proven in the previous study where reported that different types of phytochemicals might have some positive contribution to the antiurolithiatic effect against CaOx crystals either in terms of dissolution or inhibition properties [30] [29]. Aqueous extract of A. nanus fruit was strongly present with terpenoid content while A. comosus only has traces of terpenoids as summarized in Table 2. Previous studies have reported that extracts with high terpenoid content exhibited potent antiurolithiatic properties that prevent CaOx formation [31]. ...
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Phytochemical investigation and urinary tract infection (UTI) treatment of parsley seeds, fennel seeds, and corn silk were studied. The aim of this study was conducted to investigation the best method of extraction on total extract, with preliminary screening of phytochemical compounds of parsley seeds (Petroselinum sativum), fennel seeds (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) and corn silk (Zea mays L.) to treat urinary tract diseases. The parts of each plant were extracted by two different methods, hot method by using distilled water and cold method was done by maceration with 90% ethanol at room temperature. In both methods the extract was dried under reduced pressure by rotary evaporator. Preliminary investigation of phytochemical compounds was done by using alkaline reagent test for flavonoids, foam test for saponins, terpenoids test for terpenoids, fehling's reagent for reducing sugar and Dragendroff's reagent for alkaloids. The qualitative identification was done by TLC. The results showed that the percentage yields of crud extracts by boiling with distilled water were higher than that obtained from cold maceration with 90% ethanol. The percentage of phytochemical components, flavonoids, saponins, reducing sugar, terpenoids and alkaloids of water extracts were higher than that in ethanolic extracts. The effect of extracts in the treatment of UTI displayed that the combination of three plants water extracts were stronger than ethanolic extract. Based on our knowledge this is the first study on the effect of extracts from P. sativum, F. vulgare, and Z. mays in the treatment of UTI. ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺮﻛﺒﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻭﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺨﻴﺺ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﻠﺺ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﻼﺹ‬ ‫ﻁﺮﻳﻘﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﺒﻌﺾ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻤﻮﻧﺒﺎﺗﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺒﺎﺗﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻮﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻬﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﻋﻼﺝ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ‬
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Calophyllum inophyllum has various benefits that can be utilized from root, stem, leaf, until seed. C. inophyllum leaves contain many bioactive compounds, such as xanthone and coumarin which are useful as antioxidant, and inhibitors of enzyme activity from HIV virus. The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of solvent polarity levels on the separation of xanthone and coumarin compounds contained in the crude extract of C. inophyllum leaves. Crude leaves extract was obtained by percolation method. Moreover, Liquid Liquid Extraction (LLE) was used for separating xanthone and coumarin compounds. It was performed by methanol (polar solvent) and hexane (non-polar solvent) with solvent ratio of 1. Methanol concentration in water used were 20%, 50%, 80%, and 100%. Each fraction obtained was tested qualitatively using Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) and quantitatively using Gas Chromatography (GC) to analyze xanthone and coumarin. The best separation result was obtained by using 50% methanol. In this results, coumarin and xanthones were separated in methanol fraction (81.18% recovery) and in hexane fraction (81.91% recovery), respectively.
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Phytochemicals and antioxidants can be found at different levels in medicinal plants that are associated with the use in chronic diseases treatment. The objective of the present study was to investigate the phytochemical and antioxidant properties of Albizia myriophylla, Garcinia opaca var. dumosa, Oxalis barrelieri and Tacca cristata, traditional medicinal plants used in healthcare by aborigines or 'Orang Asli' from Kelantan, Malaysia. The total antioxidant capacity was estimated by ABTS (2,2’ azinobis-(3-ethybenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)), DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical) and FRAP assay. The results showed that the four selected plants had significant differences in their total phenolic content (ranging from 45.92 ± 2.01 to 613.37 ± 8.92 mg GAE/g dry weight), in their total flavonoid content (ranging from 6.03 ± 1.03 to 19.29 ± 2.90 mg CE/g dry weight), in their tannins (ranging from 28.23 ± 7.39 to 64.99 ± 7.27 mg TAE/g dry weight), in their alkaloids (ranging from 0.40 to 3.27%) and in their saponins (ranging from 4.31 to 13.15%). The TEAC values of the extracts ranged from 112.12 ± 3.16 to 237.20 ± 1.55 µmol Trolox/g dry weight, from 8.38 ± 2.09 to 219.36 ± 23.48 µmol Trolox/g dry weight and from 136.83 ± 5.24 to 220.93 ± 48.71 µmol Trolox/g dry weight, for ABTS, DPPH and FRAP respectively. TEAC values determined by ABTS, DPPH and FRAP were well correlated with phenolics, flavonoids and tannins contents. Garcinia opaca demonstrated the highest total phenolics and tannins while Oxalis barrelieri showed the highest total flavonoid and alkaloid compared to other plants studied. Garcinia opaca also had shown the highest antioxidant potential, followed by Oxalis barrelieri. This study had shown that Garcinia opaca var. dumosa and Oxalis barrelieri can be promoted as the source of phenolics antioxidant and radical scavengers.
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Background: An increase in the incidence of kidney stone disease has been reported for all age groups worldwide. To examine this trend, we conducted a nationwide study of the epidemiology of kidney stones in Icelandic children and adolescents over a 30-year period. Methods: Computerized databases of all major hospitals and medical imaging centers in Iceland were searched for International Classification of Diseases and radiologic and surgical procedure codes indicative of kidney stones in patients aged < 18 years, followed by a thorough medical record review. Age-adjusted incidence was calculated for the time intervals 1985-1989, 1990-1994, 1995-1999, 2000-2004, 2005-2009, and 2010-2013. Time trends in stone incidence were assessed by Poisson regression. The prevalence of stone disease for the years 1999-2013 was also determined. Results: Almost all the 190 patients (97%) that we identified had symptomatic stones, and acute flank or abdominal pain and hematuria were the most common presenting features. The total annual incidence of kidney stones increased from 3.7/100,000 in the first 5-year interval to 11.0/100,000 during the years 1995-2004 (p < 0.001) and decreased thereafter to 8.7/100,000 in 2010-2013 (p = 0.63). The incidence rise was highest in girls aged 13-17 years, in whom it rose from 9.8/100,000 in 1985-1989 to 39.2/100,000 in 2010-2013 (p < 0.001), resulting in an overall female predominance in this age group. The mean annual prevalence of stone disease in 1999-2013 was 48/100,000 for boys and 52/100,000 for girls. Conclusion: We found a significant increase in the incidence of childhood kidney stone disease, driven by a dramatic increase of stone frequency in teenage females which is poorly understood and warrants further study.
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Pomace is a winemaking by-product, rich in bioactive compounds which exert various health benefits and are used as dietary supplements, cosmetic ingredients, food colorants and preservatives. Isolation and further utilization of these compounds is an important issue in pomace waste management. Different industries have different requirements for specific classes of compounds and thus, selective extraction methods for isolation of these classes should be developed. In this work, the efficacy of six solvents (80% MeOH, 80% EtOH, EtOAc, acetone, acidified 50% and 80% MeOH) for the extraction of polyphenolic and triterpenoid compounds was examined. Pomaces of different grape varieties from Fruška Gora winery region in Serbia were used for extraction. 47 phenolics and 3 triterpenoids were analyzed by LC-MS/MS and 5 anthocyanin glucosides by LC-UV/ VIS, while contents of total phenols and flavonoids were determined spectrophotometrically in obtained extracts. The most efficient solvent for each class and each compound was defined: EtOAc was the best for obtaining an extract rich in polyphenols, acidified 50% MeOH for isolation of anthocyanins, and acetone for ursolic acid. For industries that work on a large scale and aim at the highest utilization of raw material, 80% MeOH was found to be a solvent of choice, providing the highest yield of all polyphenols. This study confirmed that pomaces from Fruška Gora vineyards are a promising source of bioactive compounds, suggesting that their utilization could be very attractive for pharmaceutical, food and cosmetic industries.