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AGU Centennial poster
CC BY-NC 4.0 - design: Annique van der Boon & Lennart de Groot, 2019
Michael Faraday
Ian Gough
Keeva Vozoff
Mark Berdichevsky
Andrey Tikhonov
Tsuneji Rikitake
Rosemary Hutton
Ulrich Schmucker
Louis Cagniard
Rosemary Hutton, Mark Berdichevsky and Keeva Vozoff developed
methods and instrumentation for investigating the structure of the
continental crust and upper mantle, using magnetotellurics.
Michael Faraday and James Maxwell laid the
foundations for the field of electromagnetism, by
discovering the relationship between electric
currents and magnetic fields. Faraday’s cage
protects against electromagnetic fields.
Tsuneji Rikitake, Andrey Tikhonov and Louis Cagniard simultaneously developed
magnetotellurics. Magnetotellurics is the study of electrical conductivity of the
subsurface using natural electromagnetic signals, such as those arising from
thunderstorms and variations in the Sun’s radiation. Different rocks, sediments and
geological structures have different conductivities, and the subsurface can be
imaged by measuring electrical resistivity.
Arthur Schuster and Sydney Chapman pioneered and
refined the geomagnetic deep sounding technique.
Geomagnetic deep sounding uses electromagnetic
induction to determine the conductivity of the
subsurface. It differs from magnetotellurics in
that it only uses the magnetic field, and not the
electric field.
Satellites are used for
aeromagnetic mapping
Sydney Chapman
Arthur Schuster
Ground penetrating radar uses electromagnetic
radar pulses to image the shallow subsurface.
Beyond geological applications, it is of use in
archeaology and for the detection of mines.
Ulrich Schmucker and
Ian Gough developed
geomagnetic deep
sounding techniques to
perform more detailed
studies of regional
variations in the crust
and mantle in the 1970s.
Continental Crust
Upper Mantle
Earth-observing satellites continuously monitor the Earth’s surface.
Their sensors are tuned to specific bands in the spectrum of
electromagnetic radiation to gather information on, for example,
our climate, land use, and pollution.
Study of materials and structures in the Earth using electromagnetic signals
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