The Journal of Insect Science, Photon 116 (2015) 207-217
Review Article. ISJN: 5738-1758 Impact Index: 5.48
The Journal of Insect Science Ph ton
Neem: An Eco-Friendly Botanical Insecticide in Pest Management
*, B. Vinothkumar
Agricultural College and Research Institute, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Killikulam, Vallanadu,
Thoothukudi District – 628 252, Tamil Nadu, India
Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore – 641 003, Tamil Nadu, India
Received: 04 April, 2014
Accepted: 11 April, 2014
Available online: 04 July 2015
Neem, Botanical Insecticide, Pest Management
Assistant Professor (Agricultural Entomology)
Email: drchezhiyanphd (at ) gmail.com
Assistant Professor (Agricultural Entomology)
Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) is perhaps the
most useful traditional medicinal plant in India. Each
part of the neem tree has huge insecticidal property
and is thus commercially exploitaed. During the last
two decades, apart from the chemistry of the neem
compounds, considerable progress has been
achieved regarding the biological activity and
insecticidal applications of neem. It is now
considered as a valuable source of unique natural
products for botanical insecticides against various
pests. This review gives a bird’s eye view mainly on
the biological activities of some of the neem
compounds isolated, insecticidal actions of the
neem extracts, applications of neem has an eco
friendly botanical insecticide in pest management
along with their safety evaluation.
Elanchezhyan K., Vinothkumar B., 2015. Neem: An Eco-
Friendly Botanical Insecticide in Pest Management.
of Insect Science. Photon 116 (2015), 207-217
All Rights Reserved with Photon.
Photon Ignitor: ISJN57381758D683504072015
In recent years, many insect pests have been
reported to be the major limiting factors affecting
production and productivity of several crops. There
is also a change in the insect pest scenario in
several crops due to changes in crop ecosystem.
Now-a-days, pesticides are being used extensively
in the control of crop pests. Synthetic insecticides
are used widely for the control of various insect
pests. Use of chemical insecticides for controlling
insects has led to several environmental problems,
serious health hazards to human being and animals,
development of resistance to insecticides,
destruction of natural enemies and pesticide
residues. To overcome the problem of synthetic
chemical hazards, one of the best control meausre
is the use of plant products. The popularity of the
plant products are increasing day-by-day, because
of their biodegradability, least persistence and least
toxic to non-target organisms, economic and easy
availability. There are about 1,005 species of plants
exhibiting insecticidal properties, 384 with
antifeedant properties, 297 with repellant
properties, 31 with growth inhibiting properties and
27 with attractant properties (Singh, 1999). So far,
6,000 alkaloids, 4,000 amino acids, 3,000
terpenoids, several thousands of phenylterpenoids,
1,000 flavonoids, 650 polyacetylenes and 500
quinones have been isolated from plants. Many of
them protect the plants from insect pests (Abdul
Botanical pesticides have been traditionally used to
control various economically important insect pests
of agricultural, horticultural and forest crops. Neem
tree is the most researched tree in the world
(Thakkar, 1997) and is said to be the most
promising tree of 21
century. It is widely grown in
Asian countries and in tropical and sub-tropical
areas of Africa, America and Australia. It grows
well even in poor, shallow, degraded and saline
soil. Neem is more commonly used as shade trees,
wind breaks and as a source of firewood than for its
medicinal or insecticidal purposes. The modern
world finds neem as an effective alternative to
chemical pesticides and fertilizers. Neem products
are effective against more than 350 species of
arthropods, 12 species of nematodes, 15 species of
fungi, three viruses, two species of snails and one
Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) (Meliaceae) is
native to the Indian sub-continent and well known
as the ‘Botanical Marvel’, ‘Village Pharmacy’,
‘Wonder Tree’, ‘all-can-treat-tree’ and ‘Gift of
Nature’. Neem has great potential in the fields of
pest management, environmental protection and
medicine. All parts of neem like seed, flower, bark,
and leaf possess insecticidal activity but seed
kernel is the most effective. The products derived
from neem tree act as powerful Insect Growth
Regulators (IGR) and also help in controlling
several nematodes and fungi (Subbalakhmi et al.,
History of Azadirachtin
Warden (1888) was the first to study the chemistry
of neem oil that contains sulphur. Later,
margosonic acid margosopicrin were isolated from
neem oil. Chemical investigations carried out after
1940, yielded the isolation of the major bitter
principle of neem, nimbin in a crystalline form
(Siddiqui, 1942). Later on, other compounds like
nimbinin from bark, nimbosterol from flowers,
nimbocinone from leaves, nimbidin and nimbinin
from oil and aldobiuronic acid from neem gum
were isolated. Azadirachtin is the most potent
locust antifeedant isolated during the year 1968.
Neem possess insecticidal, nematicidal, fungicidal,
bactericidal (Schmutterer, 1995), and molluscicidal
properties (Mehlhorn et al., 2011a). Azadirachtin
has systemic effects in certain crop plants, greatly
enhancing its efficacy and field persistence
Chemical constituents of neem
Neem is a versatile tree containing large number of
chemically and biologically active compounds. At
present, more than 100 triterpenoids have been
isolated from neem. The constituents of neem can
be classified as isoprenoids and other non-
isoprenoid compounds. Isoprenoid compounds
include the diterpenoids and triterpenoids, whereas
the non-isoprenoids includes the phenolics,
carbohydrates, proteins and sulphur compounds.
Among the triterpenoids, bitterness of neem is due
to the presence of azadirachtins, a group of
limnoids. Azadirachtin A was the first member
isolated by Butterworth and Morgan (1968) from
neem seeds. So far, fourteen analogues of
Azadirachtin were reported from neem i.e. from
Azadirachtin A to K, Vepaol, Isovepaol and 11 -
Azadirachtin, a tetranortriterpenoid from A. indica
was reported to be a good insect growth inhibitor of
plant origin (Rembold et al., 1982). It is effective
against nearly 550 insect species (Anuradha and
Annadurai, 2008) and it inhibits feeding and
growth in a wide variety of insect taxa including
Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies), Coleoptera (
beetles and weevils), Diptera (flies), Hymenoptera
(ants and wasps), Hemiptera (aphids, leafhoppers,
whiteflies, bugs), Orthoptera (grasshoppers and
katytids), Dictyoptera (cockroaches and mantids),
Isoptera (termites), Siphonoptera (fleas) and
Thysanoptera (Thrips) (Montal and Montal, 2012).
Neem is also effective against arthropods of
medical and veterinary importance such as flies,
cockroaches, bugs, lice, ticks, fleas and mites
(Mehlhorn et al., 2011a).
Mode of Action
1.1 Acts as an Antifeedant
Antifeedant is defined as a chemical that inhibits
feeding and which does not kill the insect directly;
the insect dies through starvation (Venugopala Rao
et al., 2005). Crude extracts of neem showed most
potent antifeedant activity against pests like
beetles, defoliators and sap feeding insects
(Chandel et al., 1995; Santhosh Babu et al., 1996).
The neem products recorded a high rate of feeding
inhibition against Brevicoryne brassicae (Singh
and Sharma, 1986); Toxoptera aurantia (Subaharan
and Regupathy, 1999); Helopeltis theivora (Deka et
al., 2000). The neem showed antifeedant and
growth inhibiting activity against H. armigera
(Murugan et al., 1998).
1.2 Acts as an Ovipositional Deterrent
The plant products applied in any form i.e. either as
extracts or oils affect egg laying and egg hatching
influencing the production percentage of young
one. The ovipositional deterrency might be mainly
due to the strong odour of the products and ovicidal
activity due to interference with the embryonic
development within the egg (Venugopala Rao et
al., 2005). Repellent activity of neem against
oviposition by lepidopterous pests has been
reported for Earias vittella (Sojitra and Patel,
1992). Neem extracts showed ovicidal action
against Chilo partellus (Bhatnagar and Sharma,
1995); Amrasca devastans (Patel and Patel, 1996)
and Helicoverpa armigera (Jeyakumar and Gupta,
1999). Bomford and Isman (1996) reported
deterrent activity of azadirachtin, in its pure form
and as a constituent of neem seed extract against 5
instar larvae of S. litura. Dutta and Saxena (1997)
reported that Azadirachtin-A was more effective in
causing antifeedancy against S. litura. Significant
increases in larval mortality, antifeedant and
ovipositional repellency were found in reddish
terminal leaves exudates of neem (Kumar et al.,
1.2 Acts as an Insect Growth Regulator (IGR)
Based on the dosage or the insect stage exposed to
neem, it may result in premature death of the insect
or prolongation of larval period coupled with
morphological abnormalities or production of
intermediates in the case of larva, pupa and adults
of the insects. Sometimes at higher concentration, it
could also cause mortality of the pest (Venugopala
Rao et al., 2005). Azadirachtin was reported to be a
good insect growth inhibitor of plant origin
(Rembold et al., 1982). Inhibition of ecdysis in
Rhodnius prolixus due to azadirachtin was
observed (Rembold and Garcia, 1989).Chilo
partellus with NSKE causing 100% mortality 10
days after application (Behera and Satpathy, 1996).
Neem oil cake applied to soil caused reduction or
mortality of white grubs, Lachnosterna burmeisteri
on arecanut up to 36.9% (Padmanabhan et al.,
1997). The botanicals may be applied to soil as
amendments or as a soil drench around the stem to
get protection from infestation of soil pests like
white grubs and termites (Mokabel et al., 2000).
Agricultural Crop Pests
Neem kernel extract was inhibited larval
development of Cnaphalocrocis medinalis
(Schmutterer et al., 1983). Similarly, one per cent
neem oil spray on the rice plant reduced the
incidences of leaffoler (Singh et al., 1990; Mohan
et al., 1991), whereas neem cake amendment in the
soil @ 150 kg/ ha and neem oil spray at 10 days
intervals were found to check the infestation of C.
medinalis (Krishnaiah and Kalode, 1990). Saikia
and Parameswaran (2004) reported that neem based
preparations like NSKE 5% was found to act as an
effective antifeedant in rice against C. medinalis.
When neem was added to the food of rice
leaffolder larvae, their growth and development
was significantly reduced (Nathan et al., 2005).
Neem Seed Kernel Water Extract (NSKWE) spray
adversely affected the growth of brown plant
hopper (BPH) at 5000 ppm dose. NSKE was
reported to show juvenile hormone mimic activity
and reduced population of white backed plant
hopper (WBPH) as reported by David (1986);
Rajasekaran et al. (1987); Mohan and Gopalan
(1990). The superior efficacy of NSKE against
hoppers could also be reduced emergence of BPH
(Ramraju and Sundarababu, 1989). Rajappan et al.
(2000) reported reduced hopper population when
NSKE at 5% was sprayed and affecting the biology
of hoppers (Senthil Nathan et al., 2007). Alice and
Sujeetha (2008) reported higher efficacy of NSKE
at 5% against BPH in rice and noticed less survival,
more developmental period, minimum growth
index and lesser size and weight of adult BPH.
NSKE at 7.5% concentration recorded higher
efficacy against plant hoppers in rice (Venkat
Reddy et al., 2012).
Ear head bug
Neem oil (3%) was found to protect developing
rice grains against ear head bug, Leptocorisa acuta,
(Gupta et al., 1990).
A number of botanicals viz., NSKE and neem oil
(5%) sprays were found to be effective in reducing
the populations of Helicoverpa armigera in
chickpea (Siddappaji et al., 1986; Rao and
Srivastava, 1985; Sinha, 1993), whereas Nemidin -
9, a neem based formulation inhibited the
development of this pest by 70 per cent at 1 g/litre
concentration spray application (Nelson et al.,
1993). Neem leaf extracts were afound to be
ovicidal at 0.5 – 2.0% concentration giving 20 to
74% egg morality of H. armigera on chickpea
(Sharma and Jalan, 1997). Neem leaf extract (Patel,
1998) and NSKE 3% (Desai, 2000) have shown
promising results against Aphis craccivora on
Prabhakar et al. (1994) reported that RD-9,
Repelin, Neemguard and Allitin were effective in
controlling leaf miner in groundnut. Neem leaf
extract at 4% and 6% caused 36.7 and 85.7%
mortality of 5
instar larvae of Amsacta albistriga,
respectively (Sahayaraj and Paulraj, 1998).
Ayyasamy et al. (1999) reported that cent per cent
mortality of A. albistriga was observed in 5 and 7
days when continuously fed with neem oil and
NSKE. Less feeding preference was observed in
Spilosoma obliqua when the diet was fortified with
Azadirachtin (Mandal and Bhattacharya, 2003).
Sesame: NSKE at 5% was most effective in
reducing the population of Bihar hairy caterpillar
on sesame (Nath et al., 2002).
NSKE 2% or its leaf extract 10% recorded a high
rate of feeding inhibition against Achaea janata
(Chari and Muralidharan, 1985). Neemgold 2%
exhibited strong antifeedant activity against third
instar larvae of A. janata (Bhatnagar et al., 1997).
Neem oil extract (NOE) influences the number of
eggs laid by Pericallia ricini on castor and the
hatchability was totally suppressed. NOE also
caused malformations both in pupae and adult of P.
ricini (Mala and Muthalagi, 2007).
Losses due to mustard aphid, Lipaphis erysimi
could be minimized by spraying neem leaf and
neem kernel extracts on mustard crop (Atwal and
Pajni, 1964). Neem oil (1.5 per cent) spray showed
100 per cent mortality to this aphid (Mani et al.,
Dhawan and Simwat (1998) reported that 1.0% aza
was effective against young larvae of bollworm.
Mann et al. (2001a, 2001b) reported that minimum
boll damage was noticed with application of Neem
Azal. Neem Azal, an azadirachtin based botanical
insecticide has significant antifeedant, oviposition
deterrent and ovicidal activity against Spodoptera
litura (F.) (Subramanian, 2004) Application of
NSKE (5%) in reducing the incidence of H.
armigera and damage to fruiting bodies, bolls,
locules and interlocules (Duraimurugan and
Reghupathy, 2005).Mohapatra and Patnaik (2006)
registered lower boll damage with NSKE (5%)
when used as one of the components of IPM
module. Red cotton bug, Dysdercus cingulatus
(Fab.) adults showed highest mortality (75%) at
1.0% concentration of the neem seed kernel (Tanu
Sharme et al., 2010). Extracts of leaves, green
neem seed coat, yellow neem seed coat and neem
seed kernel showed significant lethal effects on the
D. cingulatus. NSKE, Neem Azal and Nimbecidine
were found to be highly effective in reducing the
damage to the cotton bolls (Rudramani et al.,
2011). The lowest larval population of H. armigera
and E. vittella were observed with NSE 5% and
Azadirachtin 1500 ppm (Borkar and Sarode, 2012).
Horticultural crop pests: Vegetables
Neem oil (2%) and NSKE (5%) exhibited
maximum toxicity against eggs, immature active
stages and adults of red spider mites, T.
macfarlanei in brinjal (Roopa and Nandihalli,
NSKE (5%) proved to be more effective against
sucking insects like aphid, A. gossypii Glover
(Mishra and Mishra, 2002 and Mudathir and
Basedow, 2004), leafhopper, Amrasca biguttula
biguttula Ishida (Singh and Manish Kumar, 2003)
and whitefly, Bemisia tabaci Genn. (Basedow et
al., 2002 and Pun et al. 2005) infesting okra.
According to Mudathir and Basedow (2004), the
neem preparation Neem Kernel Water Extract
(NKWE) containing azadirachtin significantly
reduced the attack of okra pests and increased the
yield. Similarly, Pun et al. (2005) reported that the
spraying with NSKE proved most effective in
reducing the load of whitefly population on okra.
Among neem formulations, nimbicidine produced
highest fruit yield with less pod damage (Mandal et
al., 2007). Neem Azal (Azadirachtin 1%) was
effective against Tetranychus urticae on okra
(Kumaran and Douressamy, 2007). Multineem was
more effective against jassid and spotted bollworm
infestation than NSKE in okra (Nazrussalam et al.,
2008). However, Gronim, Neemazal F and
Neemazal T/S proved relatively inferior in
managing the fruit borer incidence (Adilakshmi et
Neem extracts showed ovicidal action as seen in
the case of Plutella xylostella (Loke et al., 1992).
Mohapatra et al. (1995) reported that methanol
extracts of neem seed kernels at 1.0% provided
greatest protection (100%) of the cauliflower
leaves followed by ethanol (98.39%) and aqueous
extract (93.01%) against S. litura. Misra (2009)
reported that Neemarin 1500 and 10000 ppm both
at 5 and 6 ml/ litre of water gave optimum control
of the major pests of cabbage viz., leaf webber,
Crocidolomia binotalis Zell.; tobacco caterpillar, S.
litura F.; diamond back moth, P. xylostella L. and
aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae L. NSKE at 2 and 4
per cent and neem seed oil at 0.5 per cent was
highly effective against P. xylostella with respect to
repellent, antifeedant and ovicidal activities
(Laxmikant et al., 2009).
Less leaf mining by leaf miner, Liriomyza trifolii
was observed when neem oil sprayed on ridge
gourd (Rosaiah, 2001).
NSKE at 5% was found to inhibit the oviposition of
potato tuber moth (Shelke et al., 1987), whereas
spray application of neemrich protected the crop
against this pest
Neem oil at 0.5% showed strong repellent effect on
the pseudostem borer in banana (Babesh Baghawati
et al., 2009). Stem injection and swabbing of Neem
Azal (4%) reduced the infestation of banana pseudo
stem weevil, Odoiporus longicollis Olivier.
However, application of Neem Azal by stem
injection was proved to be more effective than by
swabbing of Neem Azal (Sivasubramanian et al.,
Application of Neem oil at 4% causing 93.23%
mortality of mealybugs, Planococcus citri on citrus
(Hussain et al., 1996). Application of Azadirachtin
also resulted in 78.53 to 82.92% nymphal mortality
in the case of citrus psylla, Diaphorina citri
(Dadmal et al., 2002).
Azadirachtin being the plant product and known to
be safe to human health, natural enemies and eco-
friendly, it has got added advantage for the
management of black headed caterpillar of coconut
(Prabhu et al., 2009).
Thevan et al. (2005) reported significant reduction
of mite population with neem oil (6%),
azadirachtin (0.009%) and NSKE (10%) and
enhanced yield. Neem products could alone
significantly reduce mite infestation (Dhanapati
Devi et al., 2008).
Ovipositional deterrency is usually observed in the
case of storage pests like pulse beetle,
Callosobruchus chinensis and red flour beetle,
Tribolium castaneum. Neem oil reduced egg laying
by C. chinensis (Reddy et al., 1999). In addition to
the ovipositional deterrency, neem extracts showed
ovicidal action against rice moth, Corcyra
Treatment of mice with neem leaf extract (aqueous)
caused adverse effects on motility, morphology and
number of spermatozoa (Mishra and Singh, 2005).
Neem seed extracts could be used as bio-
rodenticides instead of toxic synthetic rodenticides
that are pollutants (Roop et al., 2005).
Bernays and Chapman (1977) reported that
azadirachtin as the most potent antifeedant against
insects like Locusta migratoria migratorioides and
Schistocerca gregaria. It exhibits strong
antifeedant activity against locusts as well as
growth inhibiting properties (Rembold et al., 1980).
Neem kernel extracts and their oil repel insects, act
as antifeedant, cause growth disruption, deformities
or mortality and impairing egg production (Sieber
and Rembold, 1983). Neem seed kernel suspension
as effective repellent against the polyphagous
desert locust Schistocerca gregaria was reported
by Pradhan and Jotwani, 1971; Singh, 1985;
Sundararaj et al., 1985). The control of forest pests
like poplar defoliator, Pygaera cupreata (Bhandari
et al., 1988), babul defoliator, Taragama siva
(Sundararaj et al., 1995), the rohida defoliator,
Patialus tecomella (Sundararaj and Murugesan,
1995), the babul whitefly, Acaudaleyrodes
rachipora (Sundararaj et al., 1995; 1996,
Sundararaj, 1999a, b), the teak defoliators,
Eutectona machaeralis and Hyblaea purea
(Kulkarni et al., 1996; Ramdevi and Raja
Muthukrishnan, 1988; Murugan et al., 1999; Sree
et al., 2008) using different neem products have
been tested and found useful. Nimbicidine and
neem gold at 2% concentration showed antifeedant
activity against P. tecomella (Sundararaj, 2000).
Ramarethinam et al. (2002) reported insecticidal
property of azadirachtin against Eurema hecabe on
Cassia fistula. Ambika et al. (2007) recommended
neem seed oil against Pemplia morosalis on
Jatropha and Murugesan et al. (2008)
recommended nimbicidin against Carryedon
serratus infesting seeds of many forest trees.
Safety on natural enemies
Effect of neem on Predators
Non-arthropod predators like spider, Lycosa
pseudoannulata (Shukla et al., 1988) and predatory
mites were able to survive even if Neem Azal is
sprayed (Schulz et al., 1979). Subhaharan (1998)
also stressed the safety of neem against honeybees.
Neemax 2.0% was safe with only 33% mortality of
mired bug, Crytorhinus lividipennis, a predator of
brown plant hopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Jhansi
Lakshmi et al., 1998); Neemark (0.3%) and
Achook (0.3%) were safe to Syrphus spp. and
Coccinella septempunctata on tea pests (Sharma
and Kashyap, 2002) without causing mortality.
Safety of various botanicals was also stressed
against Chrysoperla carnea (Jayaraj and
Regupathy, 1999; Suganthi and Mallik, 2003),
mirid bug on Bemisia tabaci (Jazzer and Hamed,
1999; Tetragnatha javana and C. carnea (Abdul
Kareem et al., 1999) and Rhynocoris marginatus on
A. gossypii (Sahayaraj and Karthickraja, 2000). No
adverse effect was observed on the larval and pupal
duration, development and feeding potential of C.
carnea, the lacewing predator commonly used for
inoculative releases in groundnut, cotton etc. when
fed with neem treated C. cephalonica eggs.
Effect of Neem on Parasitoids
Neem did not record any deleterious effect on the
development, fertility, oviposition, fecundity or
hatchability of the egg parasitoid, Trichogramma
chilonis (Balasubramanian and Regupathy, 1994;
Jayaraj and Regupathy, 1999) either as neem oil or
any neem formulations like Neemark 0.3% or
Achook 0.3%. NSKE also encouraged the activity
of larval parasitoids like Cotesia flavipes on Chilo
sacchariphagus indicus (Reddy and Srikanth,
1996); C. plutella on Plutella xylostella (Mani,
1995; Srivastava et al., 1997) and Bracon hebetor
(Raghuraman and Singh, 1998). Neem seed kernel
extract 2% was also found safe without affecting
the behavior of T. indica on Planococcus indicus
(Mani and Krishnamurthy, 1996); Telenomus
remus on S. litura (Chari et al., 1996), Tetrastichus
pyrillae on Pyrilla (Deepak and Chowdary, 1998)
and T. japonicum (Sasikala et al., 1999). In rice
ecosystem, neem formulations like Fortune Aza
0.1% and Neem Azal 0.3% showed high
percentage of parasitization (79%) by T. japonicum
on yellow stem borer, Scirpophaga incertulas
(Jhansi Lakshmi et al., 1997). However, neem oil
was found moderately toxic to braconids, Chelonus
blackburnii on P. operculella (Shelke et al., 1990).
Similar observations on toxic effects of neem
products on R. marginatus were made by
Jansilakshmi et al. (1998).
When neem oil alone or neem + pongamia oil
formulations were applied to rice seedlings, it
could reduce rice yellow dwarf virus disease by
Nephotettix virescens up to 14% (Rajappan et al.,
1999). Neem in combination with sweet flag and
pungam showed antifeedant and growth inhibitory
effect on okra shoot and fruit borer Earias vittella
(Rao et al., 2002). The application of neem cake
alone or in combination with other seed cakes and
VAM was recommended to control whiteflies in
nurseries of forest pests (Sundararaj, 2010). Mishra
and Mishra (2010) reported that the Neemax
(NSKE) at 1.0 kg/ha combined with malathion (0.5
kg a.i./ha) lowered the fruit borer incidence in okra.
• Neem pesticides are eco-friendly and do not
have any toxic effects on plants and soil.
• Neem doesn’t kill insects, but alters their life
• They target only the chewing and sucking
• They do not harm the beneficial insects.
• It is non toxic to mammals (Raizada et al.,
2001), fish (Wan et al., 1996), natural
enemies and pollinators (Naumann and
Isman, 1996), birds, and other wild life.
• It is harmless to non-target insects (bees,
spiders, and butterflies).
• It can be used in combination with other
pesticide and oil for more effectiveness.
• Pests generally do not develop a resistance to
neem based pesticides.
• It is relatively cheap and easily available.
Precautions for effective application
Neem leaf extracts are less effective than seed
extracts due to lower azadirachtin content. Neem
preparations should be kept away from sunlight to
avoid photodegradation of active ingredients by
UV light. Neem formulations are better applied at
dusk when sun is weak. Sun screens such as Para
amino benzoic acid can be added to reduce the
photo-oxidation of azadirachtin by UV light.
Azadirachtin is more effective when formulated as
an oil that contains the other natural products of the
plant. Solvents such as methanol and ethanol have
been found to extract the active ingredients better
than water. Limnoids can be added to inert
compounds to produce a neem product with a
known stable azadirachtin concentration (Salako et
Neem can be considered as the most important
among all biopesticides for controlling pests due to
its non-toxicity and environmental safety.
Azadirachtin is found to be the most potent neem
fraction that adversely affects the growth and
development of different insects in specific manner
by different actions like repellent, oviposition
deterrent and growth inhibition action. It is widely
used in several countries around the world today
either singly or in combination with synthetic
pesticides in integrated pest management.
Abdul Kareem A., Guna Sekharan K., Ambalaga G.,
Regupathy A., 1999. Safety of new neem formulations
against natural enemies of agro ecosystem, Neem
Newsletter, 16, 32
Abdul Kareem A., 1999. Biopesticides and insect pest
management. In: Biopesticides in Insect Pest
Management (Eds. Ignacimuthu, S. and Sen, A.), Phonix
publishing house Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, pp. 1 - 6.
Adilakshmi A., Korat D.M., Vaishnav P.R., 2010, Bio-
efficacy of some botanical insecticides against pests of
okra. Karnataka Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 21(2),
290 - 292.
Ambika S., Manoharan T., Stanley J., Preetha G., 2007.
Biology and management of Jatropa shoot webber.
Indian Journal of Entomology, 69(3), 2655 – 270.
Anuradha A., Annadurai R.S., 2008, Biochemical and
molecular evidence of azadirachttin binding to insect
actins Current Science, 95.
Ayyangar G.S.G., Rao P.J., 1989. Neem (Azadirachta
indica A. Juss) extracts as larval repellents and
ovipositional deterrents to Spodoptera litura (Fabr.)
Indian Journal of Entomology, 51, 121 – 124.
Ayyangar G.S.G., Rao P.J., 1991. Carry over effects of
azadiractin on development and reproduction of
Spodoptera litura (Fabr.). Annals of Entomology, 9, 55 –
Ayyasamy R., Janagarajan A., Jayaraj S., 1999.
Exploring neem based and other plant products for the
integrated pest management in groundnut. In: Neem 99.
World Neem Conference, 19 – 21 May 1999, University
of British, Columbia, Vancouver, Canada
Babesh Bhagawati Deka M.K., Patgiri P., 2009. Bio-
efficacy of botanicals against banana pseudostem borer,
Odoiporus longicollis. Annals of Plant Protection
Sciences, 17(2), 366 – 369.
Balasubramanian V., Regupathy A., 1994. Effect of
neem oil 50 EC and NSKE on the ovipositional
preference and fecundity on Trichogramma chilonis. In:
Goel, S.C. (Ed.), Biological control of insect pests. U.P.
Zoological Society, Sanatan Dharm College,
Behera U.K., Satpathy C.R., 1996. Screening of
indigenous plants for their insecticidal properties against
Spodoptera litura Fab. Environment and Ecology, 15,
Bernays E.A., Chapman R.F., 1977. Deter chemicals as
basis of oligophagy in Locusta migratoria. Ecological
Entomology, 2, 1.
Bhandari R.S., Lal J., Ayyar K.S., Singh P., 1998. Effect
of neem seed extractives on Poplar defoliator, Pygaera
cupreata Butler (Lepidoptera: Notodontidae) in
laboratory. Indian Forester, 114, 790 – 795.
Bhatnagar A., Sharma V.K., 1995. Relative efficacy and
residual toxicity of Margosa (Azadirachta indica) and
Indian beech (Pongamia pinnata) oils in stem borer
(Chilo partellus) of maize (Zea mays). Indian Journal of
Agricultural Sciences, 65, 25 – 26.
Bhatnagar A., Agarwal A.P., Bhatnagar A., 1997.
Antifeedant activity of neem formulations against the
larvae of castor semilooper, Achaea janata Linn. Plant
Protection Bulletin, 49, 17 – 18.
Bomford M.K., Isman M.B., 1996. Desensitization of
fifth instar Spodoptera litura to azadirachtin and neem.
Ent. Exp. et Applicat., 81, 307 – 313.
Borkar S.L., Sarode S.V., 2012. Efficacy of botanicals
and bio-pesticides on population dynamics of bollworm
complex and their safety to the predators in non-Bt
cotton. Journal of Biological Control, 26(2), 165 – 172.
Butterworth J.H., Morgan E.D., 1968. Isolation of
substance that suppresses feeding in Locusts. Chem.
Commun., 23 – 24.
Chandel R.S., Chander R., Gupta P.R., 1995. Non-edible
oils as feeding deterrants to apple defoliating beetle,
Brahmina coriacea. Indian Journal of Agricultural
Sciences, 65, 778.
Chari M.S., Muralidharan C.M., 1985. Neem
(Azadirachta inidca Linn.) as feeding deterrent of castor
semilooper (Achoea janata Linn.). Journal of
Entomological Research, 9, 243.
Chari M.S., Sreedhar U., Rao R.S.N., Reddy S.A.N.,
1996. Studies on compatibility of botanical and microbial
insecticides to the natural enemies of Spodoptera litura.
Tobacco Research, 22, 32.
Dadmal S.M., Pawar N.P., Kale K.B., Shiva Sankar S.K.,
2002. Efficacy of plant products and some insecticides
against citrus psylla, Diaphorina citri. Insect
Environment, 8, 94.
David P.M.M., 1986. Effect of slow release nitrogen
fertilizers and the foliar spray of neem products on rice
pests. Madras Agricultural Journal, 73(5), 274 – 277.
Deepak K.D., Chowdary A.K., 1998. Toxicity of some
insecticides to Tetrastichus pyrillae, egg parasite of
sugarcane leaf hopper, Pyrilla perpusilla. Annals of
Plant Protection Sciences, 8, 233.
Dekar M.K., Karan Singh, Handigue R., K. Singh., 2000.
Field efficacy of different plant extracts in controlling tea
mosquito bug, Helopeltis theivora Watesh. Journal of
Applied Zoological Research, 11, 25.
Desai J.C., 2000. Biology of different species of aphids
on various host crops and their control. M.Sc. (Agri.)
Thesis, Gujarat Agric. Univ., Sardar Krushinagar,
Dhanapati Devi K., Varatharajan R., Nabakumar Ch..
2008. Field efficacy of Neem azal against red spider mite
of tea. Annals of Plant Protection Sciences, 16(1), 214.
Gupta G.P., Mahapatro G.K., Chandra A., 1998. Neem
seed powder: Targeting the Quiescent stages of
Helicoverpa armigera. Annals of Plant Protection
Sciences, 6, 170.
Gupta S.P., Prakash A., Rao J., 1990. Bio-pesticidal
activity of certain plant products against rice earhead
bug, Leptocorisa acuta Thunb. Journal of Applied
Zoological Research, 1(2), 55 – 58.
Hussain M.A., Puttaswamy, Viraktamath C.A., 1996.
Management of citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri on
guava using botanical oils. Insect Environment, 2: 73.
Isman M.B., 1993. Growth inhibitory and antifeedant
effects of azadirachtin on six noctuids of regional
economic importance. Pest. Sci., 38, 57 – 63.
Jayaraj S., Regupathy A., 1999. Evaluation of neem and
other plant products for bio-instensive IPM and for
production of ‘Green Cotton’. World Neem Conference,
19 – 21 May, 1999. University of British, Columbia, Van
Couver, Canada. Abstract, p.6.
Jazzer C.L., Hammed E.A.F., 1999. Effect of semi
qualitative ageing classes of Melia azadirach on Bemisia
tabaci and a predator mirid. World Neem Conference, 19
– 21 May, 1999. University of British, Columbia, Van
Couver, Canada. Abstract, p.6.
Jeyakumar P., Gupta G.P., 1999. Effect of neem seed
kernel extract (NSKE) on Helicoverpa armigera.
Pesticide Research Journal, 11, 32 - 36.
Jhansi Lakshmi V., Katti G., Krishnaiah N.V., Lingaiah
T., 1997. Laboratory evaluation of commercial neem
formulations vis-à-vis insecticides against egg parasitoid,
Trichogramma japonicum. Journal of Biological control,
11, 29 – 32.
Joshi B.G., Sitaramaiah S., 1979. Seed kernel as an
oviposition repellent for Spodoptera litura (F.) moths.
Phytoparasitica. 7, 199 - 202.
Joshi B.G., Ramaprasad G., Ral S.N., 1984. Neem seed
kernel suspension as an antifeedant for Spodoptera litura
in a planted fluecured Virginia tobacco crop.
Phytoparasitica, 12, 134 - 139.
Kaur J.J., Rao D.K., Sehgal S.S., Seth R.K., 2001. Effect
of hexane extract of neem seed kernel on development
and reproduction behavior of Spodoptera litura. Annals
of Plant Protection Sciences, 9, 171 – 178.
Krishnaiah N.V., Kalode M.B., 1990. Efficacy of
selected botanicals against rice insect pests under green
house and field conditions. Indian Journal of Plant
Protection, 18, 197 – 205.
Kulkarni N., Joshi K.C., Rama Rao N., 1996. Screening
of some plant extracts for feeding inhibition property
against major forest insect pests. My Forest, 3(32), 118 -
Kumaran N., Douressamy S., 2007. Efficacy of
botanicals against two spotted spider mite, Tetranychus
urticae Koch. (Acaridae: Tetranychidae) on okra
(Abelmoschus esculentus L.). Biopesticide International
Conference at St. Xavier’s College, Palayamkottai,
Tamil Nadu, India, 28 – 30 November, 2007. 54 PP.
Laxmikant A. Patil, Prasanna P.M., Sannaveerappanavar
V.T., 2009. Evaluation of seed and leaf extracts and seed
oils on the repellent, antifeedant and ovicidal activity on
cabbage diamond back moth, Plutella xylostella (L.).
Biotechnological and Biorational approaches for pest
management in Agriculture and 33
of Ethological Society of India. University of
Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad and Ethological Society
of India, 6 – 7, November, 2009. 105 PP.
Loke J.H., Heng C.K., Rejab A., Basirun N., Mardi
H.C.A., 1992. Studies on neem (Azadirachta indica A.
Juss) in Malaysia. In: Proc. Third International
Conference on Plant Protection in the Tropics. Ed. by
Ooi, P.A.C., G.S. Lim, and P.S. Teng. Kuala Lampur:
Malaysia Plant Protection Society, 103 - 107.
Mala S., Muthalagi S., 2007. Effect of neem oil extract
(NOE) on repellency, mortality, fecundity, development
and biochemical analysis of Pericallia ricini
(Lepidoptera: Arctidae). Biopesticide International
Conference at St. Xavier’s College, Palayamkottai,
Tamil Nadu, India, 28 – 30 November, 2007. 43 PP.
Mandal P., Bhattacharya A.K., 2003. Azadirachtin, the
most patent neem derivative: Effect on Spilosoma
obliqua. Indian Journal of Entomology, 65, 170.
Mandal S.K., Sah S.B., Gupta S.C., 2007. Management
of insect pests on okra with biopesticides and chemicals.
Annals of Plant Protection Sciences, 15, 87 – 91.
Mani A., Kumudanathan K., Jagadish C.A., 1990.
Relative efficacy of neem oil and endosulfan against
insect pests of mustard. Neem Newsletter, 7(2), 129 –
Mani M., 1995. Studies on the toxicity of pesticides to
Cotesia plutellae, a parasitoid of diamond back moth,
Plutella xylostella. Journal of Insect Science, 8, 31 – 33.
Mani M., Krishnamoorthy A., 1996. Response of the
oriental mealy bug Planococcus lilacinus to different
pesticides. Indian Journal of Plant Protection, 24, 80.
Mann G.S., Dhaliwal G.S., Dhawan A.K., 2001a. Effect
of alternate application of neem products and insecticides
on population of Bemisia tabaci Gennadius and its
impact on bollworm damage in upland cotton. Annals of
Plant Protection Sciences, 9(1), 22 – 25.
Mann G.S., Dhaliwal G.S., Dhawan A.K., 2001b. Field
efficacy of neem based insecticides against whitefly and
their impact on insect pest complex of cotton. Pesticide
Research Journal, 13(1), 79 – 85.
Mehlhorn H., Al-Rasheid K.A.S., Abdel-Ghaffar F.,
2011a. The Neem Tree Story: Extracts that Really Work.
In: H. Mehlhorn (Ed.) Nature Helps (4: 77-108).
Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg: Parasitology
Research Monographs 1.
Mishra N.C., Mishra S.N., 2002. Impact of biopesticides
on insect pests and defenders of okra. Indian Journal of
Plant Protection, 30, 28 – 32.
Misra H.P., 2009. Evaluation of neem pesticides against
major head damaging insect pests of cabbage. Indian
Journal of Entomology, 71(3), 240 – 243.
Mohan K., Gopalan M., 1990. Studies on the effect of
neem products and vegetable oils against major pests of
rice and safety to natural enemies. In: National
Symposium on problems and prospects of botanical
pesticides in Integrated Pest Management. 10 – 11 pp.
Mohan K., Gopalan M., Balasubramanian G., 1991.
Studies on the effects of neem products and
monocrotophos against major pests of rice and their
safety to natural enemies. Indian Journal of Plant
Protection, 19, 23 – 30.
Mohapatra L.N., Patnaik R.K., 2006. Validation of IPM
technology for rainfed cotton in Western Orissa. Journal
of Cotton Research and Development, 20(1), 102 – 108.
Mohapatra S., Sawarkar S.K., Patnaik H.P., Senapati B.,
1995. Antifeedant activity of solvent extracts of neem
seed kernel against Spodoptera litura F. and their
persistency against sunlight through encapsulation. Int. J.
Pest Manag., 41, 154 – 156.
Mokabel A.N.M., Gavi Gowda, Gowda G., 2000.
Evaluation of some important plant products for anti-
termite properties. Journal of Ecobiology, 12, 3.
Montal D., Montal T., 2012. A Review on efficacy of
Azadirachta indica A. Juss based biopesticides: An
Indian perspective. Research Journal of Recent Sciences,
1(3), 94 – 99.
Murugan K., Senthil Kumar N., Jeyabalan D., Senthil
Nathan S., Sivaramakrishnan S., 1999. Neem as a
effective bio-pesticide to control teak defoliator Hyblaea
purea (Cramer) (Lepidoptera: Hyblaeidae). Journal of
Non Timber Forest Products, 6(1/2), 78 – 82.
Murugesan S., Sundararaj R., Prasanth Jacob J., Anitha
J., Karthick S., 2008. Biopesticidal potential of neem
against forest insect pests. Hexapoda, 15(1), 56 – 60.
Nath P., Bhusahan S., Singh S.K., 2002. Evaluation of
neem based formulation and NSKE against the insect
pest of sesame. Annals of Plant Protection Sciences, 10,
207 – 211.
Nathan S.S., Kalaivani K., Chung P.G., 2005. The effects
of azadirachtin and neucleopolyhedrosis on midgutt
enzymatic profile of Spodoptera litura Fab.
(Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Pest Biochem. Physiol., 83, 46
Nazrussalam M., Shafig Ansari, Haidar Ali, Tufail
Ahmad, 2008. Efficacy of Multineem and NSKE with
insecticides for management of Amrasca biguttula
biguttula and Earias vittella on okra. Annals of Plant
Protection Sciences, 16(1), 17 – 20.
Nelson S.J., Sundarababu P.C., Rajavel D.S.,
Srimmannarayana G., Geetanjali Y., 1993. Antifeedant
and growth inhibiting effects of azadirachtin-rich neem
fractions on Sogatella furcifera Horvath, Spodoptera
litura Fabr. and Helicoverpa armigera Hubn. World
Neem Conference, 10 Pp.
Padmanabhan B., Mariamma Daniel, Srimanarayana G.,
1997. Evaluation of plant materials, plant products and
oil cakes against arecanut white grub, Leucocephalus
burmeisteri Brenske (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae:
Melolonthinae). Indian Journal of Plant Protection, 25,
121 – 122.
Patel D.M., 1998. Bio-ecology and behavior of various
species of aphids and their natural enemies. M.Sc. (Agri.)
Thesis, Gujarat Agric. Univ., Sardar Krushinagar,
Patel Z.P., Patel J.J., 1996. Effect of botanicals on
behavioural response and on the growth of jassid,
Amrasca biguttula biguttula. Indian Journal of Plant
Protection, 64, 39 – 43.
Prabhu S.T., Javaregowda, Palaiah P., 2009. Effect of
application of azadirachtin (Ecotin 5%) – neem based
insecticide formulation against coconut black headed
caterpillar (Opisina arenosella Walker). In:
Biotechnological and Biorational approaches for pest
management in Agriculture and 33
of Ethological Society of India. University of
Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad and Ethological Society
of India, 6 – 7, November, 2009. 108 PP.
Pradhan S., Jotwani M.G., 1971. Neem kernels as
antifeedant for locusts. Sneha Sandesh, 13,1-5.
Raghuraman S., Singh R.P., 1999. Neem seed oil safe to
egg parasitoid, Trichogramma chilonis and larval
parasitoid, Bracon hebetor. In: National symposium on
crop pest and disease management, Challenges for the
next Millennium, 27 – 28 November, 1999, Society of
Plant Protection Sciences, Division of Nematology,
IARI, New Delhi.
Rahman S.K.Md., Indu Varshney., 2005. Evaluation of
antifeedant activity of neem based insecticides against
larvae of Diacrisia obliqua. Annals of Plant Protection
Sciences, 13, 480 – 481.
Rajappan K., Malini C.U., Narasimhan V., Abdul
Kareem A., 1999. Effect of solvent free EC formulations
of neem and pongam oils on the survival of Nephotettix
virescens and rice yellow dwarf transmission. Annals of
Plant Protection Sciences, 7, 220.
Rajasekaran B., Jayaraj S., Raghuraman S.,
Narayanaswamy T., 1987. Use of neem products for the
management of certain rice pests and diseases. In:
Midterm Appraisal Works on Botanical Pest Control of
Rice Based Cropping System, 13 P.
Ramarethinam S., Loganathan S., Marimuthu S.,
Murugesan N.V., 2002. Potential of nimbicidine (0.03%
Azadirachtin) in the control of Eurema hecabe (L.)
infesting Cassia fistula L. (Caesalpiniaceae). Pestology,
26(12), 5 – 10.
Ramraju K., Sundarababu P.C., 1989. Effect of plant
derivatives on brown plant hopper (BPH) and white
backed plant hopper (WBPH) nymphs emergence in rice.
International Rice Research Newsletter, 14(5), 30.
Rao G.R., Raghavaiah G., Nagalingam B., 1993. Effect
of botanicals on certain behavioural responses and on the
growth inhibition of Spodoptera litura F. Botanical
pesticides in integrated pest management. 12, 175 – 182.
Rao N.S., Rajendran R., Raguraman S., 2002.
Antifeedant and growth inhibitory effects of neem in
combination with sweet-flag and pungam extracts on
okra shoot and fruit borer, Earias vittella (Fab.). Journal
of Entomological Research, 26, 34.
Rao R.S.V., Srivastava K.P., 1985. Relative efficacy of
neem formulations against gram pod borer. Neem
Newsletter, 2(3), 28 – 29.
Rao S., Rajendran N., Raguraman S., 2002. Antifeedant
and growth inhibitory effects of neem in combination
with sweet flag and pungam extracts on okra shoot and
fruit borer, Earias vittella (Fab.). Journal of
Entomological Research, 26, 233 – 238.
Reddy M.U., Bharati S.R., Reddy D.D.R., 1999. Efficacy
of some vegetable oils as protectants against the pulse
beetle (Callosobruchus chinensis) in green gram during
storage. Indian Journal of Nutrition and Dietics, 36, 436.
Reddy P.V.R., Srikanth J., 1996. Effect of plant extracts
on larval parasitoid, Cotesia flavipes and its
parasitization efficacy. Insect Environment, 2, 106.
Rembold H., Garcia E.C., 1989. Effects of azadirachtin
on ecdysis of Rhodnius. Journal of Insect Physiology, 30,
Rembold H., Sharma G.K., Schmutterer H., 1982.
Azadirachtin: a potential insect growth regulator of plant
origin. Z. Angew. Entomol., 93, 12 – 17.
Rembold H., Sharma G.K., Czoppelt Ch., Schmutterer
H., 1980. Evidence of growth disruption in insects
without feeding inhibition by neem seed fractions. Z.
PflKrankh. PflSchutz, 87, 290 – 297.
Roopa A. Patil, Nandihalli B.S., 2009. Efficacy of
promising botanicals against red spider mite on brinjal.
In: Biotechnological and Biorational approaches for pest
management in Agriculture and 33
of Ethological Society of India. University of
Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad and Ethological Society
of India, 6 – 7, November, 2009. 107 PP.
Rosaiah B., 2001. Effect of different plant products
against serpentine leaf miner, Liriomyza trifolii on ridge
gourd. Pestology, 25, 12.
Rudramuni T., Srinivas Reddy K.M., Sannaveerappanava
V.T., 2011. Bio-efficacy of commercial neem products
and HaNPV against bollworms of cotton. International
Journal of Farm Sciences, 1(2), 105 – 110.
Sahayaraj K., Paulraj M.G., 1998. Effect of neem leaf
extract on Amsacta albistriga Walker. Insect
Environment, 4(2), 42 – 43.
Sahayaraj K., Karthickraja S., 2003. Effect of
biopesticides on Rhynocoris marginatus (Fabricius)
(Heteroptera: Reduviidae). Journal of Biological Control,
Saikia P., Parameswaran S., 2003. Evaluation of EC
formulations of plant derivatives against rice leaffolder,
Cnaphalocrocis medinalis. Annals of Plant Protection
Sciences, 11, 204.
Santhosh Babu P.B., Madhusudhan Rao J., Beena Joy,
Sumathi Butty M.A., 1996. Evaluation of some plant
extracts as feeding deterrents against adult Longitarsus
nigripennis. Entomon, 21, 291.
Schmutterer H., 2002. The Neem Tree, 2nd ed. Neem
Foundation, Mumbai, India. 892 pp.
Schmutterer H., 1995. In: The neem tree Azadirachta
indica (A.Juss) and other meliaceous plants: sources of
unique natural products for integrated pest management,
medicine, industry and other purposes, VCH Journal of
Applied Pharmaceutical Science 02 (05); 2012: 244-259
Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, Weinheim, Germany, p. 696.
Schmutterer H., Saxena R.C., Heyde J., 1983.
Morphogenetic effects of some partially purified
fractions and methanolic extracts of neem seeds on
Mythimna separata Walk and Cnaphalocrocis medinalis
Guen. Zeitschrift fur Agwandte Entomologie, 95(3), 230
Schulz C., Kienzle J., Hermann P., Zebitz C.P.W., 1997.
Neem Azal – T/s – a new botanical insecticide for fruit
growing. Gensunde Pflanzen, 49, 95.
Senthil Nathan S., Choi M.Y., Paik C.H., Seo H.Y., Kim
J.D., Kang S.M., 2007. The toxic effects of neem extract
and azadirachtin on the brown plant hopper, Nilaparvata
lugens (Stal.) Chemosphere, 67, 80 – 88.
Sharma D.C., Kashyap N.P., 2002. Impact of pesticidal
spray on seasonal availability of natural predators and
parasitoids in tea ecosystem. Journal of Biological
Control, 16, 31.
Sharma P.D., Jalan M.S., 1997. Relative efficacy and
persistence of different insecticides for the control of
Helicoverpa armigera on cotton. Pestology, 21, 12 -15.
Shelke S.S., Jakhav L.D., Salunkhe G.N., 1987. Ovicidal
action of some vegetable oils and extracts against storage
pests of potato, Phthorimaea operculella. Zell.
Biovigyanam, 13(1), 40 – 41.
Shukla B.C., Srivastava S.K., Gupta R., 1988. Evaluation
of neem oil for control of rice pets. Final Workshop of
IRRI – ADB – EWC Project on Botanical pest control in
rice based cropping system, IRRI, Philippines.
Siddappaji C., Kumar A.R.V., Gangadhar R., 1986.
Evaluation of different insecticidal sprays against the
chickpea borer, Heliothis armigera Hubner. Pesticides,
20, 13 – 16.
Singh B., 1985. Studies on the effect of neem kernel
extract and certain less persistent insecticides on the
oviposition behavior and mortality of the desert locust
(Schistocerca gregaria Forsk.). Ph.D. Thesis, Agra
University, India, 162 P.
Singh K., Sharma U.L., 1986. Studies on antifeedant and
repellent qualities of neem (Azadirachta indica) against
aphid (Brevicoryne brassica) on cauliflower and
cabbage. Res. Dev. Reptr., 3, 33.
Singh R.P., Singh Y., Singh A.P., 1990. Evaluation of
neem oil against rice leaffolder and stem borer. In:
National Symposium on Problems and Prospects of
Botanical Pesticides in IPM at CTRI, Rajamundry (AP),
India, 2 – 22 Jan, 1990. 19 pp.
Singh S.N., 1999. Pest Management - An Eco-friendly
Approach. The Hindu - Survey of Indian Agriculture, pp.
175 – 184.
Sinha S.H., 1993. Neem in the integrated management of
Helicoverpa armigera Hubn. in chickpea. World Neem
Conference, Bangalore. 6 PP.
Sivasubramanian P., Zadda Kavitha Raghavan, Jaya
Prabhavathi S., Samiayyan K., 2009. Efficacy of Neem
Azal 1.2 EC in the management of banana pseudo stem
weevil, Odoiporus longicollis Olivier. Karnataka Journal
of Agricultural Sciences, 22 (Special Issue), 561 – 563.
Sojitra I.R., Patel J.R., 1992. Effects of plant extracts
(including Azadirachta indica, Ricinus communis and
Pongamia pinnata) on ovipositional behaviour of spotted
bollworm (Earias vittella) infesting okra (Abelmoschus
esculentus). Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 62,
848 - 849.
Sree D.S., Sankar N.R., Sreeramulu, 2008. Evaluation of
thirteen medicinal plant extracts against teak (Tectona
grandis) leaf skeletonizer Eutectona machoeralis Walk.
Biomed, 3(1), 33 – 35.
Srivastava M., Paul A.V.N., Rengaswamy S., Kumar J.,
Parmer B.S., 1997. Effect of neem seed kernel extracts
on the larval parasitoid Bracon brevicornis, Journal of
Applied Entomology, 121, 51.
Subaharan K., Regupathy A., 1999. Neem to manage tea
aphids, Toxoptera aurantii. Neem Newsletter, 16, 35.
Subbalakhmi L., Muthukrishnan P., Jeyaraman S., 2012.
Neem products and their agricultural applications.
Journal of Biopesticides. 5, 72 – 76.
Subhakara K., 1998. Studies on exploring the potential of
neem formulations for IPM in Tea. Ph.D. Thesis, TNAU,
Coimbatore, pp. 105.
Subramanian K., 2004. Impact of Neem Azal and cotton
cultivars on nutritional and developmental physiology of
Spodoptera litura (F.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Ph. D.
Thesis. University of Madras, Chennai.
Sujeetha P., 2008. The biological and behavioral impact
of some indigenous plant products on rice white backed
plant hopper (WBPH) Sogattella furcifera (Horvath)
(Homoptera: Delphacidae). Journal of Biopesticides,
1(2), 193 – 196.
Sundararaj R., 1999a. Potential of neem products for the
control of babul whitefly on Acacia tortilis in nursery.
My Forest, 35(1), 51 – 57.
Sundararaj R., 1999b. Field evaluation of neem cake
with biofertilizers and conventional fertilizer against the
incidence of the babul whitefly Acaudaleyrodes
rachipora (Singh) (Aleyrodidae: Homoptera) on Acacia
nilotica seedlings. Pestology, 22(12), 9 – 12.
Sundararaj R., Murugesan S., 1995. Evaluation of Neem,
Azadirachta indica (A. Juss) seed kernel powder against
the rohida defoliator weevil, Patialus tecomella Pajni.
Journal of Applied Zoological Researches, 6(2), 141 –
Sundararaj R., Murugesan S., Mishra R.N., 1996. Field
evaluation of neem seed oil against babul whitefly
Acaudaleyrodes rachipora (Singh) (Aleyrodidae:
Homoptera) on Acacia Senegal seedlings. Annals of Arid
Zone, 35(4), 369 – 372.
Sharma T.,, Ayesha Qamar and Absar Mustafa Khan.,
2010. Evaluation of neem (Azadirachta indica) extracts
against the eggs and adults of Dysdercus cingulatus
(Fabricius). World Applied Sciences Journal, 9(4), 398 –
Thakkar P.S., 1997. Editorial Notes. Global Neem
Update, 2, 1.
Venkat Reddy A., Sunitha Devi R., Vishnu Vardhan
Reddy D., 2012. Evaluation of botanical and other
extracts against plant hoppers in rice. Journal of
Biopesticides, 5(1), 57 – 61.
Venugopal Rao N., Uma Maheswari T., Manjula K.,
2005. Botanical pesticides as tools of pest management.
In: Ignacimuthu, S. and S. Jayaraj (Eds.) Green
Pesticides for Insect Pest Management, Narosa
Publishing House, Chennai. 320 p.
For publications/ Enquiries/ Submissions: