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Quantum Functional Energy Medicine: The Next Frontier of Restorative Medicine



Living systems may be thought of as complex, nonlinear, dynamic, self-organizing energetic and field phenomena with negative entropy. At the highest level of organization, each life form may possess an innate biologic field, or biofield. This energy field maintains the integrity of the whole organism; regulates its physiologic and biochemical responses; and is integral to development, healing, and regeneration. Energy medicine refers to several systems that work with energy fields of the body to help restore health. Many energy-related therapies challenge the current biomedical paradigm because they cannot be explained by conventional biochemical or physiological mechanisms. Quantum physics is a better paradigm with which to understand these therapies.
Journal of Restorative Medicine 2019; 8: page 1
DOI 10.14200/jrm.2019.0114
Living systems may be thought of as complex, nonlinear, dynamic, self-organizing
energetic and field phenomena with negative entropy. At the highest level of
organization, each life form may possess an innate biologic field, or biofield.
This energy field maintains the integrity of the whole organism; regulates its
physiologic and biochemical responses; and is integral to development, healing,
and regeneration. Energy medicine refers to several systems that work with energy
fields of the body to help restore health. Many energy-related therapies challenge
the current biomedical paradigm because they cannot be explained by conventional
biochemical or physiological mechanisms. Quantum physics is a better paradigm
with which to understand these therapies.
Keywords: Functional medicine; Energy Medicine; Resonance; Vibration;
Quantum Functional Energy Medicine: The Next Frontier of Restorative
Michael J. Gonzalez, PhDa,*
Elizabeth Sutherland, NDb
Jose Olaldea
If you want to find the secrets of the Universe, think in terms of energy, frequency
and vibration.
Nicola Tesla
*Corresponding author: Michael J. Gonzalez, Professor, Nutrition Program, Department of Human
Development, School of Public Health, University of Puerto Rico, Medical Sciences Campus,
GPOBox365067, San Juan PR 00936-5067; E-mail:
aNutrition Program, Department of Human Development, School of Public Health, University of Puerto
Rico, San Juan, Puerto Rico
bNational University of Natural Medicine, Portland, OR, USA
Copyright © 2019 Michael J. Gonzalez. This is an open-access article distributed under the
terms of the Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 License. The use, distribution
or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s)
are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic
practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
Journal of Restorative Medicine 2019; 8: page 2
Quantum Functional Energy Medicine
“Energy medicine” refers to several systems that
work with energy fields of the body to help restore
health. Many energy-related therapies challenge the
current biomedical paradigm because they cannot
be explained by conventional biochemical or physi-
ological mechanisms. Quantum physics is a better
paradigm with which to understand these therapies.
Energy therapies typically involve low-level (sub-
tle) energy field interactions. Examples of energy
therapies include Healing Touch, homeopathy,
acupuncture, magnet therapy, bioelectromagnetic
therapy, electrodermal therapy, and phototherapy.
Living organisms respond to extremely low–level
nonionizing electromagnetic fields at a variety of
levels ranging from cellular and subcellular to the
brain, emotions, and behavior. The term “biofield”
refers to the field of energy and information that
surrounds and penetrates the human body. It is
composed of both measurable electromagnetic
energy and subtle energy (for example, Qi). One
possible mechanism for the biofield phenomenon is
that it acts directly on molecular structures, chang-
ing the conformation of molecules in functionally
significant ways. Another potential influence of
the biofield is that it may transfer bioinformation
carried by energy signals interacting directly with
known energy fields.1
Living systems may be thought of as complex, non-
linear, dynamic, self-organizing energetic and field
phenomena with negative entropy. At the highest
level of organization, each life form may possess an
innate biologic field, or biofield. This energy field
maintains the integrity of the whole organism; regu-
lates its physiologic and biochemical responses;
and is integral to development, healing, and
regeneration.2–4 The concept of life force is ancient.
Traditional healing systems such as Chinese medi-
cine and Ayurvedic medicine consider that a form
of life-giving energy flows throughout the body and
that illness arises as a result of blockages, excesses,
or irregularities in its flow. This energy is known
by many names (for example, Prana, Qi, Ki, Mana,
love, and spirit) and may refer to something similar
to the present-day concept of the biofield, which
is partly based on the electromagnetic field theory
of modern physics. Additionally, some biofield
systems, such as Reiki and Qigong, posit that an
individual’s life force is connected with a universal
life energy. In quantum physics, both a particle
view and a wave view are necessary to fully
describe the nature of light and matter at the small-
est scales. This dual model is called the “principle
of complementarity.” As an explanatory model, it
allows for a wide variety of energy effects.
The dynamic human energy system is a complex
network of different types of energies. Gerber5
described this network as follows: (1) biochemical
energy (e.g. glucose, adenosine triphosphate, fats,
protein); (2) bioelectrical energy (e.g. nerve signal
transmission, cardiac electrical rhythms, neuroelec-
trical brain activity, piezoelectrical bone currents);
(3) biophotonic energy (e.g. mitogenic radiation,
ultraviolet biophotons emitted from DNA); (4)
bioelectronic energy (e.g. inherent cellular/DNA
activity; DNA vibrating at GHz frequencies); and
(5) biomagnetic energy (e.g. by-products of cardiac,
nerve, and brain activity; by-products of cellular
activity; and subtle energies [Qi, Prana, and etheric
energy]). These energies are part of a bioinforma-
tional model that flows within living systems. For
example, the calcium ion is an information carrier.
It triggers different cellular events in different cell
types. When calcium flows into cardiac pacemaker
cells, it influences heart rate. When it flows into
vascular smooth muscle cells, it affects vasocon-
striction. Other information carriers include genetic
material (DNA and RNA), biochemical signals
(e.g. peptides, steroid hormones, neurotransmitters,
nutrients), electrical signals (nerve cell transmis-
sion), light or biophotonic signals, and subtle
energy signals. This aspect of energy as information
links to the concept of molecules as information
and supports the orthomolecular understanding of
health homeostasis.6
Energy supply is a necessary condition for life, and
any disturbance in energy metabolism may increase
Journal of Restorative Medicine 2019; 8: page 3
Quantum Functional Energy Medicine
the likelihood of pathological outcomes. Cancer
cells can obtain approximately the same amount
of energy from fermentation as from respiration.
This is known as the Warburg effect.7 By con-
trast, normal cells obtain greater levels of energy
from oxidation than from fermentation.8 Warburg
showed that impairment of oxidative metabolism
in cancer is conditioned by mitochondrial dysfunc-
tion. Cancer research has focused predominantly on
genetic mechanisms, considering, perhaps errone-
ously, that impaired oxidative metabolism is a side
effect of malignant transformation rather than its
fundamental cause.9,10
Continuous energy supply is a necessary condition
for life. It excites a state far from thermodynamic
equilibrium, in particular coherent electrical polar
vibrations that depend on water ordering in the
cell.11 Energy transformation in mitochondria
produces a special state to condense energy in
electrical vibrations. The inner membrane poten-
tial helps form layers of ordered water molecules
around mitochondria, which provides low damp-
ing of vibrations and therefore enables their high
excitation. Disturbances in oxidative metabolism
and coherence are a central issue in cancer develop-
ment. The mitochondrial dysfunction reported by
Warburg is caused by inhibition of pyruvate transfer
into the mitochondrial matrix. The number of pro-
tons transferred from the matrix is reduced, which
in turn decreases membrane potential and changes
the ordering of water molecules around the mito-
chondria. Decreased membrane potential leads to
increased damping and low condensed vibrational
energy, resulting in decreased energy production.
The quantum principle of entrainment states that
powerful rhythmic vibrations from one source will
cause less powerful vibrations from another source
to lock into the vibration of the first source. This is
known as resonance. Resonance is a phenomenon
in which a vibrating system or external force drives
another system to oscillate with greater amplitude
at specific frequencies. Resonant systems can be
used to generate vibrations of a specific frequency.
Using electroporation to restore transmembrane
potential and electron transport across cell mem-
branes restores cellular metabolism and the immune
system and correlates with health. This electro-
magnetic rejuvenation energy resonates at many
different cellular frequencies and can tune each cell
(by resonance) back to its original cellular fre-
quency. Every organ and every cell in the body has
its own resonant frequency. Together, they make
up a composite frequency like the instruments of
an orchestra. When one organ in the body is out
of tune, it will affect the whole body. By restoring
vibrational frequency, it may be possible to bring
a diseased organ into harmony with the rest of the
body. The resonant frequency of cells and organs
happens to be the natural frequency of health for
that individual cell. Nature always seeks the most
efficient state; it takes less energy to pulse in coop-
eration than in opposition.
Everything in the universe is made up of energy
vibrating at different frequencies. At the quantum
level, even things that appear solid are made up of
vibrational energy fields. Every vibration produces
a corresponding geometric form, and in this way
crystals are built up. Crystals collectively form a
body of an element according to its particular vibra-
tion. There may be a unique frequency or vibration
of energy that fills the universe and is essential to
all living cells. A unique vibration may produce a
perfect state of resonance – its own pitch and tone.
A tone is a steady periodic sound characterized by
duration, pitch, intensity (or loudness), and timbre
(or quality). A simple tone has only one frequency,
although its intensity may vary. A complex tone
consists of two or more simple tones, called “over-
tones.” Rhythm is a strong, regular, repeated pattern
of movement or sound in time that can apply to a
wide variety of cyclical natural phenomena. Beat is
a pulse (regularly repeating event) in a basic unit of
time. These relationships create what we call “har-
mony.” Harmony is the simultaneous occurrence of
frequencies, pitches, or chords that lead to balance,
homeostasis, and health. All life exists within a sea
of vibration, and rhythm is fundamental to all of life.
Therapeutic effects have been observed in several
Journal of Restorative Medicine 2019; 8: page 4
Quantum Functional Energy Medicine
meditative and healing practices that use resonance
and rhythm in the form of chanting and prayers.
In the human brain, alpha waves span the frequency
range of 7.5–12.5 Hz. Alpha waves are present dur-
ing deep relaxation, dreaming, and light meditation.
It could be said that alpha waves are a gateway to
deeper states of consciousness. They have been
shown to promote mental coordination, calmness,
alertness, inner awareness, mind–body integration,
and learning. Schumann resonances (SR) are a set
of spectrum peaks in the extremely low frequency
portion of the Earth’s electromagnetic field. They
are global electromagnetic resonances. The energy
of the Earth vibrates at a 528-Hz frequency. This
frequency is thought by some to be so powerful
that it can help repair DNA damage and restore
harmony and equilibrium. Alpha waves closely
resemble the fundamental SR frequency.
In experimental settings using DS4 electrodes
connected to a BICOM machine (REGUMED
GmbH, Gräfelfing, Germany), it has been shown
that humans emit biofrequencies. These biofre-
quencies fluctuate during the day in response to
stressors, including emotional challenges and toxic
substances within the environment. An individual’s
biofrequency may directly correlate with health
status. The higher the vibration, the healthier the
human body. Consistent exposure to negative
stressors can lower energetic frequency. Energetic
clearing methods such as prayer, meditation, and
other practices can be used to significantly increase
baseline frequency (up to 15 MHz). In other words,
energetic resonance can be elevated to restore
harmony within the body. Electromagnetic imbal-
ance can negatively affect the specific vibrational
frequencies of molecules, cells, tissues, and organs
within the body. This energetic alteration often
manifests as chemical imbalances that are associ-
ated with many diseases and illnesses.
There is an increasing appreciation in many alter-
native medicine systems of the electrical nature of
biological functioning. One of the first scientists to
explain this phenomenon was Georges Lakhovsky.12
Lakhovsky proposed that exposure to a blend of
higher frequencies stimulates the cell’s life force,
restoring vigor and balance. Regeneration is the
replacement of irreparably damaged or lost cells
by new ones. It may happen in a natural way by
inherent restoration of resonance. It can also be
achieved by lasers, hyperbaric oxygen, nutrients,
stem cells, exosomes, and other regenerative bio-
logical therapies. It is possible that cancer can be
treated with high-frequency therapies. Therapeutic
strategies that restore mitochondrial function may
trigger apoptosis in treated cells. In tumor tis-
sues, reversing mitochondrial dysfunction with
metabolism-modulating cofactors, oxygen, lasers,
and information molecules may hold promise as an
anticancer strategy.13
Biophoton therapy is the application of light to
particular areas of the skin for healing purposes.
The light (photons) is absorbed by the skin’s pho-
toreceptors, and the photons then travel through
the body’s nervous system to the brain, where they
help to regulate bioenergy. By stimulating certain
areas of the body with specific quantities of light,
biophoton therapy can help reduce pain as well
as aid in various healing processes throughout the
body. The theory behind biophoton therapy is based
on the work of Franz Morell.14 It was expanded on
by Popp and colleagues15 who theorized that light
can affect electromagnetic oscillation, or waves of
the body, and regulate enzyme activity.
The body’s communication system might be a
complex network of resonance and frequency. All
photons that are emitted by the body communi-
cate with each other in a highly structured light
field that surrounds the body and may also be the
actual carrier of long-term memory. In addition,
this light field regulates the activity of metabolic
enzymes. The information transferred on biopho-
tons is bidirectional. This means that as DNA sends
Journal of Restorative Medicine 2019; 8: page 5
Quantum Functional Energy Medicine
information out on a photon, information about all
the biophotons from the body is broadcast back
to cells, and, in particular, to tubulins, which are
light-conductive molecules in the connective tis-
sue. Illness may occur when biophoton emissions
are out of sync. There is some evidence that light
emission from patients with cancer is arrhythmic
and scrambled, suggesting that cells are no longer
communicating properly. It is known that cancer-
causing chemicals alter the body’s biophoton
emissions and interrupt cellular communications.
Therapies are emerging that involve stimulating
the body with specific quantities of light to reduce
pain and promote healing processes. It is possible
that biophoton therapy holds promise for cancer
The use of light as a medical intervention has
entered into the field of energy medicine. The
term for this modality is “photobiomodulation.”
“Photobiomodulation therapy” is the best technical
term for low-level laser therapy. It is a light therapy
using lasers or light-emitting diodes to improve
tissue repair and reduce pain and inflammation
wherever the beam is applied. It involves the deliv-
ery of light energy to modulate cellular mechanisms
and often results in better health. Light is a most
fundamental energy particle that is the source of
life on Earth. Pigmented substances that accept
photons in living tissue are called “chromophores.”
When a photon within a specific wavelength strikes
a matching chromophore, the energy of the photon
is transferred to the chromophore. This causes a
biochemical change within the cell or tissue. If this
change activates or improves cellular function, it is
called “photobioactivation.”
It is generally accepted that the mitochondria
are the initial site of light action in cells and that
cytochrome c oxidase (the terminal enzyme of the
mitochondrial respiratory chain) is the molecule
responsible. Mixed-valence copper components of
cytochrome c oxidase are believed to be the photo-
acceptors. The excitation of the photo- acceptor
molecule sets in motion cellular metabolism
through cascades of cellular signaling reactions
or retrograde mitochondrial signaling. ATP is not
only an energy currency inside cells but also a
critical signaling molecule that allows cells and
tissues throughout the body to communicate with
one another.16 ATP is believed to play a role as an
important signaling molecule in many metabolic
activities. Even small changes in ATP level can sig-
nificantly alter cellular metabolism. Increasing the
amount of ATP may improve cellular metabolism,
especially in suppressed or malfunctioning cells.
Degenerative conditions develop when the body’s
self-healing reserves lose their power.
It is thought that photons dissociate inhibitory
nitric oxide from the enzyme cytochrome oxidase,
leading to an increase in electron transport, mito-
chondrial membrane potential, and ATP production.
Stem cells and progenitor cells appear to be
particularly susceptible to photobiomodulation. A
tumor-killing effect of ATP has been described.17
ATP signaling acts, in part, to trigger apoptosis of
tumor cells and to promote cell differentiation. At
the cellular level, visible red and near-infrared light
energy stimulates cells to generate more energy and
undergo self-repair.
The vibrational responsiveness of living cells
suggests a whole new medical panorama in which
electrical waves, both natural and man-made, exert
effects that can be either healing or harmful to the
body’s cellular oscillatory balance. Ancient scholars
came to understand that everything is composed of
the same energetic substance that vibrates at differ-
ent frequencies. Traditional Chinese medicine, for
example, is based primarily on the understanding of
the transformation of universal Qi throughout the
human body. According to traditional theory, energy
or Qi flows along energy channels or meridians that
run throughout the body. When the flow of Qi is
disrupted or blocked, it can be released by stimulat-
ing specific points along each channel.18 Qi itself
does not flow down the nerve but instead surrounds
the electrical flow with an intangible field that can
be manipulated to some degree. This is reminiscent
Journal of Restorative Medicine 2019; 8: page 6
Quantum Functional Energy Medicine
of an electron flow in a magnetic field. Correcting
the flow is considered necessary to ensure restora-
tion or maintenance of health. Acupuncture deals
with the body’s own energy.
Today quantum physics proposes that all matter is
composed of energy that is constantly vibrating at
different frequencies. Underlying all of this motion is
a ubiquitous force, an absolute energy medium, that
has the ability to be everywhere at once. Quantum
physics calls this force “vacuum energy” or “zero
point energy.” The wave-particle duality concept
states that the movement of a particle through the
absolute energy medium creates waves. A particle/
photon in a quantum field, therefore, resembles a
molecule in a chemical. The ability to electrostimu-
late living tissue at the subcellular level and thereby
energize the life force has huge medical implications.
The right wavelength at the right time may have a
specific therapeutic action. This is an orthomolecular
principle with a quantum regenerative twist.
The human body is a magnificent quantum physics
phenomenon. It is an interplay of frequencies with
molecules to provide the appropriate information to
sustain the negative entropy state we call “homeo-
stasis,” or health. Certain frequencies may repel
disease, and there may be a link between frequency
(vibration) and health. Quantum physics describes
the universe as fluctuating fields of energy and
matter. When an organ of the body becomes unable
to reproduce the necessary equilibrium to sustain
health, the resulting deficiency in electronic energy
produces imbalance, often throughout the system,
which may develop into injury or disease. Energy
medicine, vibrational medicine, regenerative medi-
cine, and restorative medicine are complementary
informational systems. Together, they can create a
holistic new treatment paradigm to achieve the state
of health.
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Full-text available
Mitochondrial dysfunction has been identified as one of the principal causes of bioenergetic decline. Although there is no single silver bullet or an exact combination of substances or supplements that will unfailingly resuscitate all aspects of failing mitochondria, it has been reported that a number of nutrients, supplements and prescription substances may alleviate or restore many aspects of mitochondrial failure. Combinations of these, acting on multiple targets, may normalize and/or improve mitochondrial function, increase cellular and systemic energy production, alleviate mitochondrial- related disease, and delay age-related decline in many organs and systems of the body. The rise in the incidence of cancer and deaths from cancer not only parallels the rise in the development and use of toxic chemicals and materials in the environment, but also toxins in our food and water supplies and pharmaceuticals. The rise in cancer incidence and deaths is thought to be directly caused by such toxic ingestion and the body’s increasing inability to cope with the toxic overload of xenobiotics that profoundly affects the mitochondria. It is conceivable that combinations of various mitochondrial enhancers/resuscitators, acting on various portions of the mitochondrial energy production pathway will have complementary/additive effects and decrease the cancer incidence and death rates. Here we have proposed a combination of diet, exercise and supplements containing a mixture of nutrients mentioned herein to significantly enhance mitochondrial function to help restore oxidative respiration to a level of favoring malignant cell re-differentiation or to at least restore apoptotic mechanisms since the intrinsic apoptotic pathway in cells is regulated largely by functional mitochondria. When restoring mitochondrial function, we may reverse aerobic glycolysis, inhibit cancer cell growth and possibly, reverse malignancy. Scientific support for the use of vitamin-based and cofactor-based mitochondrial therapies is accumulating. This Mitochondrial Correction (Mitochondrial Rescue, Mitochondrial repair) approach is intended to promote critical enzymatic reactions, reduce putative sequelae of excess free radicals, and scavenge toxic metabolic molecules, which tend to accumulate in mitochondrial diseases. Some supplements also may act as alternative energy fuels or may bypass biochemical blocks within the respiratory chain. We believe this concept can have an important repercussion in the treatment of degenerative diseases.
Full-text available
We propose the unification of two medical paradigms: Orthomolecular Medicine and Systemic Medicine with their mechanistic counterparts, Metabolic Correction and Physiological Modulation as tools to achieve the healthy state by attaining physiological optimization. In Western therapeutics, the use of drugs, which have many side effects and are often inefficient in the treatment of chronic degenerative diseases, is common. Observing the extensive use of traditional healing systems in China, India, Indonesia and Japan, an impartial observer must acknowledge that there is more to these medicines than just wishful thinking. Three billion people are treated with holistic medicines with much success; addressing the root cause of the physiologic disruption is key. Metabolic correction is a functional biochemical approach to improving cellular biochemistry by means of providing necessary cofactors and coenzymes that favor optimal physiological balance to attain and maintain the healthy state. Metabolic Correction is achieved by judicious hydration, nutritious food intake and scientific supplementation. In addition, identification of contaminants, endocrine disruptions and infections is necessary to properly address the underlying cause of disease.
Full-text available
The altered energy metabolism of tumor cells provides a viable target for a non toxic chemotherapeutic approach. An increased glucose consumption rate has been observed in malignant cells. Warburg (Nobel Laureate in medicine) postulated that the respiratory process of malignant cells was impaired and that the transformation of a normal cell to malignant was due to defects in the aerobic respiratory pathways. Szent-Györgyi (Nobel Laureate in medicine) also viewed cancer as originating from insufficient availability of oxygen. Oxygen by itself has an inhibitory action on malignant cell proliferation by interfering with anaerobic respiration (fermentation and lactic acid production). Interestingly, during cell differentiation (where cell energy level is high) there is an increased cellular production of oxidants that appear to provide one type of physiological stimulation for changes in gene expression that may lead to a terminal differentiated state. The failure to maintain high ATP production (high cell energy levels) may be a consequence of inactivation of key enzymes, especially those related to the Krebs cycle and the electron transport system. A distorted mitochondrial function (transmembrane potential) may result. This aspect could be suggestive of an important mitochondrial involvement in the carcinogenic process in addition to presenting it as a possible therapeutic target for cancer. Intermediate metabolic correction of the mitochondria is postulated as a possible non-toxic therapeutic approach for cancer.
Full-text available
Emerging evidence indicates that impaired cellular energy metabolism is the defining characteristic of nearly all cancers regardless of cellular or tissue origin. In contrast to normal cells, which derive most of their usable energy from oxidative phosphorylation, most cancer cells become heavily dependent on substrate level phosphorylation to meet energy demands. Evidence is reviewed supporting a general hypothesis that genomic instability and essentially all hallmarks of cancer, including aerobic glycolysis (Warburg effect), can be linked to impaired mitochondrial function and energy metabolism. A view of cancer as primarily a metabolic disease will impact approaches to cancer management and prevention.
Investigations on rats with an implanted tumour-carcinosarcoma of Walker (26 animals), cancer of the mammary glands, RMK-1 (75 animals) and in mice with spontaneous cancer of the mammary gland (188 animals)-have shown that the application of a low-level diode laser beam (890 nm) can effect the growth of the experimental tumour. Minimal doses produce a tumouro-static effect, while other doses produce different effects. Low level laser irradiation promotes dystrophic and necrotic changes in tumoural nodes.
"Energy" medicine modalities such as acupuncture probably do not act on the body-mind by virtue of their energy content, which is minute. An extended concept of information, meaning "that which informs," is proposed as a new way of thinking about how these medical modalities may work at various levels of organization in humans. This concept includes electromagnetic bioinformation, but may also go beyond it to include information conveyed by other fields more subtle than electromagnetic, which may be intimately involved with life. Research from bioelectromagnetics and an extended concept of information in biology also offer the gift of new questions for research. Further development along these lines may be fruitful toward a scientific foundation of acupuncture and other energy medicine modalities.
Acupuncture and other complementary medical modalities that involve holistic principles challenge the dominant biomedical paradigm of mechanical reductionism and therefore are considered unconventional or alternative. This keynote presentation will review three different hypotheses of acupuncture, two of which lie within the dominant scientific paradigm, and a third that is built upon frontier ideas at the edge of the new science of bioelectromagnetics. The Zhang-Popp hypothesis, based on endogenous electromagnetic fields of the body, is capable of accommodating many puzzling features of acupuncture. In order to embody the latter, it appears that a new paradigm for the life sciences is needed to address the wholeness and integrity of the organism. Nonetheless, I believe that there are serious limitations in attempting to embrace the indigenous knowledge system of the East, one of the oldest systems of empirical knowledge, by a 300-year-old science of the West, because of their vast differences in biophilosophies and cultural orientations. All knowledge systems, East or West, are context-dependent; none can represent true objectivity. Despite this pluralistic view, working toward a unity of Eastern and Western thought may lead to a more universal understanding of acupuncture in the future.