Sci.Int.(Lahore),31(6),851-854,2019 ISSN 1013-5316;CODEN: SINTE 8 851
IMPACT OF LIGHTING ON CUSTOMERS’ EMOTIONAL REACTIONS IN
1 Sadia Farooq, 2Aqib Ahmed, 3Ahsin Ch.
1 Deptt. of Interior & Environmental Design, University of Home Economics, Lahore, Pakistan.
2 Architecture and Urban Design, AA Studio, Architecture practice, Registered in England and Wales 0755429
1 email@example.com, http://www aastudio.co.uk
3NCBA&E Lahore, ALPHA Consultants, Lahore, Pakistan.
ABSTRACT: Urgency of assembling necessities of life, today human stood in the race of grasping things which raised the
demand for ready services like the food at the table. Beyond that he also wishes for pleasure and relaxation, dining in
restaurants is getting pace to get all above. The race also increased experimentation to expand the restaurants’ facilities,
workforce, building style, interior, dining arrangements, aesthetics, etc. but lighting is considered mainly for general or
decorative purposes. The researcher took the initiative to analyze the impact of change in lighting on customers ‘emotions in a
real situation. The previously used energy savers are altered with spotlights in two chosen upscale restaurants named Lahore
View restaurant with rope lights and Jasmine restaurant with chandeliers. The customers considered new Lighting more
focused, warm, bright, clear, concentrated, comfortable, pleasant, relaxed, satisfied, happy and excited than the previous
lighting in both restaurants. This concludes that both new lightings were considered accepted, on the bases of customers’
emotions. Keywords restaurant, lighting, customers, emotions, upscale restaurants
Saturation in the styles and offers in dining give rise to
demand more than food in dining out, restaurateurs become
conscious to add in more also in interiors to retain people.
The feasibility, comfort, pleasure, relaxation are current
features wanted in a dining place not only for customers but
for the survival of the specialty of the corporate.
The constructional style of a place and emotions of the
customers must be measured primarily before designing for
any space . Lighting is also crucial, exclusively, in a
selling environment where people come for their needs .
Researches [3,4, 5, 6] and John Flynn [6, 7, 8, 9, 10] tried to
unveil the impact of interior lighting such as offices,
hospitals, restaurants and also the experimentation by lighting
manufacturing that how it impacts on human moods .
The waves coming from a place are because of light there
 and that make to feel people about a place, situation or
celebration . Human feelings in space are mostly
emotional attachments when dealing with a product ,
especially while dining.
The literature and investigations proved that it is important to
plan lighting for restaurants to accommodate more customers
and to retain them.
A number of researches conclude that comprehensive interior
lighting is eminent in restaurants to satisfy people. But
lighting is not given much importance in restaurants of
Pakistan as an influencing aspect.
The researcher tried to become part of the lighting field by
trying to track the passage of Flynn, the primary investigator
of light in a natural setting [7, 8, 9, 10] and his fellow
researchers [2, 10, 14, 15, 16].
Many researchers such as Ciani, Durak, Olgunturk, Yener,
Guvenc, Gurcinar, Flynn, Hendrick, Spencer, Martyniuk,
Kotler, Zaltman [7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 17, 18,] performed
experiments with lighting but in the controlled environment.
The study was new in the aspect of doing a survey in a real
The moderate upscale restaurants were chosen owned and
designed solely, having similar interior, finishes, furniture,
menu, and lighting. The study only included moderate
upscale restaurants and only artificial lighting.
The hypothesis formulated to support the study in which the
relationship between the lighting and customers’ emotions
was considered so the following hypothesis was formulated.
H: If the lighting in the upscale restaurant is changed,
there shall be a significant change in customers’ emotions.
1. To analyze the emotions of the customers in undesigned
and designed the lighting of the selected restaurants.
There are following relates objectives to accomplish above
i. To analyze the undesigned lighting of the selected
ii. To design the needed alternatives required in the lighting
of the selected restaurants.
iii. To device new designed lighting in the selected
The research is an experiment with the lighting of the
restaurant as well as a survey of the customers’ emotional
responses. The researcher’s discussions with the restaurateur
convinced him of altering his restaurants’ lighting and he also
bored all the expenses. The restaurants were selected because
of the lighting there which was not according to the standards
set for restaurant lighting so there was margin for alteration.
Formation of the Questionnaire for Emotional Responses
A questionnaire was set to analyze lighting on customers’
emotional responses in restaurants. The emotional features
were taken from a tree structure designed by Shaver which is
also the key feature for psychological reactions . The
scholars were conflicting to depend on a single list of
emotions and a number of researchers developed their own
features but a thorough consideration resulted that Shaver’s
list of emotions is comprehensive and totally portrays the
852 ISSN 1013-5316;CODEN: SINTE 8 Sci.Int.(Lahore),31(6),851-854,2019
Selected Emotions with their Meaning
Comfortable – physical facility
Relax- relieve, naturalness
Satisfied- gratified, happy, pleased
Happy- gladness, pleasure, cheerful
Exciting- passionate, inspiring, stimulating
Pleasant- pleasing, amusing, agreeable
Frightful- unlikable, disagreeable, fearsome
Depressing- discouraging, low-spirit, sorrowful
Unnerving-dispirit, worrying. Unbearable
Finally, the nine emotional responses (table 1) were chosen
for the research which were also used by others: Flynn,
Spencer, Martyniuk, Hendrick, Flynn, Subisak, Loe,
Mansfield, & Rowlands [10, 14, 15, 20, 21] the nominated
emotions and their meanings are given in table 4:
The Likert scale on five-point, from strongly disagree,
disagree, neutral, agree and strongly agree was selected for
The demographical responses related to gender, age, marital
status, education, income was added and analyzed on a
multiple-choice single response format using nominal and
Specifications about the Restaurants
Two moderate upscale restaurants, named Lahore View (R1)
and Jasmine (R2) in Shalimar Tower Hotel were selected.
The reason to select both of the restaurants was the same
food, especially the same main dishes, side dishes, beverages,
sweets, and desserts. The signature dish was minced meat fry,
a specialty of these two restaurants .
Interior and Lighting of the Restaurants
Both of the restaurants’ walls were having rose white
emulsion paint and a decorative ceiling was used with
different impressions and sections at a height of 9 feet. Chairs
were upholstered and wooden tables were used in both of the
restaurants; chairs were occasionally covered with the rich
textured fabric. The lighting in both of the restaurants
consisted only of energy savers (ES) of 25Watts, downwards
from the ceiling. Critically, the previous lighting of the
restaurants had a prominent and visible glare.
Implementation of the Designed Lighting
The lighting system that meets both the physical and
psychological needs of the user [7, 23, 24] was required in
the restaurants. The energy savers were altered with
spotlights in the restaurants.
Light level and color temperature were also considered
according to IESNA standards . The financial restrictions
the study was limited to consider the only light level and
color temperature, other technical aspects would be studied
with the collaboration of the electrical and lighting experts.
The color temperature for both of the restaurants was up to
3000 Kelvin which has a warmer look to accentuate the wood
and earthy tones, this category is considered in warm white
In Lahore view restaurant (R1), the contemporary light was
decided to use such as rope light which is also used for a
decorative purpose, accompanied by spotlights to use as a
task light and to highlight the place. Bright yellow-colored
rope lights were used, the style named, Contemporary
Lighting (CL2) (figure 1).
Figure 1 Contemporary Lighting (CL2) in Lahore View
In Jasmine restaurant (R2), it was decided to use chandeliers
hanging from the ceiling, the reason to choose the chandeliers
was to illuminate the nearest area and was not used for
general lighting even it was for creating an ambiance. The
chandeliers were big and eight in number which were used
there, each of them was having fifteen bulbs of low
luminance, the style named, Traditional Lighting (TL2)
Figure 21 Traditional lighting (TL2) in the Jasmine Restaurant
DATA COLLECTION & ANALYSIS
The data collection was assisted by the researcher and the
restaurants’ managerial and other nominated staff has also
helped. A preliminary test was performed before conducting
the survey, the data outliers were calculated from the
collected data. The normality test was also put on to check
the authenticity of the data, before calculating further results.
The questionnaire was distributed to 580 customers in both
restaurants, the 545 forms were filled completely. In Lahore
View Restaurant (R1), a total of 315 customers participated
from which 138 customers answered for the Previous lighting
(L1) and 177 customers for Contemporary Lighting (CL2). In
Jasmine Restaurant (R2), a total of 230 customers
participated from which 120 customers answered for the
Previous lighting (L1) and 110 for Traditional Lighting
Sci.Int.(Lahore),31(6),851-854,2019 ISSN 1013-5316;CODEN: SINTE 8 853
Analysis of Customers’ Emotions
Customers’ emotional responses were analyzed on SPSS 20
to find out mean scores and represented in tables.
The demographical characteristics were also collected and
used for concluding the results. The ratio of male and female
customers was approximately the same in the restaurants, the
age range was between 44 to 55 years, most of the customers
were married and the income was between the 40, 000 to 60,
000 rupees per month. The educational level shows the
qualification under graduation or graduation.
Customers’ Emotions in Previous (L1) & New Contemporary
Lighting (CL2) in Lahore View Restaurant (R1
The table 2 shows, in Lahore View Restaurant, that there is
an increase in mean a score of the following aspects of
emotions by customers in CL2, such as comfortable from
1.91 to 3.72, pleasant from 2.06 to 3.81, relax from 2.03 to
3.80, satisfied from 2.12 to 3.67, happy from 2.65 to 3.71,
and exciting from 1.72 to 4.18.
There is a decrease in the mean scale score of the following
aspects of the emotions of customers such as frightful from
2.33 to 1.57, depressing from 1.38 to 2.29 and unnerving 2.25
to 1.33. This concludes that the customers liked the new
lighting, named Contemporary Lighting (CL2) than the
previous lighting in Lahore View Restaurant.
Customers’ Emotions in Previous (L1) and New Traditional
Lighting (TL2) in Jasmine Restaurant (R2)
Mean in L1
Mean in TL2
The table 3 shows, in Jasmine Restaurant, that there is an
increase in mean scale score of the following aspects of
emotions such as comfortable from 2.48 to 3.72, pleasant
from 2.51 to 3.81, relax from 2.13 to 3.45, satisfied from 2.11
to 3.29, happy from 1.98 to 3.70 and exciting from 2.13 to
There is a decrease in mean scale score of following aspects
of emotions such as frightful from 1.98 to 1.56, depressing
from 2.21 to 1.64 and unnerving 2.23 to 1.64 in TL2.
This concludes that the customers liked the new lighting plan,
named Traditional Lighting (TL2) than the previous lighting
in Jasmine Restaurant.
Finally, both new lightings were considered better, on the
bases of customers’ emotional responses, than the previous
lighting so the hypothesis is accepted.
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
The study not only provided with the data of restaurants’ new
lighting but the detail of previous lighting and its comparison
with new lighting was also described.
The customers considered new Lighting more focused, warm,
bright, clear, concentrated, comfortable, pleasant, relaxed,
satisfied, happy and excited than the previous lighting in both
restaurants, according to their emotional responses .
The study recommends planning and designing the
restaurants’ lighting as a special feature to attract customers
because of the hidden power of illumination.
The research can be extended to the more technical aspects of
the lighting according to the increase in budget level. The
functionality of the designed lighting can also be checked
again. The designed lighting can be used again in other types
of restaurants such as in fine dining halls, cafes, bistros, and
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