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Open educational resources in continuing adult education: development in the German-speaking area

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Abstract Open Educational Resources (OER) allow many different uses in educational work that are excluded from traditional materials by copyright laws, such as modifying and republishing existing materials. This article examines the current role of OER in the field of adult education in German-speaking area, especially in Germany, Austria and Switzerland. Although nowadays the topic of digitization is given a high strategic importance in continuing education in Switzerland, OER plays just a subordinate role there.
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R E S E A R C H Open Access
Open educational resources in continuing
adult education: development in the
German-speaking area
Sandra Schön
1
and Martin Ebner
2*
* Correspondence: martin.ebner@
tugraz.at
2
Educational Technology, Graz
University of Technology, Graz,
Austria
Full list of author information is
available at the end of the article
Abstract
Open Educational Resources (OER) allow many different uses in educational work
that are excluded from traditional materials by copyright laws, such as modifying
and republishing existing materials. This article examines the current role of OER in
the field of adult education in German-speaking area, especially in Germany, Austria
and Switzerland. Although nowadays the topic of digitization is given a high
strategic importance in continuing education in Switzerland, OER plays just a
subordinate role there.
Keywords: Open education, Open educational resources, German speaking countries
Introduction
The former and basic idea of general adult education institutions in German-speaking
Europe was that education has to be openly accessible and for free. The first initiatives,
then called Volksbildung, were free of charge - e.g. libraries and popular science lec-
tures (Dostal, 2008) - and even today lectures, e.g. at Vienna Adult Education Centres,
are partly free of charge. Today, however, the courses themselves have to be paid and
are not free of charge. Although the Internet would allow to share learning materials
for free, copyright and no existing fair useregulation limits the use dramatically as
well. On the other side, german stakeholders foresee that information technologies and
Technology Enhanced Learning (TEL) offerings will be increasingly used in continuing
education (e.g. Wuppertaler Kreis, 2014, p.11). With increasing digitization - i.e. in-
creasingly also in continuing vocational training, especially in continuing training in
huge companies and in occupations where people work on computers - situations that
violate strong copyright law are occurring more and more frequently (cf. Hartmann,
2014). And it is known from surveys that adult educators like to create their own
course materials and also use materials from others (cf. Kreitlein & Newrly, 2015, p. 8).
Therefore, the development and availability of so-called open educational resources
might be of big interest in German speaking countries in the field of adult/continuing
education (Ebner et al., 2015).
Open educational resources are teaching and learning materials that are deliberately
made freely accessible for use by others. The term free educational materialsis used
synonymously (Bündnis Freie Bildung, 2018). Open educational resources can also be
© The Author(s). 2019 Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International
License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium,
provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and
indicate if changes were made.
Smart Learnin
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reproduced, printed, modified and republished (cf. Geser, 2007). In order for this to be
legally possible, the materials must be provided with appropriate declarations or, better
still, so-called freeor openlicensed. Three license options of the Creative Commons
licenses are most widespread: CC BY, CC BY-SA and CC 0 (cf. Bündnis Freie Bildung,
2015; Ebner et al., 2016, Schaffert & Geser, 2008; Schön, Ebner, & Lienhardt,
2011).
It is to be expected that with the increase in digitization and the resulting increase in
awareness and prosecution of copyright infringements, interest in OER and its use will
also increase in order to be able to deal with third-party materials in a legally compliant
manner. But what is the current status?
Research question and methodology
This article provides an answer to the following research question: Where do the
German-speaking European countries (Germany, Austria and Switzerland) currently
stand concerning OER in the field of adult / continuing education?
In this article we like to give an overview of the current status of OER in German-
speaking European countries. Therefore, we will describe projects and the status quo of
OER in continuing education in Germany, Austria and Switzerland. The synopsis is
based on preparatory work by other authors (Blees, Deimann, Seipel, Hirschmann, &
Muuß-Merholz, 2015; Kreitlein & Newrly, 2015; Orr, Neumann, & Muuss-Merholz,
2017; Tschofen, 2014) and on our own contributions (e.g. Lüthi & Sterchi, 2015; Schön
& Ebner, 2015; Schön, Kreissl, Dobusch, & Ebner, 2017; Schön, Rossegger, & Ebner,
2012), in particular on the compilation of the analysis of OER in Germany commis-
sioned by the German Ministry of Education (Ebner et al., 2015). In addition, develop-
ments for Switzerland were added to the contribution (Reimer & Böller, 2017; Reimer
& Edinger, 2014). We additionally did detailed investigations concerning some mile-
stones in OER-development within these countries.
General OER development in the three countries
The Journal of the National Agency (Education for Europe) at the German Federal
Institute for Vocational Education and Training (BIBB) contains a longer article on the
significance of OER from the perspective of the EU Commission (Bettray, 2014): The
EU Commission particularly emphasizes the systemic level with the demand to adapt
the organizational strategies of institutions of general and vocational education and
training with regard to IT-supported learning and OER(Bettray, 2014, own transla-
tion). When this contribution was published OER was is not at all a common term
amongst adult educators. But, similar as in other countries worldwide, the OER move-
ment started already about 10 years ago with the start of Creative Commons chapters
by funding first OER working groups and conference. And overview about these dates
is given in Table 1.
Pretty early, and before the start of the Wikipedia project in 2001, the project
Austria-Forum(www.austria-lexikon.at) was developed from the project aeiou
(Annotierbares Elektronisches Interaktives Österreichisches UniversalInformationssys-
tem) and offers free content about Austria itself. It consists of four sections and offers
more than 33,000 entries about Austria. These originate from an editorial team, which
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intensively takes care since the 1990ies. Today the platform is well-known as Austria
Forumand holds more than 1.000.000 digital objects.
Due to different terms for OER within the first years, it is very tricky to research on
the history of its development. Austria seemed to be for many years the leading
German speaking nation, driven with several bottom-up initiatives as well funded initia-
tives (the usage of open licenses was voluntary). Germany has caught up with OER in
recent years, in particular through specific calls for tenders. In 2007, the EduMedia
conference in Salzburg was the first conference in German-speaking Europe. After-
wards, an increase in events on this topic can be observed since 2013, including OER
camps and OER festivals, mainly in Germany. Switzerland needed nearly more than
one decade longer to organize the first bigger OER conference (2019).
From a political educational view there are some big initiatives of funding of OER in
Germany: The working group of representatives of the federal states and the federal govern-
ment on Open Educational Resources (OER) published a statement in 2014 explicitly calling
for an Information and Coordination Office for OER,especially for he areas of schools
and lifelong learning(cf. Kultusministerkonferenz und BundesministeriumfürBildungund
Forschung (kurz KMK/BMBF), 2015,p.10).Finally,twomajorOERprojectswerefunded
by the German ministry in 2015, including Mapping OERby the Wikimedia Foundation
with 600,000 euros (Hochschulforum Digitalisierung, 2016). In addition, in 20172018 the
OER funding line of the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research
1
(BMBF) ex-
plicitly supported OER continuing education and counselling with 2 million euros.
In Austria, too, OER plays a proven strategic role, particularly in the area of schools
and universities; under the last Federal Chancellor Christian Kern, OER 2017 was expli-
citly mentioned in the national digital agenda. Furthermore, the ministry of science to-
gether with national associations published two strategical whitepapers about the use of
Table 1 Milestones in OER-related developments in Austria, Germany and Switzerland
Austria Germany Switzerland
First free online content
initiatives
Origins in 1996:
http://www.aeiou.at,
collection of
Austria-related
information
Foundation of the
German-speaking
(not necessarily German)
Wikipedia in 2001
SWITCHcollection -
National Learning
Object Repository
in 2009
Funding/Start of Creative
Commons Chapter
2004 2007 2007
First OER working groups Since 2015: OER
working group
at FNMA
Since 2006:
Bildungsbündnis Open
Content
About 2010:
OER SiG @ Eduhub
First conference 2007 (final OLCOS
conference in Salzburg
named EduMedia)
2007 in Stuttgart
(Open Content)
2013 in Berlin
(Wikimedia)
2019 in Luzern
OER policies Several OER projects
were funded by the
ministry since the
2010ies, but their
usage of open license
was not obligatory. In 2015,
the chancellor took OER
explicitly in his digital agenda
2014 funding of two
bigger projects: an
OER portal and a
mapping project, 2015
funding for several
OER projects
No explicit OER policy or
public funding so far.
1
https://www.bmbf.de/foerderungen/bekanntmachung-1132.html (2018-02-24)
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OER in Higher Education. The topic is also present in the area of adult education;
the above-mentioned magazine erwachsenenbildung.at and a rather huge online-course
called EBmoocare funded by a federal ministry. In Switzerland, at least in the german
speaking part, there is a lack of comparable public funding programs, and OER also
plays a rather subordinate role in government publications or calls for research
projects.
OER in continuing education within the three countries
Within this chapter, we want to give examples of OER within the field of continuing
education from Austria, Germany and Switzerland.
Provider and offers of OER in the field of adult education
In a survey of public libraries in Baden-Württemberg in 2014, no institution stated that it
offered OER (Tschofen, 2014, p. 51). Although the public libraries play an important role
as places of learning, especially for self-directed learning in leisure time, here, too, more
involvement with regard to OER is only slowly emerging. OER have still a difficult pos-
ition in the area of continuing vocational/company training (cf. Ebner et al., 2015).
In Austria and Germany, adult education associations and platforms are active in the
field of OER, e.g. by operating platforms with OER. Two German-language collections of
OER materials for adult education have been published under open licenses since 2016:
the Austrian magazine erwachsenenbildung.atand the portal of the same name
erwachsenenbildung.at(CC BY) and the German counterpart, the portal wb-web, initi-
ated by the German Institute for Adult Education together with the Bertelsmann Founda-
tion. A comparable Swiss offer in adult education does not yet exist. OER offers under
open CC licenses, which are also interesting for adult educators, can be found in
Switzerland, for example, in the area of teacher training. OER can be found on zebis.ch
and the PHBern idea sets. Other Swiss services are accessible free of charge or are only
released for non-commercial use, although there is often no binding open licensing (see
Reimer & Böller, 2017, p. 88). But there is no special OER offer for adult education.
The following Table 2tries to give an overview of developments outlined in relation
to OER in adult education in the three German-speaking European countries. It shows
that whereas in the (10 times bigger than Austria) Germany, OER is a topic in adult
education magazines since about 2012, same in Austria. For Switzerland a first finding
is from 2018.
Only for a few economic sectors and companies is openness in itself a success factor
and value. Probst (2014) names the strengths of open source development as follows:
Table 2 OER in adult/continuing education in Austria, Germany and Switzerland
Austria Germany Switzerland
OER platforms for adult/
continuing education
http://erwachsenenbildung.at
(since 2016 under CC BY)
http://wb-web.de
(established under
CC BY 2016)
No offer.
OER in adult education:
Whitepaper and status
quo analysis
Not available so far Blees et al. (2015)
Schön, Ebner,
and Schön (2015)
Not available so far
OER as topic in adult
education journals
Schön et al. (2012) Klebl (2012)
Clark (2013)
Schön and Ebner (2018)
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Openness, trust, transparency, diversity, the courage to innovate and meritocracy are
moving to the forefront of an innovative corporate culture.Cogneon GmbH is still a
rare case of a commercial enterprise offering OER. In the Cogneon Wiki, the GmbH
presents OER provision as part of its strategy (see Pape, 2013). Other providers of OER
for adult education purposes are universities. Within Switzerland, there does not seem
to be a single organization within adult/continuing education providing OER on a
higher level.
Hirschmann (2015, translation by authors) explains about OER in continuing educa-
tion: Strong impulses and initiatives on the topic of OER materials in adult education/
continuing education come from general continuing education and political education.
These areas are financed with public funds and see their educational mandate as edu-
cation for all, i.e. they want to disseminate their offers as widely as possible and with
low hurdles(Hirschmann, 2015, p. 29). From the perspective of teachers in general
continuing education, too, financing is an important criterion for the provision of mate-
rials as OER, according to one expert in the analysis of the current situation of OER in
Germany - however, the pay of teachers and the promotion of public continuing educa-
tion are so scarce that they are all competing against each other (cf. Ebner et al., 2015).
Online courses on continuing education as an OER
In addition, there are numerous OER offers that can be used for further training of adults.
Openly licensed courses are a special feature of the OERs continuing education pro-
grammes. It is important to note that not every online course or MOOC(for Massive
Open Online Course, i.e. open online course for many; see McAuley, Stewart, Siemens,
& Cormier, 2010) is openly licensed. The openfor MOOCs refers in general only to the
absence of formal access conditions; it does not mean that the content of the MOOC is
generally freely licensed (cf. Ebner, Kopp, Wittke, & Schön, 2014). However, the online
courses presented below are based exclusively on openly licensed materials, i.e. OER (cf.
also Ebner et al., 2015). In particular, the two German-language OER-MOOC platforms,
the Austrian platform imoox.at(Kopp & Ebner, 2013)andthecourseplatformofthe
FH Lübeck oncampus(formerly mooin), should be mentioned here; both providers
cooperate (see MOOChub
2
). Adult education institutions have already successfully partic-
ipated in open licensed MOOCs, for example the Austrian Adult Education Association
received a state prize in 2015 for the online course Gratis Online Lernen(Ebner et al.,
2015; Schön & Ebner, 2014).
The so-called EBmoocfor teachers in continuing education was carried out for the
first time in 2017 (by the conedu association on the imoox.at platform) and, with more
than 1000 graduates, has a wide reach - probably Europes largest train-the-trainer
measurement. The use of OER enabled many uncomplicated cooperations with pro-
viders of accompanying classroom events; repetitions of the successful model are
planned for the next few years (Ebner et al., 2017) and the EBmooc will be relaunched
2020. The Swiss offer of MOOCs is predominantly made available by universities with
the aim of making research-based content from teaching and research available to
members of the university and an interested public. However, the offers - among others
2
see http://www.onlinebynature.com/2015/05/moochub-imoox-und-mooin-gruenden-neues-mooc-netzwerk/
(2015-05-05)
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from the University of Zurich, ETH, University of Geneva or EPFL - are not openly
licensed.
Further education offers and research on the topic
In the publications about OER in continuing education, it is repeatedly pointed out that
qualification-offers would be an important measurement to inform people about OER
and thus to support its development and use. Among the research projects that specif-
ically deal with OER in continuing education in German-speaking countries is the pro-
ject OERup!, which deals with regional adult education initiatives and the situation of
OER in the regions (cf. Kreitlein & Newrly, 2015). In Austria, the research and develop-
ment project EBmooc is to mentioned here again. No specific research on OER in adult
education can be found in Switzerland.
The online courses on open educational resources with the abbreviation COERare
also relevant in the sense of continuing education and OER, although without the par-
ticipation of a traditional continuing education institution. When the course was first
done in 2013, more than 1000 registered participants were counted, and most will have
seen it as part of their continuing vocational training. COER13.dewas developed and
implemented through a cooperation of e-teaching.orgwith other German, Belgian and
Austrian institutions (Arnold, Kumar, Schön, Ebner, & Thillosen, 2015). On the plat-
form imoox.at, the course has been regularly conducted and updated in a modified
form since May 2015. Since the course materials are openly licensed learning videos, all
materials remain accessible and usable (Ebner, Lorenz, et al., 2016).
Public recognition of OER with awards within adult education
The Austrian State Prize for Adult Education 2015 was awarded to the openly licensed
online course on the MOOC-platform iMooX.at and the cooperation project Free On-
line Learningwith more than 1000 participants in the category Digital Literacy.In
2017, the Austrian organization CONEDU led the openly licensed online course for
digitization in adult education (EBmooc47), which was the largest German-language
adult education initiative. More than 3000 registered participants have successfully
completed the course. Funding was provided from the Federal Ministry of Education
(Ebner et al., 2017). In Germany, a special OER award were installed 2017: At the OER
Conference 2017 in Berlin, an OER Award was presented for the best projects in the
field of Open Educational Resources in German-speaking countries. The WB-Web plat-
form was awarded in the area of further education. Within Switzerland, we neither
found an awarded OER project, nor OER awards.
Interpretation
To sum up, surprisingly big differences can be stated between OER in adult educa-
tion in Austria and German on the one side and within Switzerland on the other.
Whereas Germany and Austria now already have OER platforms, initiatives and
projects for some years now, the first OER conference in Switzerland in January
2019 had a workshop (amongst others) titled with Does Switzerland also want to
promote a culture of openness?(see conference program).
Schön and Ebner Smart Learning Environments (2019) 6:25 Page 6 of 9
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The structures of adult education in Germany and its much smaller neighbor Austria
are comparable. Both countries are also members of the EU, which has declared OER a
strategy (European Commission, 2013). In spite of (partly) the same language, Switzerland
differs structurally a lot, so there is no specific association for the so-called general adult
education, the association represents both public and private providers.
In both countries, Germany and Austria, the OER-way happened quite similar. There
were some first grassroot-projects. Afterwards the federal ministries got aware of those
ones and installed first funding for further projects. In parallel first strategic implemen-
tations have been done. Today, OER might be on the way to get recognized by mass of
teachers and lecturers and seen as alternative to the strict copyright law in middle
Europe. On the other side this article points also out, that it needed more than 10 years
to bring the idea of Open Educational Resources to a broad public and it is still far
away from a usual practice, especially in adult education.
Acknowledgements
There are no acknowledgements.
Authorscontributions
SS researched about the differences in the countries (Germany, Switzerland, Austria). ME participated in the overall
sections (introduction, definition). Both discussed about the final outcome and the conclusion. Both authors read and
approved the final manuscript.
Funding
There was no funding at all.
Availability of data and materials
Data sharing is not applicable to this article as no datasets were generated or analysed during the current study. So,
we have to state Not applicable.
Competing interests
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
Author details
1
Salzburg Research, Innovation Lab, Salzburg, Austria.
2
Educational Technology, Graz University of Technology, Graz,
Austria.
Received: 11 October 2019 Accepted: 5 December 2019
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... The interest to the MOOCs, the 'big thing' in Open and Distance Learning [13], doesn't descend from 2012. There are hundreds of researches referring to different aspects of motivation, context, and structure of MOOCs including the use of such learning platforms in various national contexts [8,12,16,17]. Some studies are devoted to participants of MOOCs [3,5,7,18]. ...
... And to upgrade promote of OER, recommended by the author(s). Schön & Ebner (2019) in their article examined the current role of OER in the field of adult education in the Germanspeaking region, particularly in Germany, Austria and Switzerland. Zhang et al. ...
Article
Full-text available
The concept of Open Educational Resources (OER) is a topic of growing interest for researchers as a powerful contribution to improving the quality and openness of the education system. The goal of this particular research is to review the literature on the concept of ‘Open Educational Resources (OER)’ through bibliometric lens, published by SpringerLink for the past one decade. The study provides a detailed concept and definition of open educational resources and review of related literature. The bibliographic details were retrieved from SpringerLink database (https://link,springer.com) by using keywords such as ‘open educational resources,’ ‘OER’. The bibliographical details of 1824 literatures published were recorded in MS-Excel 2019 sheet. The paper shows that during the period of 2011-2020, different categories of literature were published and Chapter has occupied the most literature published by Springer Link. The present paper also reveals the year-wise growth, authorship pattern, author productivity, most productive journals, highest contributed institutions and geographical distribution of the research output. The Annual Growth Rate (AGR), Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR), Relative Growth Rate (RGR), Doubling Time of literature followed by the indicators such as degree of collaboration; collaborative index and collaboration coefficient have been calculated and presented.
Chapter
Full-text available
Mit der Abkürzung MOOC für „Massive Open Online Courses“ werden Online-Kurse bezeichnet, die mehr als 150 TeilnehmerInnen erreichen. Diese Lern- und Darbietungsform von Inhalten für sehr viele Personen, auch aus unterschiedlichen Einrichtungen und persönlichen Situationen, ist auch für die Erwachsenen- und Weiterbildung interessant. Auf der österreichischen MOOC-Plattform iMooX.at werden seit 2014 MOOCs mit offen lizenzierten Bildungsmaterialien von Hochschullehrenden angeboten, die ohne weitere Zugangsvoraussetzungen (wie z. B. Hochschulreife) genutzt werden können. Einige der Online-Kurse sind explizit der Erwachsenen- und Weiterbildung zuzuordnen und werden von EB-Einrichtungen (mit-)veranstaltet. Die Verantwortlichen für diese MOOCs mit insgesamt etwa 21.000 registrierten TeilnehmerInnen und mehreren Auszeichnungen tragen in dieser Veröffentlichung ihre Erfahrungen zusammen: Wo liegen Potenziale von MOOCs? Wo gibt es Schwierigkeiten und Herausforderungen? Welche Empfehlungen gibt es für NachahmerInnen? Dieser Beitrag ist somit ein kondensierter Blick auf den aktuellen MOOC-Einsatz in der Erwachsenenbildung und unter der Voraussetzung der Nutzung offen lizenzierter Bildungsmaterialien.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Vorabdruck - Original veröffentlicht bei: Schön, S.; Ebner, M.; Lienhardt, C. (2011) Der Wert und dieFinanzierung von freien Bildungsressourcen. - in: Virtual Enterprises, Communities & Social Networks, S. 239 – 250.
Article
Full-text available
Mit Materialien zu arbeiten, die nicht von einem selbst stammen, ist auch in der Erwachsenenbildung üblich. Dabei gilt es aber einige Dinge zu beachten.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) have been a hype in technology enhanced learning systems the last couple of years. The promises behind MOOCs stand on delivering free and open education to the public, as well as training a large criterion of students. However, MOOCs clashes severely with students dropout which by then forced educationalists to deeply think of MOOCs effectivity from all angles. As a result, the authors of this paper propose a pedagogical idea that strongly depends on injecting the online learning (MOOC) with face-to-face sessions to refresh the students minds as well as integrating them in the real learning process. The authors after that analyze the results of their experiment using Learning Analytics. The outcomes have shown a new record of certification ratio (35.4%), an improvement of student interaction in the MOOC platform, and a manifest in social interaction in the MOOC discussion forum.
Chapter
Full-text available
In this chapter, we discuss why open educational resources (OER) and MOOCs are a necessary and powerful combination, especially in German-speaking Europe. We begin with an introduction to open online courses and an overview of copyright law in Germany and Austria. We then describe the evolution of OER MOOCs in Austria and Germany, especially the development of two MOOC platforms. Finally, we present examples of the impact of OER on MOOCs to conclude that an approach combining OER and MOOCs can be very valuable to foster new and innovative didactical approaches as well as future education.
Chapter
Full-text available
In this book chapter we describe and analyze the case of COER13 (http://www.coer13.de/about.html), a community-oriented cMOOC titled ‘Online Course on Open Educational Resources’ that was run as an Austrian-German joint venture in 2013. All but one of the authors of this chapter were convenors of the course. COER13 was deliberately designed and implemented to promote the OER cause. The overall aim was to generate a comprehensive OER on the topic of OER with the course itself, using a cMOOC format to possibly reach a large audience. As a consequence all materials were openly licensed and the course design was oriented towards the production of OER on various levels. With this particular focus the case of COER13 addresses the ethical dimension of Khan’s (2006) e-learning framework, which involves viewing and evaluating e-learning with a socio-political lens, e.g. analyzing in what ways e-learning tackles urgent social challenges such as access to education for all or bridging the digital divide. Within the ethical dimension, issues of copyright and other legal issues are explicitly addressed. Hence the case presented here, with its close link to open education and alternative licensing schemes, exemplifies the challenges that have to be met when developing e-learning from an ethical perspective, striving for greater equity of access to education.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Unter der Abkürzung MOOC werden Online-Kurse verstanden, die sich poten- tiell an viele hundert TeilnehmerInnen richten. Auch der Kurs „Gratis Online Lernen“ ist auf den ersten Blick ein reines Online-Angebot. Da es sich bei der Zielgruppe um EinsteigerInnen beim Lernen handelt, wurde jedoch besonderer Wert darauf gelegt, den Kurs mit der Lebenswelt der TeilnehmerInnen zu ver- knüpfen. Die entsprechenden Aktivitäten des so bezeichneten „Inverse-Blended- Learning-Konzeptes“ führten zu einer beträchtlich hohen Abschlussquote: Von den bis Dezember 2014 849 registrierten TeilnehmerInnen wurden 383 mindes- tens einmal im Kurs aktiv, und von diesen wiederum haben 115 (30%) den Kurs erfolgreich abgeschlossen.
Chapter
Full-text available
Ziel der Ist-Analyse zu Open Educational Resources (kurz OER) in Deutschland ist es, deren Reichweite innerhalb Deutschlands abzubilden sowie insbesondere die Situation in den Bildungsbereichen Schule, Hochschule, berufliche Bildung und Weiterbildung darzustellen. Unter „OER“ werden dabei in der Studie offene Bildungsressourcen bzw. freie Bildungsmaterialien verstanden, bei denen es allen gestattet ist, das Werk entgeltfrei, ggf. unter Auflagen, zu bearbeiten und weiterzuverbreiten. Dazu müssen die Materialien mit einer freien Lizenz zur Verfügung gestellt worden sein (z.B. CC BY oder CC BY-SA) oder der Gemeinfreiheit unterliegen. Der Ist-Stand zur Situation und Debatte um OER in Deutschland wird anhand existierender Quellen (insbesondere vorhandener Publikationen) abgebildet. Ergänzend werden im Vorfeld durchgeführte (Kurz-) Interviews sowie schriftlich gestellte Anfragen an Expertinnen und Experten präsentiert. Die Darstellung der Situation von OER in den einzelnen Bildungsbereichen greift jeweils deren (fach-)spezifische Besonderheiten auf, die in Bezug auf verwendete Bildungsmaterialien von Bedeutung sind. Die Ist-Analyse richtet sich an Bildungsexpertinnen und -experten, die sich zum Stand der Entwicklung zu OER in Deutschland informieren möchten. Diese Analyse entstand im Projekt Mapping OER - Bildungsmaterialien gemeinsam gestalten. Das Projekt wird durchgeführt von Wikimedia Deutschland und wird gefördert vom Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung.
Book
Texte, Dateien, Bilder, Musik: Medien spielen auch in vielen Weiterbildungsangeboten eine wichtige Rolle. Welche Urheberrechte müssen bei der Nutzung von Medien beachtet werden? Der Band informiert über die urheberrechtlichen Grundlagen und Fallstricke. Das Themenspektrum reicht von den urheberrechtlichen Grundlagen für die Nutzung von Inhalten und Bildern über Rahmenvereinbarungen mit Verwertungsgesellschaften bis zum Umgang mit Open Educational Resources und Creative-Commons-Lizenzen.