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Spirulina-Food of the Future

  • Sabanci University Nanotechnology Research and Application Center


The genus Spirulina belongs to photosynthetic bacteria that cover the groups Cyanobacteria and Prochlorophyta. Spirulina is a blue-green, free-floating, filamentous cyanobacteria (micro-algae) characterized by cylindrical, multicellular trichomes in an open left-handed helix. S. platensis occurs in Africa, Asia, and South America, whereas S. maxima is confined to Central America. Spirulina is a blue-green micro-algae, this super food dates back over 3 billion years and is the most well-known of these algae. A potent nutrient-dense whole food, spirulina is over 60%-70% protein, and is a complete protein, supplying all eight essential amino acids. It is low in fat, but does contain vital essential fatty acids, including very high amounts of Gamma Linolenic Acid (GLA). GLA is a hormone precursor, and is found conducive to healthy heart functioning and circulation. It also has anti-inflammatory properties, which are beneficial for skin and hair. It has been hailed as the “food of the future”, besides being considered as an ideal food for astronauts by NASA. Spirulina was consumed by the ancient Aztecs but became popular again when NASA proposed that it could be grown in space for use by astronauts. Spirulina may be the single most nutritious food on the planet. The quality of the protein in spirulina is considered excellent-comparable to eggs. It gives all the essential amino acids that you need.
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Natural & Medical Sciences Research Center
University of Nizwa, Sultanate of Oman: Spirulina:
Food of the Future
The genus Spirulina belongs to photosynthetic bacteria that cover
the groups Cyanobacteria and Prochlorophyta.Spirulina is a blue-
green, free-floating, filamentous cyanobacteria (micro-algae)
characterized by cylindrical, multicellular trichomes in an open left-
handed helix.S. platensis occurs in Africa, Asia, and South America,
whereas S. maxima is confined to Central America[1].
Spirulina is a blue-green micro-algae, this super food dates back
over 3 billion years and is the most well-known of these algae. A
potent nutrient-dense whole food, spirulina is over 60%-70%
protein, and is a complete protein, supplying all eight essential
amino acids. It is low in fat, but does contain vital essential fatty
acids, including very high amounts of Gamma Linolenic Acid
(GLA).GLA is a hormone precursor, and is found conducive to
healthy heart functioning and circulation. It also has anti-
inflammatory properties, which are beneficial for skin and hair. It
has been hailed as the “food of the future”, besides being considered
as an ideal food for astronauts by NASA. Spirulina was consumed
by the ancient Aztecs but became popular again when NASA
proposed that it could be grown in space for use by astronauts[2].
Spirulina may be the single most nutritious food on the planet.The
quality of the protein in spirulina is considered excellent-comparable
to eggs. It gives all the essential amino acids that you need.
BioNatural Healing 1
Spirulina platensis
Cultivation: They occur naturally in tropical and subtropical lakes
with high pH and high concentrations
of carbonate and bicarbonate. Most cultivated spirulina is produced
in open-channel raceway ponds,with paddle wheels used to agitate
the water. Spirulina thrives at a pH around 8.5 and above, which will
get more alkaline, and a temperature around 30°C (86°F). They
are autotrophic, meaning that they are able to make their own food,
and do not need a living energy or organic carbon source.
Chemical Compositions:
Basically, Spirulina consists of 55-70% protein and 5-6% lipid.
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) constitute 1.5-2% of the total
lipid content of this alga. In fact, Spirulina spp. is rich in-linolenic
acid (36% of the total PUFAs), vitamins (B1, B2, B3, B6, B9, B12,
vitamin C, D and E), minerals (K, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, P, Se, Na
and Zn), pigments (chlorophyll a, xanthophyll, β-carotene,
echinenone, myxoxanthophyll, zeaxanthin, canthaxanthin,
diatoxanthin, 3-hydroxyechinenone, β-cryptoxanthin, oscillaxanthin,
phycobiliproteins, C-phycocyanin, and allophycocyanin) and
BioNatural Healing 2
Composition of Spirulina
Protein and Amino Acids
Minerals 7%
The highest protein content of any natural food
Algal Mass
Recycle of Medium
Spirulina Culture
Solar Radiation
A Schematic Diagram of Production System of Spirulina
Potential Applications of Spirulina:
Hydrogen Production
Fluorescent Markers/ Restriction
Spirulina: The Green Factory
Potential Applications of Spirulina:
1.Human Health: (i) Poly-unsaturated fatty acid such as gamma-
linoleic acid (GLA) is a group of essential fatty acids particularly
favorable for its application in nutraceutical and pharmaceutical
industries. GLA plays significant roles in improving human body
functions including cancer, diabetes, heart disease, arthritis,
Alzheimer's disease, etc.(ii)Anticancer & Anti-viral activities:
Consistently high levels of Phycocyanin (ranging between 15-18%)
give Spirulina its unique blue color. Phycocyanin is widely known as a
blood builder and also shows potent anti-viral activity and anti-cancer
properties[4,5].BioNatural Healing
GLA is a hormone precursor, and is found conducive to anti-
inflammatory properties, which are beneficial for skin and hair.
2. Use as Feed and Feed Additives:
(i) Use of Spirulina in Poultry: Afew studies on the use of Spirulina
as a very effective agent in inducing preferred yolk color have been
(ii) Use of Spirulina in Aquaculture: Spirulina formulated feed
increases the growth rate of many species. It improves the palatability
of the feed.It was also reported that fish fed with Spirulina have less
abdominal fat[7].
(iii) Use in Crustaceans: A specific application of Spirulina, mainly
as a colorant pigmentation agent in the diet of the black tiger prawn
was suggested[8].
[1] Busson, F. (1971) Spirulina platensis (Gom.) Geitler et Spirulina geitleri
Toni, Cyanophycées Alimentaires, Service de Santé, Marseille.
[2] Mahasin, G.T., Robert, D.M. (1988) Characterization of Spirulino Biomass for
CELSS Diet Potential NASA Contractor NCC 2-501.
[3] Belay, A. (2002) The potential application of Spirulina (Arthrospira) as a
nutritional and therapeutic supplement in health management. J. Am. Nutraceut.
Assoc., 5, 27-48.
[4] Kato, T., Takemoto, K., Katayama, H. and Kuwabara, Y. (1984) Effects of
Spirulina (Spirulina platensis) on dietary hypercholesterolemia in rats, J. Jap. Soc.
Nutr. Food Sci., 37, 323.
[5] Hayashi, O., Katoh, T. and Okuwaki, Y. (1994) Enhancement of antibody
production in mice by dietary Spirulina platensis, J. Nutr. Sci. Vitaminol., 40,
[6] Saxena, P.N., Ahmad, M.R., Shyam, R., Srivastava, H.K., Doval, P. and Sinha,
D. (1982) Effect of feeding sewage-grown Spirulina on yolk pigmentation of
White Leghorn eggs, Avion Research, 66, 41.
[7] Kato, T. (1989) Cherry salmon fed Spirulina, Dainippon Ink and Chemicals,
Inc., July, 1989, Tokyo, Japan, unpublished paper
[8] Liao, W.L., Nur-e-Borhan, S.A., Okada, S., Matsui, T. and Yamaguchi, K.
(1993) Pigmentation of cultured Black Tiger Prawn by feeding with a Spirulina-
supplemented diet, Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi, 59, 165.
BioNatural Healing 5
Dr. Sally Warren, Board Certified Traditional Naturopath:
Protein; a lot or a little?
Protein is always in the food news. Recently, however, it is promoted
with packaged foods such as pancakes, cookies, shakes, snacks, bars,
drinks - even water - proclaim their mega portions of protein! We are
so obsessed with this nutrient, but can the body actually use these
higher amounts? People believe that greater protein intake makes for
leaner, more muscled bodies without having to do much more than
consume it. The truth is that the body can only use a certain amount
of protein, depending upon physical activity and body type. One can
only actually absorb what the body needs. The rest is stored as fat.If
too much protein is consumed, it can promote health risks.
To really understand protein, one needs to know how the body breaks
it down. It is harder to digest than other food groups.
After swallowing, your stomach acid begins the breakdown process
by literally “unfolding” the molecules. This prepares the protein for
digestion by enzymes, such as pepsin, to make smaller pieces of
protein, called peptides, which are amino acids joined in short
chains.Amino acids are then used throughout the body, not just in
muscles but also in enzymes, hormones, cell structures, transportation
of molecules, and storage of nutrients in the body. The body sends
protein where it is needed for survival, not just for bigger biceps or
six-pack abs. And since it takes a lot longer to digest protein than
carbohydrates, it can be helpful when people want to feel full longer.
When a person eats more protein than is required, it has to be
processed, and the nitrogen formed is passed through the kidneys.
Excreting all the extra nitrogen is a lot of extra strain for the kidneys
and may cause weight gain.
BioNatural Healing 6
High levels of nitrogen are dehydrating and toxic, and therefore
hard on the organs, and may cause kidney stones. So, extra
protein may be not only pointless, but also damaging.
The popular ketogenic diet assists in weight loss by forcing the
body to burn stored fat and not sugar. This is best done by
eating more fatty foods than by eating more protein. The low
carb, high protein style of dieting can shock the body, and
studies have shown that ketosis cannot be maintained. Over
90% of subjects in the study, who ate high quantities of protein,
eventually gained the weight back. These high protein diets can
be stressful on the kidneys, so short term dieting using this
method is advised. Or better still, focus on good fat and
moderate protein, high plant-based meals..
In a study by the University of Texas, it was found that the
amount of 30 grams of protein (about a 3-oz serving of chicken)
could boost muscle building activity by 50%. However, even if
there were more protein in a meal, it went through the same
process and the achievement was the same. More did not lead
to greater muscle building. Real protein comes in many forms,
not just from steak, a bar or a shake! Dairy has protein,
although it should be used with caution, due to the lactose
content and the propensity for allergies. Make sure it is organic,
full fat, and from grass fed sources so it is not laden with
artificial hormones, pesticides, and stripped of digestive
enzymes, which can cause inflammation. It is best to eat
fermented dairy, such as yogurt or kefir. Eggs are another
complete protein, containing all nine of the essential amino
acids we need from food.
BioNatural Healing 7
Other good sources of protein are beans, lentils, nuts, soy
(fermented is best), fish and seafood, nut butters, seeds such as
chia, sunflower, pumpkin, and quinoa, peas, hemp, even algae
such as spirulina.
Much of the protein shakes have either whey protein or pea,
since it is easier to assimilate and absorb.
Casein - the most abundant protein in milk - and soy are two
versions of protein that have issues. Casein can be an allergen
for some, is damaged in processing, and cannot easily be
absorbed, making these hard on the digestion. It is also found in
milk solids used to fortify foods with protein. Soy has a strong
estrogen stimulant, which can play havoc with women’s
hormones and cause men to become effeminate and grow
breasts. Harvard School of Public Health did studies into soy
protein and among other issues, found it cause cognitive
function decline. Plus, most soy comes from GMO products
that are sprayed heavily with pesticides.
The amount absorbed depends upon a number of digestive
circumstances, such as the correct enzymes to break down and
utilize the different long chain molecules that make up proteins,
and, more importantly, the need for repair and growth.
Here’s some food for thought: some of the largest and most
muscular creatures on the planet are herbivores.
BioNatural Healing 8
Prof. Rosalie Stafford,
Twigs and Sprigs
In the last issue of BioNatural Healing College E-Magazine, I talked
about one delectable type of live food, bursting with flavor and life
force: grapefruit seed sprouts. This month, I will talk about “twigs and
sprigs,” live food readily available from (1) a wild bush and (2) a
domesticated shade tree, both commonly found in the American
Southwest: Creosote (Larrea tridentata) and Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus
Enzymes and the Life Force: First, however, a few comments
regarding the benefits of eating live foods, victuals bursting with life
force and which provide a diet rich in enzymes. Nutritionist Steven
Lang writes: “Enzymes are complex organic substances that originate
from living cells.By initiating chemical changes in surrounding
organic substances, they help to transform and digest them. ... Live
foods are treasure troves of living enzymes, phyto-nutrients and other
compounds that are essential to proper digestion, absorption,
elimination, immunity, and health. Unfortunately, virtually none of
these delicate entities can survive temperatures greater than 116°
Fahrenheit (most enzymes start to degrade at about 106°), so they are
generally destroyed by the heat of cooking and most commercial
processing.” The Food Enzyme Institute observes: “Enzymes are the
construction workers of the body. Protein, carbohydrates, fats,
vitamins, and minerals are simply the building materials…. Food
enzymes are a natural and important component in our food supply, yet
they are systematically removed.” Others have spoken of enzymes as
performing the role of prana or chi — what is called in the Western
tradition the life force. 9
Certainly, the Standard American Diet (SAD), consisting of
processed foods methodically stripped of life force, contributes
to endemic poor health. By destroying enzymes, food
processors render food dead. Eating live food rather than the
“dead food diet” promoted by SAD actively reverses the trend
toward obesity, malaise, and chronic disease.
In Arizona where I live, Larrea tridentate is ubiquitous:
everywhere you look, you see miles and miles of Creosote
bushes. Throughout the Mojave, Sonoran, and Chihuahuan
Deserts of western North America (covering southeastern
California, southern Nevada, southwestern Utah, Arizona, New
Mexico, Texas, and northern Mexico), Creosote is a dominant
species of this desert biome.
Creosote is tough, clinging to life in an extraordinarily harsh
environment, a land where summer temperatures commonly
hover at 120F, where not a drop of rain might fall for years on
end, and where hurricane-force sandstorms strip paint from
automobiles. Creosote clings to life so tightly that it should be
no surprise to learn that one of the oldest plants on earth is an
eleven thousand year old Creosote plant, christened King
Clone, found in California’s Creosote Rings Preserve.
Creosote is the vegetation which perfumes the desert air after
precipitation: the cherished desert-after-a-rainstorm scent so
beloved by desert-dwellers. (The refreshing smell of creosote
comes from the resinous coating of its small, fuzzy leaves.) Not
only is Creosote a dominant species in the desert Southwest,
native peoples have long lauded the plant as a “cure-all,” the
go-to herb for a wide variety of diseases and conditions, from
fever, colds, sinus infections, fungal infections. stomach pains,
and diarrhea to arthritis and cancer. Creosote is known to be
analgesic, antioxidant, and antimicrobial. Creosote contains
NDGA (nordihydroguaiaretic acid), a bio-active plant
compound which clinical studies have shown to inhibit
cancerous growths.
BioNatural Healing 10
Creosote is also known to be toxic in large quantities: if you ingest
creosote daily for two months, you will very likely experience liver
damage. But certainly, the same thing could be said for many
pharmaceuticals! Moderation in all things is the watchword.
I consume Creosote very judiciously: every month or so, I snip off a
glowing green sprig and slowly chew and swallow. Many people
consider Creosote entirely unpalatable (with the flavor of burning
truck tires); I prefer to consider the resinous taste bracing.In my
opinion, the opportunity to partake of freshly-plucked live food
brimming with life force trumps the admittedly unpleasant flavor.
Another leaf which has a rather unpalatable flavor (unless you are a
koala) is Eucalyptus globules, a shade tree native to Australia and now
naturalized throughout California and Arizona. Tall and graceful, the
Eucalyptus has long, leathery leaves which rustle in the breeze; when
the sun shines through the newest little leaves, they glow like thin-cut
jade and seem to me to sing out a celebration of sun and soil and the
joy of life.
Eucalyptus leaves are known to contain cyanide compounds and, if
eaten in large quantities, are toxic — again, unless you are a koala. It
happens that a number of foods, from lima beans to apple seeds
(which I consider a delicacy and treat), contain cyanide compounds;
however, when eaten in moderation, these foods present no hazard,
and, I trust, neither does Eucalyptus.
Eucalyptus appears to have anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and
antioxidant effects. Bachir and Benali observe: “Eucalyptus globulus
… [presents] a folk remedy for abscess, arthritis, asthma, boils,
bronchitis, burns, cancer, diabetes, diarrhea, diphtheria, dysentery,
encephalitis, enteritis, erysipelas, fever, flu, inflammation, laryngalgia,
laryngitis, leprosy, malaria, mastitis, miasma, pharygnitis, phthisis,
rhinitis, sores, sore throat, spasms, trachalgia, worms, and wounds.”
Like Creosote, I consume Eucalyptus leaves very judiciously: every
month or so, I snip off a glowing green sprig from the very end of a
branch, and slowly chew and swallow, actively savoring the
unpleasant flavor, knowing that the gracious essence of the graceful
Eucalyptus is becoming part of my being.
BioNatural Healing 11
Arteaga, Silvia, Adolfo Andrade-Cetto, and Rene Cardenas. “Larrea
tridentata (Creosote bush), an abundant plant of Mexican and US-
American deserts and its metabolite nordihydroguaiaretic acid.”
Journal of Ethnopharmacology 98 (2005) 231–239.
Bachir, Raho G. and M Benali. “Antibacterial activity of the essential
oils from the leaves of Eucalyptus globulus against Escherichia coli
and Staphylococcus aureus.Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical
Biomedicine. 2012 Sep; 2(9): 739–742. doi: 10.1016/S2221-
Christopher, John R. “Chaparral or Creosote Bush or Greaswood
(Larrea tridentata; L. divaricata; Zygophyllaceae).” The Complete
Writings of Dr. John R. Christopher.
Curran, Kevin. “Ethnobotany of southern California native plants:
Creosote bush (Larrea tridentata).” EthnoHerbalist. 2017.
“Enzyme Nutrition.” Food Enzyme Institute. 1988.
Hocking, George Macdonald. A Dictionary of Natural Products: Terms
in the Field of Pharmacognosy Relating to Natural Medicinal and
Pharmaceutical Materials and the Plants, Animals, and Minerals from
Which They Are Derived. Plexus, 1997.
Lang, Steven. “Live Foods.” Experience Life! AUG 2001
“Plant Medicine Notes-Chaparral (Larrea Tridentata)” Northeast
School of Botanical Medicine.28Dec 2013.
Qabaha, Khaled, Sari Abu Ras, Jehad Abbadi, and Fuad Al-Rimawi.
“Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Eucalyptus Spp. and Pistascia
Lentiscus Leaf Extracts.” African Journal of Traditionl,
Complementary, and Alternative Medicines: AJTCAM. 2016; 13(5): 1–
6. Published online 2016 Aug 12. doi: 10.21010/ajtcam.v13i5.1
Rodrigue, Frank. “Creosote Rings Preserve, Lucerne Va l l e y / Johnson
BioNatural Healing 12
Dr. Nadir Sidiqi Ph.D., an invited speaker at the International
Conference held at Sultan Qaboos University Muscat, Oman
on “Phytochemicals: Natural Alternative in Prevention of
Inflammation” (October 30-November 1 2018)
The human body has an amazing ability with respect to
inflammation that reacts in certain conditions to protect itself from
harmful stimuli, including irritants, damaged cells or pathogens. In
certain situation humans face unexpected health problems, due to
fever, cold and congestion, body pains, infections, digestive
symptoms, heart disease, shortness of breath, allergies, arteritis,
mode disorders, headaches and much more are linked directly or
indirectly to the inflammation.
It is important to understand and distinguish between inflammation
and infection. Inflammation whereas occurs when the human body
fights to remove those invaders. While infection occurs when
bacteria, fungi, virus or plasmodium invade the body. However,
there are certain foods, herbs, supplements, that humans eats along
with lifestyle play an important role in the prevention of
inflammation, while, other certain foods that consumers will initiate
the development of inflammatory diseases. The author Sunil Pai MD
“An Inflammation Nation (2016)” described in his book that
inflammation is a fundamental pathologic process. It consists of a
dynamic complex of cellular changes that are visible only under a
microscope. These changes include cellular infiltration and mediator
release, which occurs in the affected blood vessels and adjacent
tissues in response to an injury or abnormal stimulation caused by a
physical, chemical or biological agent. These clots are responsible
for the majority of heart attacks and most strokes.
BioNatural Healing 13
Inflammation and environmental factors: Adverse environmental
factors such as toxins from the food, pollutant chemicals (pesticides,
synthetic materials) from the air and water are significantly important
in the development of inflammatory diseases. For example, a
headache is one of the common types of inflammation, which is
temporary. Inflammation and their root causes: As pointed out by
Melanie Finley, in his book, “Fighting Inflammatory Disease:
Inflammation Explained + Anti-Inflammatory Recipes (2017)”.
Low level of glutathione (the peptide that contains amino acids
and plays an important role in the oxido-reduction reaction)
Low levels of vitamin D and antioxidant substances
A high level of malondialdehyde (a marker of oxidative stress that
is formed when fats are oxidized)
Increased levels of oxidized glutathione
High levels of fructosamine (are compounds that result from
glycation reactions between a sugar and a primary amine)
High levels of homocysteine (is a non-proteinogenic α-amino
High level of peroxidation (is the oxidative degradation of lipids)
Isoprostane (makers of oxidative stress that are formed when fats
are oxidized)
BioNatural Healig 14
Natural Alternative Anti-
inflammatory: Phytochemicals of various
plants as anatural alternative in the
prevention of chronic diseases particularly
in the prevention of inflammation.For
example, pomegranate (Punica granatum
L), frankincense (Boswellia sacra)
And turmeric (Curcuma aromatica, C.
domestica, C. longa). However,let us focus
briefly in turmeric constituents include
three curcuminoids (curcumin,
desmethoxycurcumin, and
bisdemethoxycurcumin).Over 7000 studies
have shown that curcumin has astrong
anti-oxidation and anti-inflammatory
activities based on the molecular basis of
curcumin’s attributed antioxidant, anti-
inflammatory, anti-bacterial, anti-apoptosis,
anti-cancer, and other related activities.
Curcumin has been used as aremedy for
the prevention and treatment of many
organ and tissue disorders, most of which
are associated with inflammation and
oxidative stress.Curcumin alleviates
oxidative stress, inflammation in chronic
diseases and regulates inflammatory and
pro-inflammatory pathways related to most
chronic diseases.Many factors involved in
the management and prevention of
inflammation as mentioned earlier need to
be considered.
BioNatural Healing 15
Finley Melanie, Fighting Inflammatory Disease: Inflammation Explained + Anti-Inflammatory Recipes
Finley Melanie, Fighting Inflammatory Disease: Inflammation Explained + Anti-Inflammatory Recipes
Allison, D.J.; Ditor, D.S. Immune dysfunction and chronic inflammation following spinal cord injury.
Spinal Cord 2014, 53, 14–18.
Schraufstatter, I.; Hyslop, P.A.; Jackson, J.H.; Cochrane, C.G. Oxidant-induced DNA damage of target
cell. J. Clin. Investig. 1988, 82, 1040–1050.
Reuter, S.; Gupta, S.C.; Chaturvedi, M.M.; Aggarwal, B.B. Oxidative stress, inflammation, and cancer,
How are they linked? Free Radic. Biol. Med. 2010, 49, 1603–1616.
He Yan, et al., Curcumin, Inflammation, and Chronic Diseases: How Are They Linked? (2015).
Atreya, I.; Atreya, R.; Neurath, M.F. NF-kappaB in inflammatory bowel disease. J. Intern. Med. 2008,
263, 591–596.
Taylor, R.A.; Leonard, M.C. Curcumin for inflammatory bowel disease, a review of human studies.
Altern. Med. Rev. 2011, 16, 152–156.
Sugimoto, K.; Hanai, H.; Tozawa, K.; Aoshi, T.; Uchijima, M.; Nagata, T.; Koide, Y. Curcumin
prevents and ameliorates trinitrobenzene surfonic acide induced colitis in mice. Gastroenterology 2002,
123, 1912–1922.
McCann, M.J.; Johnston, S.; Reilly, K.; Men, X.; Burgess, E.J.; Perry, N.B.; Roy, N.C. The Effect of
Turmeric (Curcuma longa) Extract on the Functionality of the Solute Carrier Protein 22 A4 (SLC22A4)
and Interleukin-10 (IL-10) Variants Associated with Inflammatory Bowel Disease. Nutrients 2014, 6,
Innovation, Educational Announcement (Conference,
Dr. Nadir Sidiqi on behalf of BioNatural Healing College
Participated as an exhibitor at the California Academy of
Nutrition and Dietetic Annual Conference April 11-13, 2019
(Riverside, California)
BioNatural Healing
Mission: BioNatural Healing College is a non-profit public benefit
institution that has tax-exempt status under the Internal Revenue
Service, Section 501(c)(3) of the United States of America. Our goal is
to offer a high-quality education a diploma program as well as holistic
health and nutrition conferences, seminars, workshop, and continuing
education. The focus of these educational programs is to offer healing
and holistic nutrition science through online distance learning. These
dynamic online education programs will provide diverse adult learners
throughout the world the experience of enhancing their quality of life,
their health, and their happiness. Vision: The faculty, staff and
management team of BioNatural Healing College are passionately
committed to providing the best teaching possible in this field.We seek
to encourage, motivate and explain the importance of this field to
prospective students so that they may make an informed decision
regarding enrollment. We seek an ultimate goal of satisfaction for the
student based on responsibility, commitment, respect, awareness and
sustainable education for society. Accreditation and Recognition:
BioNatural Healing College is based in California. It is an institution
that has the goal to deliver on-demand online distance learning around
the globe. This education is of high quality and vocational in nature.
BioNatural Healing College is a legal business entity that has been
approved to operate by the State of California's Bureau for Private
Postsecondary Education that set forth in the educational code.
BioNatural Healing College is not accredited by the United States
Department of Education. BioNatural Healing College is a member of
the American Holistic Health Association (AHHA).
19BioNatural Healing
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Background: Eucalyptus spp. and Pistascia lentiscus are among the Palestinian trees that are traditionally used in folkloric medicine in treating many diseases; leaves of which are thought to have anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and antioxidant effects. The goal of this study is to evaluate the in vitro inhibitory effect of Eucalyptus spp. and Pistascia lentiscus extracts on Lipopolysacaride (LPS)-induced Interlukin-6 (Il-6) and Tumor Necrosis Factor-α (TNF-α) by polymorphonuclear Cells (PMNCs). Materials and Methods: Polymorphonuclear cells were isolated from the whole blood using Histopaque (Ficol-1077) method and then cultured in an enriched Roswell Park Memorial Institute (RBMI) medium. Supernatants’ Interlukin-6 (IL-6) and Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF-α) levels were determined 24 hour after LPS stimulation. HPLC was employed to determine the concentration of phenolic compounds in the extracts. The concentrations of TNF-α and IL-6 were compared using paired-samples t test. Results: Eucalyptus spp. and Pistascia lentiscus leaves extracts have shown significant reduction in the levels of both Il-6 and TNF-α Gallic acid; a strong anti-inflammatory agent was found to be the major phenolic compound in both leaf extracts. However, other antiinflammatory phenolic compounds were detected in Pitascia lentiscus extract including syringic acid and p-coumaric acid, while chlorogenic acid was detected in Eucalyptus spp. leaf extract. Conclusion: Reduction in the levels of Il-6 and TNF-α upon the effect of both Eucalyptus spp. and Pistascia lentiscus extract is an indication of their anti-inflammatory effects. Our results may also indicate that the observed anti-inflammatory effect of the above extracts may be due to the presence of gallic acid and other phenolic compounds.
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It is extensively verified that continued oxidative stress and oxidative damage may lead to chronic inflammation, which in turn can mediate most chronic diseases including cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular, neurological, inflammatory bowel disease and pulmonary diseases. Curcumin, a yellow coloring agent extracted from turmeric, shows strong anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities when used as a remedy for the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases. How oxidative stress activates inflammatory pathways leading to the progression of chronic diseases is the focus of this review. Thus, research to date suggests that chronic inflammation, oxidative stress, and most chronic diseases are closely linked, and the antioxidant properties of curcumin can play a key role in the prevention and treatment of chronic inflammation diseases.
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Study design: Review article. Objectives: The objective of this study is to provide an overview of the many factors that contribute to the chronic inflammatory state typically observed following spinal cord injury (SCI). Methods: Literature review. Results: Not applicable. Conclusion: SCI is typically characterized by a low-grade inflammatory state due to a number of factors. As bidirectional communication exists between the nervous, endocrine and immune systems, damage to the spinal cord may translate into both endocrinal and immune impairment. Damage to the autonomic nervous system may induce immune dysfunction directly, through the loss of neural innervation of lymphoid organs, or indirectly by inducing endocrinal impairment. In addition, damage to the somatic nervous system and the corresponding loss of motor and sensory function increases the likelihood of developing a number of secondary health complications and metabolic disorders associated with a state of inflammation. Lastly, numerous related disorders associated with a state of chronic inflammation have been found to be at a substantially higher prevalence following SCI. Together, such factors help explain the chronic inflammatory state and immune impairment typically observed following SCI. An understanding of the interactions between systems, both in health and disease, and the many causes of chronic inflammation may aid in the effective future treatment of immune dysfunction and related disorders following SCI.
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Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic relapsing disease. Genetic predisposition to the disease reduces an individual's capacity to respond appropriately to environmental challenges in the intestine leading to inappropriate inflammation. IBD patients often modify their diet to mitigate or reduce the severity of inflammation. Turmeric (Curcuma longa L., Zingiberaceae) has historically been used in Chinese, Hindu, and Ayurvedic medicine over several centuries to treat inflammatory disorders. To understand how turmeric may influence the consequences of a genetic predisposition to inappropriate inflammation, we used HEK293 cells to examine the in vitro capacity of turmeric extract and fractions to affect the functionality of two gene variants, solute carrier protein 22 A4 (SLC22A4, rs1050152) and interleukin-10 (IL-10, rs1800896) associated with IBD. We found that a turmeric extract and several chromatographically separated fractions beneficially affected the variants of SLC22A4 and IL-10 associated with IBD, by reducing inappropriate epithelial cell transport (SLC22A4, 503F) and increasing anti-inflammatory cytokine gene promoter activity (IL-10, -1082A). The effect of turmeric on the IL-10 variant was strongly associated with the curcumin content of the extract and its fractions.
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In this study we examined the leukocytic oxidant species that induce oxidant damage of DNA in whole cells. H2O2 added extracellularly in micromolar concentrations (10-100 microM) induced DNA strand breaks in various target cells. The sensitivity of a specific target cell was inversely correlated to its catalase content and the rate of removal of H2O2 by the target cell. Oxidant species produced by xanthine oxidase/purine or phorbol myristate acetate-stimulated monocytes induced DNA breakage of target cells in proportion to the amount of H2O2 generated. These DNA strand breaks were prevented by extracellular catalase, but not by superoxide dismutase. Cytotoxic doses of HOCl, added to target cells, did not induce DNA strand breakage, and myeloperoxidase added extracellularly in the presence of an H2O2-generating system, prevented the formation of DNA strand breaks in proportion to its H2O2 degrading capacity. The studies also indicated that H2O2 formed hydroxyl radical (.OH) intracellularly, which appeared to be the most likely free radical responsible for DNA damage: .OH was detected in cells exposed to H2O2; the DNA base, deoxyguanosine, was hydroxylated in cells exposed to H2O2; and intracellular iron was essential for induction of DNA strand breaks.
The Sprague-Dawley-strain rats were devided and classified into four groups: (1) the rats fed on the basal diets, (2) the rats fed on the basal diets containing 1% cholesterol, (3) the rats fed on the basal diets containing 16% spirulina, and (4) the rats fed on the basal diets containing 16% spirulina and 1% cholesterol. The results obtained were as follows. Elevation in total cholesterol, LDL+VLDL cholesterol, and phosholipids in serum caused by cholesterol feeding (Group 2) were reduced clearly by feeding (Group 4). Fall' in HDL cholesterol level caused by cholesterol feeding (Group 2) was reduced by feeding spirulina (Group 4). It was expected from these results that spirulina may prevent dietary hypercholesterolemia and arteriosclerosis. And, dietary hypercholesterolemia caused by cholesterol feeding was cured by spirulina feeding. The fatty liver caused by high-fat and high-cholesterol diets was also cured rapidly by feeding spirulina.
To evaluate the use of curcumin in inflammatory bowel disease. ALTMEDEX, Comprehensive Database of Natural Medicines, MEDLINE/PubMed were searched from January 1980 through May 2009 using the terms curcumin, turmeric, ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, Curcuma longa, Curcuma domestica, Indian saffron, inflammatory bowel disease. Data was limited to human trials. References of identified articles were reviewed. Data evaluating the use of curcumin in inflammatory bowel disease (including ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease) is limited to two studies comprising data for only 99 patients. Curcumin in conjunction with mainstream therapy, consisting of sulfasalazine (SZ) or mesalamine (5-aminosalicylic acid [5-ASA] derivatives) or corticosteroids was shown to improve patient symptoms and allow for a decrease in the dosage of corticosteroids or 5-ASA derivatives. In one small study of 10 patients, some patients even stopped taking corticosteroids or 5-ASA. Although two small studies have shown promising results, all authors conclude that larger-scale, double-blind trials need to be conducted to establish a role for curcumin in the treatment of ulcerative colitis. In addition to improving results when used in conjunction with conventional medications for UC, curcumin may pose a less-expensive alternative.