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Tata Kelola Pemilu di Indonesia

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Achieving the ideals of electoral democracy depends on well-run elections. Persistent problems of electoral integrity in transitional and established democracies have prompted a burgeoning literature seeking to explain the determinants of electoral integrity around the world. However, the study of the organisations responsible for managing the electoral process has been limited to isolated national case studies. This article opens up an interdisciplinary and international research agenda on the global study of the organisational determinants of electoral integrity. It defines the concept of electoral management and provides a framework to understand how electoral management body (EMB) institutional design, EMB performance and electoral integrity are related. Findings from new data derived from cross-national surveys of EMBs are described, providing new insights into how elections are managed worldwide.
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The meaning of “electoral governance” is often equated with “electoral administration”. The process, however, can be divided into three distinct stages: 1) formation of regulatory bodies and norms; 2) implementation of these norms; and 3) dispute resolution. Given these three parts, electoral governance amounts to much more than just administration. In this article we explain why many academic studies of electoral governance have neglected the role of conflict resolution, focusing instead on the first two elements. In this way, electoral governance is mistakenly conceived as merely a mechanism for establishing regulatory bodies and rules. Our second goal is to show readers that electoral governance is a process that starts with the enactment of legislation, continues with administrative enforcement and judicial response, and concludes when the process returns to the beginning, either through judicial interpretation or recommendation by a legislative body. Our preliminary conclusion is that a proper understanding of electoral governance must take into account the role of conflict resolution, especially for disputed elections. Lastly, consideration must be given to a final phase which incorporates a cyclical conception explaining the returning process to the legislative dimension.
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Electoral system is one of the factors that affect the development of democracy and political state. It is need to get the attention of people who want improvement democracy. The electoral system, especially in implementation of house of representative election, it becomes a study that need attention given during the general election of house of representative (DPR) members eleven times from some period of democracy is different, it cannot fully realize the elections are truly ideal for the development of democracy and resulted in the representatives of the people and reflecting the aspirations properly represent the people's interests. Electoral Systems Member house of representative applied to the Election Period Old Order Period until Election Reform Order, both the closed proportional system and open proportional system and the rest of the votes, in principle have a weakness at the same advantages. Keywords: Regulation, Election System, House of Representative AbstrakSistem pemilu sebagai salah satu faktor yang mempengaruhi perkembangan demokrasi dan politik negara, tentunya sangat perlu untuk mendapat perhatian dari kita semua yang menginginkan perbaikan demokrasi. Sistem pemilu, khususnya dalam penyelenggaraan pemilu anggota DPR, menjadi kajian yang perlu mendapat perhatian mengingat selama penyelenggaraan pemilihan umum anggota DPR sebanyak 11 (sebelas) kali dari beberapa masa demokrasi yang berbeda-beda, belum sepenuhnya dapat mewujudkan pemilu yang benar-benar ideal bagi perkembangan demokrasi dan menghasilkan wakil-wakil rakyat yang aspiratif dan benar-benar mewakili kepentingan rakyat. Sistem Pemilihan Umum Anggota DPR yang diterapkan pada Pemilu Masa Orde Lama sampai dengan Pemilu Masa Orde Reformasi, baik sistem proporsional tertutup maupun sistem proporsional terbuka dan sisa suara terbanyak, pada prinsipnya memiliki kelemahan sekaligus kelebihan. Kata Kunci: Pengaturan, Sistem Pemilihan Umum, Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat
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Pemilu yang adil dan kredibel hanya dapat direalisasikan jika dikelola oleh badan independen. Konstitusi menyatakan bahwa pemilihan dilakukan oleh badan penyelenggara yang mandiri tanpa menjelaskan lebih lanjut makna kemandirian tersebut. Melalui metode penelitian hukum normatif dan dengan menggunakan pendekatan perundang-undangan dan pendekatan kasus, penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui model kelembagaan penyelenggara pemilu pascareformasi dan makna independensi Pasal 22E ayat (5) UUD 1945 berdasarkan interpretasi Mahkamah Konstitusi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa model kelembagaan penyelenggara pemilu pascareformasi adalah model independen yang tidak melibatkan perwakilan partai politik dan birokrasi. Sebagaimana tampak dari berbagai putusan pengujian undang-undang, Mahkamah Konstitusi menafsirkan bahwa kemandirian lembaga penyelenggara pemilu yang dikehendaki oleh UUD 1945 adalah kemandirian institusional, kemandirian fungsional, dan kemandirian personal. Credible and fair election can only be realized if managed by an independent institution. The Constitution states that elections are carried out by independent electoral management bodies without further explanation of the meaning of independence. Through normative legal research methods and by using statutory and case approaches, this research aims to find out the model of post-reform election management bodies and the meaning of independence of Article 22E paragraph (5) of the 1945 Constitution based on Constitutional Court interpretation. The results of this research found that the post-reform election organizing model is an independent model that does not involve representatives of political parties and bureaucracy. As can be seen from the judicial review rulings, the Constitutional Court interprets that the independence of election management bodies desired by the 1945 Constitution includes institutional independence, functional independence and personal independence.
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