Background and aim of the work: This study investigates the possible association between the prevalence of some chronic and lethal diseases in the population and the exposure to the EMF radiation of the military radar ARGOS 10, that had been located since 1970 until 1998 in the hamlet of Casette Antonelli, Potenza Picena (MC), Italy. Methods: Five types of diseases were researched in the hospital admissions between 1986 and 1991: cancer, heart attacks and strokes, miscarriages, congenital malformations and severe behavioral disorders. The search for such diseases was performed among 756 hospital admissions, 355 of which were for cancer and 189 for heart attack and stroke. For each observed case the address of residence was identified and the corresponding level of exposure to the radar EMF radiation was evaluated, in order to collect a large sample of data suitable to a statistical analysis based on risk indices. Results: The exposure to the radar radiofrequency emissions can increase the risk of cancer and heart diseases. Conclusions: For all the pathologies considered, the observed rate results always higher in exposed groups, since both the indices RR and OR are higher than one. In particular, the risk of cancer results to be highly significant in both patterns of comparison. For the risk of heart attack the comparison between exposed and fully exposed people is highly significant, being consistent with previous studies concluding that chronic RF exposure can bring about increased cardiovascular risk (Bortkiewicz A et al, 1995, 1996; Vangelova K et al, 2006).